Neutrality Erodes… Neutrality Act of 1939 – allows “cash-and-carry” 1940 – Japan, Germany, and Italy announce alliance of Axis Powers $37 billion approved for military build-up 9/2/1940 - 50 destroyers for bases swap with UK 9/6/1940 - Conscription law approved
FDR v. Wendell Wilkie (1940) http://learning.cc.hccs.edu/Members/cschweitzer/images/FDR.jpg http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/abouteleanor/q-and-a/images/fdrl_wilkie.jpg
HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF ELECTION OF 1940: FDR BREAKS WITH TWO-TERM TRADITION
A Slumbering Giant Stirs… 3/1941 – Lend-Lease Act passed 6/1941 –Germany attacks “friend” USSR, FDR extends Lend-Lease to USSR Mid-1941 - US freezes Japanese Assets 7/1941 – US Navy accompanies convoys to UK 8/1941 – Atlantic Charter (US, UK -later USSR)
http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/D/1926-1950/war/at_charter.htm Atlantic Charter Secret Alliance between US and UK, and later the USSR, which becomes the basis for the United Nations
Atlantic CharterAUGUST 14, 1941 …First, their countries seek no aggrandizement, territorial or other; Second, they desire to see no territorial changes that do not accord with the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned; Third, they respect the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live; and they wish to see sovereign rights and self government restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of them; Fourth, they will endeavor, with due respect for their existing obligations, to further the enjoyment by all States, great or small, victor or vanquished, of access, on equal terms, to the trade and to the raw materials of the world which are needed for their economic prosperity; Fifth, they desire to bring about the fullest collaboration between all nations in the economic field with the object of securing, for all, improved labor standards, economic advancement and social security; Sixth, after the final destruction of the Nazi tyranny, they hope to see established a peace which will afford to all nations the means of dwelling in safety within their own boundaries, and which will afford assurance that all the men in all lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want; Seventh, such a peace should enable all men to traverse the high seas and oceans without hindrance; Eighth, they believe that all of the nations of the world, for realistic as well as spiritual reasons must come to the abandonment of the use of force. … Franklin D. Roosevelt Winston S. Churchill
First Blood Fall 1941 – German U-boats sink 2 US destroyers and several merchant ships US arms its merchant ships Fall 1941 – US cuts off oil to Japan after Japan invades French Indochina 11/1941 - Hideki Tojo prepares Japan for war with US US knows Japan will strike, but not where 12/7/1941 – Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor 12/11/1941 – Italy and Germany declare war on US WHY DID THE U.S. WAIT TO BE ATTACKED???
America at War: 1941-1945 FDR’s STRATEGY: 1. Attack Germany first: save USSR and UK 2. Attack Japan second: give ground in Pacific PROBLEM: Will America arm itself (and its Allies) in time? CONCERN: Were totalitarian warriors better than citizen-soldiers?