2US/USSR Relationship during WWII 1939: Stalin (USSR) makes a deal with Hitler (Germany).1941: Hitler breaks deal & attacks USSR.Stalin changes sides & fights with US and other allies.
3No agreement was reached on Poland. Yalta ConferenceBefore end of WWII, Stalin, Churchill & Roosevelt met at Yalta to plan end of war. Agreed on:Establishment of United NationsDivision of Germany into four zonesFree elections allowed in states of Eastern EuropeRussia’s promise to join the war against JapanGermany would pay reparations to Soviet UnionNo agreement was reached on Poland.Winston Churchill (England), Franklin Roosevelt (US) and Joseph Stalin (USSR) meet in Yalta in 1945 to decide the fate of post-war Europe.
4UDHR In the United Nations, Universal Declaration of Human Rights Provided code of conduct for treatment of people under the protection of their government
6Superpower Aims in Europe United StatesSoviet UnionEncourage communism in other countriesRebuild its war-ravaged economy using Eastern Europe’s industrial materialsControl Eastern Europe to protect Soviet borders & balance US influence in the westKeep Germany divided to prevent its waging war againEncourage democracy in other countriesGain access to raw materials & marketsRebuild European governments & create new markets for American goodsReunite Germany to stabilize it & increase security in EuropeStop“Domino Effect”
7Cold War Characteristics US and USSR WORLD POWERSPolitical, strategic and ideological struggle between the US and the USSR spread throughout the worldStruggle that contained everything short of warCompeting social and economic ideologies
8Key Concept: How did the Cold War affect the domestic and foreign policies of the United States? Domestic Policies:1. McCarthyism2. HUACHouse Un-American Activities Committee3. Loyalty oaths4. Blacklists5. Bomb sheltersForeign Policies:1. Korean War2. Arms Race3. Truman Doctrine4. Eisenhower DoctrineActors and writers protest the Hollywood Blacklist.A 1950s era bomb shelter
9What were the six major strategies of the Cold War? 1.1. Brinkmanship2. Espionage3. Foreign aid4. Alliances5. Propaganda6. Surrogate wars188.8.131.52.6.
10Soviet Union Creates a Buffer Zone Soviets want to be shielded from another invasionTook over countries of Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, & Yugoslavia wanted to build buffer zone, called satellite nationsPres. Truman viewed this as a violation & Truman/Stalin agreed communism & capitalism couldn’t exist together
12Post WWII/Cold War Goals for USSR Create greater security for itselflost tens of millions of people in WWII& Stalin’s purgesfeared a strong GermanyEstablish defensible bordersEncourage friendly governments on its bordersSpread communism around the world“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in some cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow.”Excerpt from Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain Speech.”
13Iron Curtain All of Europe now divided between east & west Eastern Europe: Soviet-controlled Communist German Democratic RepublicWestern Europe: split between Allies Capitalist Federal Republic of GermanyChurchill’s famous speech about “Iron Curtain”, dividing Europe
14US Counters Soviet Expansion US adopts policy of containment policy directed at blocking Soviet influence & preventing expansion of communismIncluded creating alliances & helping weak countries fight off Soviets
15Truman Doctrine 1947: British help Greek government fight communist guerrillas.Appealed to America for aid, &response was the Truman Doctrine.America promised it would support free countries to help fight communism.Greece received large amounts ofarms/supplies 1949 defeatedcommunists.The Truman Doctrine showed Americawas most powerful democratic country& prepared to resist communism
16Marshall Plan $12 billion In 1947, US Sec. of State George Marshall announced Marshall PlanEconomic aid plan for Europe to help it recover from warTwo motives:Helping Europe would providemarkets for American goodsA prosperous Europewould be better ableto resist spread ofcommunism$12 billionSecretary of State George Marshall.A poster promoting the Marshall Plan
17The Berlin Airlift Crisis: June 1948 - May 1949 1948: three western zones of Germany united; grew in prosperity due to Marshall PlanWest wanted East to rejoin; Stalin feared it would hurt SovietJune 1948: Stalin decided to gain control of West Berlin, which was deep inside the Eastern SectorCuts road, rail & canal links w/West Berlin, hoping tostarve it into submissionWest responded by airlifting supplies to allow West Berlin to surviveMay 1949: USSR admitted defeat, lifted blockade
18A plane flies in supplies during the Berlin Airlift. Map of Germany divided into zones after WWIIMap of Berlin divided into zones after WWII
19The Cold War & Berlin Wall Increasing conflicts were beginning of COLD WARState of hostility between 2 superpowersLater in 1961, East Germans built wall to separate East & West Berlin Berlin Wall
20Berlin WallIn the dark on August 13, 1961, a low, barbed-wire barrier rose between East and West Berlin. Within days, workers cemented concrete blocks into a low wall, dividing neighborhoods and families, workers and employers, the free from the repressed.The USSR called the wall a barrier to Western imperialism, but it also was meant to keep its people going to the West where the standard of living was much higher and freedoms greater.The West Germans called it Schandmaur, the "Wall of Shame." Over the years, it was rebuilt three times. Each version of the wall was more higher, stronger, repressive, and impregnable. Towers and guards with machine guns and dogs stood watch over a barren no man's land. Forbidden zones, miles wide, were created behind the wall. No one was allowed to enter the zones. Anyone trying to escape was shot on sight.Early 1960s view of east side of Berlin Wall with barbed wire at top.A view from the French sector looking over the wall.
25NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization 1949, ten western nations formed North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO to co-ordinate their defense against USSRWould attack with armed forceIt originally consisted of:America BelgiumBritain CanadaDenmark FranceHolland ItalyLuxembourg NorwayPortugalSince the fall of the Soviet Union in1991,some former Soviet republics have applied for membership to NATO.NATO flag
26Greatest extent of Warsaw Pact Warsaw Pact: organization of communist states in Central & Eastern Europe.Established May 14, 1955 in Warsaw, PolandUSSR established it in response to NATO treatyFounding members:AlbaniaBulgariaCzechoslovakiaHungaryPolandRomaniaUSSREast Germany (1956)Greatest extent of Warsaw Pact
27Senator Joe McCarthy (1908-1957) McCarthy, a Republican senator from Wisconsin, did the most to whip up anti- communism during the ‘50s.On February 9, 1950, he gave a speech claiming to have a list of 205 Communists in the State Department.No one in the press actually saw the names on the list.McCarthy continued to repeat his groundless charges, changing the number from speech to speech.During this time, one state required pro wrestlers to take a loyalty oath before stepping into the ring.In Indiana, a group of anti-communists indicted Robin Hood (and its vaguely socialistic message that the book's hero had a right to rob from the rich and give to the poor) and forced librarians to pull the book from the shelves.Baseball's Cincinnati Reds renamed themselves the "Redlegs."Senator Joe McCarthy ( )Cincinnati Redlegs primarylogo in use from
28In the spring of 1954, the tables turned on McCarthy In the spring of 1954, the tables turned on McCarthy when he charged that the Army had promoted a dentist accused of being a Communist.For the first time, a television broadcast allowed the public to see the Senator as a blustering bully and his investigations as little more than a witch hunt.In December 1954, the Senate voted to censure him for his conduct and to strip him of his privileges.McCarthy died three years later from alcoholism.The term "McCarthyism" lives on to describe anti- Communist fervor, reckless accusations, and guilt by association.Movie poster for the 2005 film Good Night and Good Luck about the fall of Joseph McCarthyMcCarthy’s DownfallArthur Miller’s play The Crucible was on the surface about the Salem Witch Trials. It’s real target, though, was the hysterical persecution of innocent people during McCarthyism. (poster for 1996 film version)
29Cold War tensions increased in the US when the USSR exploded its first atomic bomb in 1949. President Eisenhower brinkmanshipArms RaceCold War tensions increased in the USSR when the US exploded its first hydrogen bomb in It was 1000 times more powerful than the Hiroshima atomic bomb.
30Improve your knowledge The nuclear bomb gave America a lead which was expected to last at least 5 years. The rapid Russian development of nuclear technology, helped by the work of the “atom spies” was a shock. Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared war against Japan at the beginning of August 1945 and rushed to advance into Asia to stake out a position for the post-war settlement. This helped make both the Korean and Vietnamese conflicts more likely.
32Space RaceCold War tensions increased in the US when USSR launched Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite into geocentric orbit on October 4, 1957.Race to control space was on.April 12, 1961: Yuri Gagarin became first human in space & first to orbit Earth.US felt a loss of prestige increased funding for space programsMay 25,1961, President John F. Kennedy (JFK) wanted to land man on the moonApollo 11 landed on the moon on July 16, 1969.
33USSR was aware of American U-2 spy missions USSR was aware of American U-2 spy missions but lacked technology to launch countermeasures until 1960.May 1, 1960: CIA agent Francis Gary Powers’ U-2, was shot down by Soviet missile.Powers was unable to activate plane's self- destruct mechanism before he parachuted to the ground, right into the hands of the KGB.When US learned of Powers' disappearance over USSR, it issued a cover statement claiming that a "weather plane" crashed after its pilot had "difficulties with his oxygen equipment." US officials did not realize:Plane crashed intact,Soviets recovered its photography equipmentCaptured Powers, whom they interrogatedextensively for months before he made a"voluntary confession" and public apology forhis part in US espionageThe U-2 Incident
34THE COLD WAR BECOMES A HOT WAR CUBA, KOREA, & VIETNAM
36The Bay of Pigs Invasion The Bay of Pigs Invasion failed attempt by US- backed Cuban exiles to overthrow the government & dictator, Fidel CastroPresident Eisenhower breaks off diplomatic relations with Cuba in January 1961The invasion plan wasapproved by Eisenhower'ssuccessor, John F.Kennedy but refused tosend US planes for supportCastro conquers Cuba &US humiliated
37The Bay of Pigs Invasion… On April 17, 1961 about 1300 exiles, armed with US weapons, landed at the Bahía de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs) on the southern coast of Cuba hoping for support from locals.From the start, the exiles were likely to lose. Kennedy had the option of using the Air Force against the Cubans but decided against it.Consequently, the invasion was stopped by Castro's army. The failure of the invasion seriously embarrassed the Kennedy administration.Some critics blamed Kennedy for not giving it adequate supportOthers blamed Kennedy for allowing it to take place at all.Additionally, the invasion made Castro wary of the US He was convinced that the Americans would try to take over the Cuba again.Cuban leader Fidel Castro watches events during the Bay of Pigs Invasion.
38Cuban Missile CrisisCIA map showing range of Soviet supplied intermediate and medium range missiles if launched from CubaBay of Pigs failed new Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev said US wouldn’t interfere in takeover of Latin AmericaJuly 1962, built 42 secret missile sites in Cuba as a plan of deterrence American spy plane discovered itJFK said it was a threat & mobilized troops to Florida to prepare for war against CubaKhrushchev removed them in exchange for US promise to not invade CubaClosest world ever came to nuclear war
40Civil War in China North China/Mainland Communist; leader Mao Zedong (Tse-tung) & Red ArmyNamed People’s Republic of ChinaSmall part of South China/Island of TaiwanNationalist; leader Jiang Jieshi (aka Chiang Kai-shek)US sent aid to nationalists, but Mao & Communists won signed treaty with Soviet Union; worried USDecided to divide Korea
42A Divided Korea 1950 - 1953 North – Communist; South – Non-Communist North invades South in 1950, so Pres. Truman sends in US forces to aid the South1953, both sides sign armistice (cease-fire) & country divided along 38th parallel still divided todayUS considers it a victory
44Breaking for Freedom Vietnam was a French colony, known as French Indochina (along with Cambodia &Laos)Began to fight for independence from Franceduring WW IIVietnamese revolutionary leader,Ho Chi Minh (Communist),wanted to be leader ofindependent, communistVietnam; Ho received supportfrom both USSR & “Red” China
45A Divided VietnamCommunists go to war with France at Dien Bien Phu Communists winVietnam divided North/SouthNorth Communist Ho Chi Minh (Soviet support)South Nationalist Ngo Dinh Diem (US/France support)
46Vietnam War BeginsWar started under Eisenhower (“Ike”), went on through JFK, and intensified under Lyndon B. Johnson (LBJ)Congress approved sending in over 500,000 soldiers in to help South Vietnam (after Gulf of Tonkin Incident), but US never actually declared war on Vietnam
50Seeing this on TV led to a loss of support at home
51Vietnam War was a Conflict, Not a War 500,000 U.S. soldiers sent to VietnamBut BIG protests against this decision in the U.S.!President Richard Nixon under pressure to bring troops home 1969 started VietnamizationAllowed troops to gradually pull out while South Vietnamese increased their combat roleLast forces left in 19731975, North Vietnamese forces waited until U.S. troops were out of Vietnam, & moved in successful; Vietnam Communist todayVietnam War is longest conflict in history…not actually a war!
53A New United VietnamWithin 2 years later, new Communist Vietnam named new capital of South Ho Chi Minh City in honor of their dead leaderCommunists still govern Vietnam, but they welcome foreign investment, mostly from US America lifted trade embargo in & moving toward official recognition of the country
55A New Leader for Soviet Union Stalin died March 5, 1953, & Nikita Khrushchev, became new Soviet leader.Started policy of destalinization purging the country of Stalin’s memoryNew reforms didn’t go to satellite nations; led to uprisings/protests, which Soviets stoppedKhrushchev lost support afterCuban Missile CrisisBut next couple of leaders ruled like a dictator
56Split With ChinaMao Zedong & Stalin signed 30-year treaty of friendship but Soviets thought Chinese would follow their leadershipChinese resent following Soviet’sfootsteps & started to pull away1959 – Khrushchev punished Chinese by refusing to share nuclear secrets
57US & Soviet Union Lower Tensions 1970’s US & SU stop brinkmanship move toward lowered tensionsJFK assassinated in 1963, Lyndon B.Johnson became president committed to stopping spread ofcommunismLBJ decided to escalate involvement in Vietnam War very unpopular move
58Détente US embraced policy of détente lessening of Cold War tensions under Pres. Richard NixonGrew out of policy called realpolitik dealing w/ other nations in practical & flexible manner
59President Richard Nixon Nixon 1st American president afterWWII to visit Communist ChinaFeb. 1972, Nixon also 1st president since beginning of Cold War to visit Soviet Union1975, 33 nations joined US & SU in signing a commitment to détente & cooperation, called Helsinki Accords
60The Slow Thaw…In 1969 Nixon began negotiations with USSR on SALT I, common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty Agreement.SALT I froze the number of ballistic missile launchers at existing levels, and provided for the addition of submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) launchers only after the same number of intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and SLBM launchers had been dismantled.It was the first effort between US/USSR to stop increase nuclear weapons.SALT II was a second round of US/USSR talks ( ), which sought to reduce manufacture of nuclear weapons. SALT II was the first nuclear treaty seeking real reductions in strategic forces to 2,250 of all categories on both sides.Nixon and Brezhnev toast the SALT I treaty.Carter and Brezhnev sign the SALT II treaty.
61Star WarsPresidents Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, all had to deal w/ continuing tensions w/ Soviet UnionRonald Reagan took office in 1981 & announced program to protect against enemy missiles called Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) named program Star Wars, after the popular movie, but never done
62Reagan’s Star Wars Interrupts Thaw The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was a proposal by President Reagan on in 1983 to use ground and space-based systems to protect the US from attack by nuclear ballistic missiles. It focused on strategic defense rather than doctrine of mutual assured destruction (MAD).It was quickly nicknamed “Star Wars.”Criticism of SDI:It would require the US to change, withdraw from, or break earlier treaties.The Outer Space Treaty of 1967, which requires "States Parties to the Treaty undertake not to place in orbit around the Earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any other manner" and would forbid the US from pre-positioning in Earth orbit any devices powered by nuclear weapons and any devices capable of "mass destruction.“The program proposed to use unproven technology.The program would cost many billions of dollars.It would start a new arms race with the Soviets.Artist rendering of satellites and lasers to be used in SDI
63Cold War Thaw Continues Mikhail Gorbachev becomes Soviet premier & understands Soviet economy cannot compete with West & increasing tensionsHe tries to reform USSR with glasnost (openness: think “glass” because you can see through it) and perestroika (restructuring: think “structure/stroika”)Gorbachev further pressured to reform USSR when Reagan gives his speech in Germany challenging Gorbachev to “tear down this wall”Soviet Premier Mikhail GorbachevPresident Reagan delivers his speech in Berlin.
64The Wall Falls, 1989A wave of rebellion against Soviet influence occurs throughout its European allies.Poland’s movement breaks Soviet holdHungary removed border restrictions w/ AustriaRiots and protests break out in East Germany.East Germans storm the wall. Confused and outnumbered, border guards do not fight backThe wall is breachedEventually East and West Germany are reunited in 1990
66Collapse of the Soviet Union For 1st time in decades, Soviet people free to make choices about governmentMore than 100 ethnic groups lived in Soviet Union, w/ Russians being largest group non-Russians forming majority in 14 RepublicsGorbachev not supporting Soviet Unionsplit, so people looking to vote in a newleader, Boris Yeltsin (former mayor ofMoscow) Russian Republic’s 1stdirectly elected pres.
67A New Set of Countries Yeltsin met w/ leaders of 15 republics & signed Commonwealthof Independent States (CIS) loose confederation of former Soviet territories (death of Soviet Union)Included Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, & Kyrgyzstan, with majority of what used to be Soviet Union turning back to name Russia Baltic countries not includedChristmas Day 1991, Gorbachev announced resignation as president of Soviet Union, a country that no longer exists
68The USSR Dissolves & Cold War Ends Rocky beats Ivan Drago.