Presentation on theme: "World War II The Impact of Total War. Economic Damage: Western Europe Impact of Strategic Bombing 75% of Berlin Uninhabitable 20 million homeless in Germany."— Presentation transcript:
Economic Damage: Western Europe Impact of Strategic Bombing 75% of Berlin Uninhabitable 20 million homeless in Germany Dutch lose 219,000 hectares of land French lose 40% of pre- war transportation systems Norway lost 14% pre-war capital Dresden After Allied Bombing
Economic Damage: Eastern Europe USSR 70,000 villages & 1,700 towns 32,000 factories 40,000 miles of RR track Greece 1/3 of forest 2/3 merchant marine Hyperinflation from German extraction of cost of occupation Poland 3/4 RR track 1/6 farms City of Warsaw leveled Yugoslavia 25% of vineyards 50% livestock 60% of roads 75% of RR bridges 1/5 of all dwellings 1/3 of industry
The Human Cost 36½ million Europeans die! Deadliest and Most Destructive Conflict in Human History
Military Deaths COUNTRYMILITARY DEATHS USSR8.6 million Germany4 million Italy400,000 Rumania300,000 United States 405,399 China2.2 million Japan1.7 million D-Day Invasion
Civilian Deaths COUNTRYCIVILIAN DEATHS Japan500,000 China15-20 million USSR16 million Poland5 million Yugoslavia1.4 million Greece430,000 France350,000 Hungary270,000 Netherlands204,000 Rumania200,000 ALL EUROPE19 million
Proportion of Pre-War Population Lost COUNTRYPROPORTION OF POP LOST Poland1/5 Yugoslavia1/8 USSR1/11 Greece1/14 Germany1/15 France1/77 Britain1/25
Demographic Change Gender Imbalance – USSR: 20 million more women than men – Germany: 2/3 of men born in 1918 did not live to see 1945 – Yugoslavia: All men in entire villages wiped out Orphans – Yugoslavia: 300,000 – Poland: 200,000 – Netherlands: 60,000 – Czechoslovakia: 49,000 Belgian Refugees
Ethnic Cleansing Germans exterminate… – Jews, Gypsies, Slavs Homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, Communists Red Army Rapes & Pillages – 87,000 women in Vienna raped in 3 weeks following occupation – 150-200,000 Russian babies born to German women 1945-1946 Displaced Persons – Refugees – Allies force migration of ethnic minorities The Red Army Seizes Berlin (35,000 Soviets die in this battle alone!)
The Impossible Peace Three Big Questions What will Eastern Europe look like? What to do with Germany? What form will post-war international relations take?
Allied Summits Casablanca: January 1943 – Allies Agree to Call for Germany’s Unconditional Surrender Teheran: December 1943 – Allies agree to divide Germany – Border between Poland & the USSR will move to the west – USSR to have access to Baltic Sea Moscow: October 1944 (Stalin & Churchill only, no FDR) – “Secret Deal”… Churchill & Stalin agree on percentages of influence in Eastern Europe – Not too significant… ratified the inevitable – Only Balkans were up for grabs… both agreed to 50:50 split
Eastern Europe Soviet troops physically occupied E. Europe at end of WWII. USSR viewed E. Europe as essential to its security… It wanted a sphere of influence.
Yalta (February, 1945) “Declaration of Liberated Europe” …Promise to form representative gov.s, facilitate elections, etc. U.S. & GB formally accept Soviet domination of Eastern Europe Left out issue of Germany b/c it was so divisive Did FDR sell out? The “Big Three” at Yalta
The Iron Curtain “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in many cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow.” -Winston Churchill, March 5, 1946
The German Question Plan A: The Morgenthau Plan “Plan for the Leveling of the Post-War Economy” March 1946 Strictly limited German Industry, de-Nazification, abolished army “It is of the utmost importance that every person know, that this time, Germany is a defeated nation.” -Henry Morgenthau, Jr. U.S. Sec. of Treasury Plan B Re-build Germany so it can become a self-supporting ally. “You can have peace, or you can have vengeance, but you can’t have both.” -Herbert Hoover to Harry Truman
Potsdam July 17-August 2, 1945 Nullified German annexations including Austria Statement of Occupation Aims Prosecution of war criminals Expelled Germans living outside of new Germany Germany to pay reparations Division of Germany, Austria & their capitals into 4 zones Potsdam Declaration: Unconditional Surrender in Japan German question to be decided at final peace conference, which never occurs. Atlee Truman Stalin (GB) (USA) (USSR)
Divided by Default US came to favor a unified Germany w/ reconstructed economy. USSR still saw a restored Germany as a major threat. Britain, France, USA merged zones to form West Germany (May, 1949). USSR established East Germany as a satellite state (Oct. 1949). Divided Berlin East Germany West Germany
Postwar International Cooperation 1.War Crimes Trials in Germany, Japan, & Italy 2.The United Nations 3.The Bretton Woods Accords
The Nuremburg Trials Most suspects claimed the court had no jurisdiction… Claimed it was “victor’s justice” 12 sentenced to death, 9 jailed, 3 acquitted In all, about 1800 Germans tried after WWII First known war crimes trial. Originally tried 24 Germans for “crimes against humanity.” No clear legal precedent.
The United Nations UN founded Oct. 1945 Security Council – Five permanent members w/ vetoes: United States, Great Britain, France, USSR & China General Assembly Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) Truman Addresses the UN Conference (1945)
The Bretton Woods Accords (July 1944) Defined structure of postwar international finance & trade. Created… -International Monetary Fund (IMF) -World Bank -General Agreement on Tariffs & Trade (precursor to World Trade Organization)