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The Start of the Cold War

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1 The Start of the Cold War

2 What is the Cold War? Cold War – conflict between the US and SU, the state of hostility short of direct military confrontation that developed between the two superpowers, dominated global affairs until break up of SU in 1991.

3 Difference in Goals Truman Stalin Plans for Eastern Europe
Self – Determination, Democracy, Capitalism, wanted to establish trade in favor of US economy Establish Friendly Communist Governments, wanted raw materials, buffer zone from West Europe Plans for Germany Rebuild Germany, Reunite Germany Strip of Industries, High Reparations, Keep Germany divided Post- WW2 State US only had 405,000 soldiers killed, war caused booming economy Devastated region, 19 million civilians dead, 7.2 million soldiers dead

4 Stalin’s Reaction Stalin created Communist Governments in Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Poland known as Satellite Nations. Seized satellite nations industrial assets (factory equipment, etc) to rebuild Soviet Union 1946 Stalin announced – “Communism and Capitalism were incompatible and that another war was inevitable” so Soviet Union had to produce war goods, not consumer goods US interpreted as literally a declaration of War


6 Policy of Containment Truman wanted to “stop babying the Soviets”
George F. Kennan, American diplomat in SU, proposed Containment Containment – an effort to block the Soviets’ attempts to spread their influence by creating alliances and supporting weaker countries Guide for Truman’s foreign policy

7 Iron Curtain Speech Churchill came to US to describe situation in Europe “A shadow has fallen upon the scenes so lately lighted by the Allied victory…From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across continent, behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of central and Eastern Europe…all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in the Soviet sphere and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence, but to a very high and increasing measure of control from Moscow.”

8 Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech
Less than a year after WW II, Winston Churchill, delivered this speech. Coined term "iron curtain" to describe the line in Europe between self-governing nations of the West and those in Eastern Europe under Soviet Communist control.


10 A Race to spread political/economic influence all over begins

11 Truman Doctrine TRUMAN DOCTRINE
Truman declared US should support free people throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by “armed minorities” or “outside pressures” (aka Communism) March 12, 1947 – Truman asked Congress for $400 mil in aid Opponents objected to interfering in internal affairs of other nations Some did not want US spread too thin Others opposed helping dictators of any kind, even anti-communist dictators Congress agreed w/ Truman Doctrine sent aid to 2 countries, reducing danger of Communist take over.

12 Marshall Plan Europe in Chaos: War Damage, Winter of , Electricity Limits, Food Shortages June 1947, George Marshall said US should provide aid to all European countries needing it and was directed “not against any country or state, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.” Stipulations: any country receiving aid had to remove trade barriers and cooperate economically with one another (purpose: achieve US economic goals) Congress did not like giving away $12.5 billion Feb. 1945, SU tanks rumbled into Czechoslovakia and took over, proved to Congress need for stable governments in Europe to resist Communism, so plan was approved. Plan was great success politically and economically Nutrition improved Industry grew by 1952, W. Europe flourishing, communism lost appeal to many W. Europe voters

13 Superpowers’ Struggle Over Germany
Clashes over German Unification SU wanted to keep Germany weak and divided GB, US, France believed Europe would be more stable if German industry were productive and the German people were not agitating for unity. 1948, combined 3 Western zones into what will be known as Western Germany SU maintained control over Eastern Germany

14 Berlin Blockade  Berlin Airlift
Soviet retaliated to the unification of W. Germany by holding W. Berlin hostage which was also divided into 4 zones Cut off highway, water, and rail traffic into W. zones of Berlin = no supplies could get in, city faced starvation Stalin hoped this would force Allies either give up on reunifying Germany or surrender control of Berlin W. Berlin’s 2.1 million inhabitants would run out of food in 5 weeks In attempt to break blockade, US and GB began the BERLIN AIRLIFT – flew food and supplies into W. Berlin For 327 days, planes brought supplies to W. Berlin 277,000 flights brought 2.3 million tons of supplies (food, fuel, meds, Christmas presents that plane crews bought with own $)

15 Results of the Berlin Airlift
Mission to aid Berlin gave large boost to American prestige around the world, dropping SU prestige May 1949, SU realized it was beat, lifted Berlin blockade May 1949, W. Germany approved constitution, created Federal Republic of Germany, capital was Bonn SU turned E. Germany into the German Democratic Republic, capital E. Berlin

16 Peacetime Alliance – NATO
Berlin Blockade increased fear of Soviet aggression Creation of a Defensive Military Alliance - NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION (NATO) Members: Belgium, Denmark, France, GB, Iceland, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, US and Canada Agreed attack on one would be an attack on all Opposition in US said it would cause an arms race and massive American military aid to Europe, but Senate overwhelmingly approved FIRST TIME US entered military alliance w/ other nations during peace Cold War ended US isolationism

17 Communists Take Over China
Nationalists under Chiang Kai-shek controlled China but in Civil War with Communists US supported the Nationalists with economic aid and weapons, but no troops Communists led by Mao Zedong take over China, force Nationalists to flee to Taiwan Americans shocked, frightened, some criticize Truman for not doing enough

18 Soviets Test the A-Bomb
Soviets successfully tested A-Bomb long before expected in 1949 Frightened US Responded with creation of H-Bomb, much more powerful Created a Weapons Race

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