Presentation on theme: "Chapter 42 Going to War Again: America and the World 1933–1942."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 42 Going to War Again: America and the World 1933–1942
New Deal Foreign Policy FDR and Hitler both come to power in 1933 Opposite character and values Both effective using modern media Americans accept responsibility for depression Germans blames Jews and Versailles Treaty Secretary of State Cordell Hull Follows Herbert Hoover’s guidelines Use foreign policy to strengthen economy Good Neighbor FDR removes Marines from Latin America FDR refuses to intervene in Cuba FDR seeks reconciliation with Mexico Good Neighbor policy pays off in World War
New Deal Foreign Policy New Deal Foreign Policy (cont.’d) Stimson Doctrine U.S. wants to maintain Open Door in China Japanese aggression threat to China Hoover crafts Stimson Doctrine; FDR follows Refuses to accept gains made by force as legal Japanese aggression in Manchuria 1931 Soviet Union FDR places U.S. economy over international cooperation FDR recognizes Soviet government FDR hopes Soviets will buy U.S. goods Soviets too poor to buy much
New Deal Foreign Policy New Deal Foreign Policy (cont.’d) International policy Hull negotiates treaties to reduce tariffs FDR wants stronger role in foreign affairs Most Americans isolationist Americans fear another world war Neutrality Acts, 1935 to 1937 Warned against travel on warring nations’ ships Required warring nations to pay cash for goods Required warring nations to transport own goods Forbids warring nations to buy arms, borrow money in U.S. U.S. does not help Republican government in Spain in Civil War
The World Goes to War 1934: Hitler rearms Germany 1935: Italy invades Ethiopia 1936: Franco launches rebellion in Spain 1937: Japan invades China 1938: Hitler annexes Austria 1938: Hitler demands Sudetenland 1938: France and Britain agree to Hitler’s demands 1939: Hitler seizes rest of Czechoslovakia
The World Goes to War The World Goes to War (cont.’d) Aggressor nations Japan has economic motivations Japanese divided on policy U.S. uses economic power 1940 cuts off aviation fuel and scrap iron sales 1941 cuts of sell of oil Italy, Mussolini no real threat Germany, Hitler want to dominate Europe All anti-Democratic All exalt totalitarianism, one leader All militaristic Nazi racism is criminal Nuremberg laws of 1935 strip citizenship from Jews
The World Goes to War The World Goes to War (cont.’d) War Germany invades Poland, September 1939 France and Britain declare war USSR invades Poland, Baltic States German blitzkrieg defeats France in 1940 British Prime Minister Winston Churchill Churchill inspires British, Americans Hitler orders aerial bombardment of Britain
The United States and the War Fall of France, defense of Britain shifts American opinion France, Britain last democracies in Europe By July 1940, 80% of Americans sees Germany as a threat FDR believes force needed to stop Hitler FDR unwilling to move ahead of public opinion Congress allows war goods sold on cash-and-carry basis 1940 FDR gives destroyers to Britain Burke-Wadsworth Act begins war preparations
United States and the War United States and the War (cont.’d) FDR decides to run for third term Republicans run Wendell Wilkie Wilkie differs little with FDR’s policies Republicans say FDR trying to be dictator Undeclared war Lend-Lease Act makes U.S. “arsenal of democracy” U.S. provides assistance in defending seas Churchill, FDR define war aims in Atlanta Charter Germans sink USS Reuben James Germany invades USSR in June 1941 FDR still does not ask Congress to declare war Opposition includes pro-Germans, pacifists, isolationists American First Committee says war would be mistake FDR waits for dramatic incident to unite country
America Goes to War Japan invades Indochina Japanese “peace party”: seeks settlement with U.S. Tojo heads Japanese “war party” Tojo becomes premier, October 1941 Pearl Harbor: December 7, 1941 Japan, U.S. realize reconciliation impossible Japan instructs Yamamoto to prepare to attack Pearl Harbor attack destroys much of the U.S. Pacific defense Attack fails to destroy aircraft carriers
America Goes to War America Goes to War (cont.’d) U.S. reaction Congress almost unanimous in declaring war Americans rush to volunteer for military Some accuse FDR of keeping Peal Harbor unprepared Accusations unfounded Only Japan celebrates going to war Americans have grim determination Organizing for victory 15 million American serve in war Most American troops drafted Exemptions for disabled, vital jobs, “sole sons” War cost over $300 billion
America Goes to War America Goes to War (cont.’d) Big Business Most businesses cooperated with government policies Many businessmen assisted government G.M. President William Knudsen worked without pay War Resources Board plans for military production New Alphabet Agencies Supplies Priorities and Allocation Board Office of Price Administration National War Labor Board Office of War Mobilization most important
America Goes to War America Goes to War (cont.’d) Federal government grows rapidly Senate War Investigating Committee keeps waste down Little production of civilian goods Americans successfully produce for war Workers Economy has full employment Population shifts to west coast Many African Americans work in factories Many women work in factories Prosperity Shortage of consumer goods; high wages Office of Price Administration keeps inflation moderate Americans save wages, buy war bonds Americans confident they are in the right
Discussion Questions Explain and discuss Roosevelt’s foreign policy before World War II. What were his goals? Was he successful? What were the Neutrality Acts? Did they have an effect on the situation of Europe at the time? What events led to the start of World War II? Did diplomacy actually facilitate the war? Examine United States policies with Japan prior to the war. Why did the Japanese attack? Was there a viable solution other than war?
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