Presentation on theme: "World War II Ends The Main Idea While the Allies completed the defeat of the Axis Powers on the battlefield, Allied leaders were making plans for the."— Presentation transcript:
World War II Ends The Main Idea While the Allies completed the defeat of the Axis Powers on the battlefield, Allied leaders were making plans for the postwar world. Reading Focus How did the Allies defeat Germany and win the war in Europe? How did the Allies defeat Japan and win the war in the Pacific? What challenges faced the United States after victory? What challenges did the world face after World War II? How did the division between the Western democracies and the Soviet Union and the “fall of China” help cause the Cold War?
Winning the War in Europe After the Battle of the Bulge, Germany had few soldiers left to defend the homeland. Germany faced 4 million Allied troops on its western border and millions more Soviet troops to the east. The Big Three – Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin – met in Yalta to make plans for the end of the war and the peace that was to follow. Allied forces made their way across the Rhine River, which was a key barrier to the center of Germany. Roosevelt decided to leave Berlin to the Soviets. In April of 1945 Hitler realized that the war was lost and committed suicide in his Berlin bunker.
Yalta: February, 1945 FDR wants quick Soviet entry into Pacific war. FDR wants quick Soviet entry into Pacific war. FDR & Churchill concede Stalin needs buffer, FDR & Stalin want spheres of influence and a weak Germany. FDR & Churchill concede Stalin needs buffer, FDR & Stalin want spheres of influence and a weak Germany. Churchill wants strong Germany as buffer against Stalin. Churchill wants strong Germany as buffer against Stalin. FDR argues for a ‘United Nations’. FDR argues for a ‘United Nations’.
The “Big Three” Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt, Joseph Stalin
The Yalta Conference Allied leaders Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin—the so-called Big Three—met in the resort town of Yalta in the Soviet Union to discuss the end of the war and the peace that was to follow. A key goal was to determine what to do with Germany. The leaders agreed to divide the country into four sectors. The Americans, Soviets, British, and French would each occupy one of these sectors. Berlin was also divided into four sectors. Another agreement had to do with the fate of Poland and other Eastern European countries now occupied by the Soviets. Stalin agreed to hold elections in these countries after the war. Stalin also said that the Soviet Union would declare war on Japan three months after Germany was defeated.
Winning the War in Europe Crossing the Rhine Hitler ordered his troops to make a stand at the Rhine River. Despite the fact that the Germans blew up many of the bridges across the Rhine to slow the Allies, they managed to cross at Remagen. The decision to defend the river turned out to be one of Hitler’s military mistakes. The Berlin Question Some Allied leaders wanted to capture Berlin before the Soviets did. Eisenhower decided not to try to get to Berlin before the Soviets. – He believed the battle for Berlin would be bloody. – Allied leaders had already agreed on how to divide Berlin.
FDR Dies: April 13, 1945 His death brought great sadness to the nation. – An editorial in The New York Times personified the nation's shocked and sad reaction: "Men will thank God on their knees a hundred years from now, that Franklin D. Roosevelt was in the White House." The beloved president had served four terms, and during that time, guided the U.S. through both the Great Depression and World War II. – Grieving Americans worried about how the future would unfold without him.
Harry S. Truman Becomes President Harry S. Truman, a man who hardly knew Roosevelt, and knew even less about the administration's war plans, became the 33 rd president of the U.S. During his presidency, Truman was forced to make several monumental decisions, not the least being the decision to drop an atomic bomb on Hiroshima.
Hitler’s “Secret Weapons”: Too Little, Too Late! V-1 Rocket: “Buzz Bomb” V-2 Rocket Dr. Werner von Braun German scientists were nearly finished completing the development of atomic weapons. Von Braun was German rocket physicist & astronautics engineer one of the leading figures in the development of rocket technology in Germany and the U.S. A central figure in Germany's pre- war rocket development program, responsible for the design and realization of the deadly V-2 combat rocket during World War II. After the war, he and some of his rocket team were taken to the United States as part of the then-secret Operation Paperclip. In 1955, ten years after entering the country, von Braun became a naturalized U.S. citizen.
Hitler Commits Suicide, April 30, 1945 The Führer’s Bunker Cyanide & Pistols Mr. & Mrs. Hitler
Mussolini & His Mistress, Claretta Petacci Are Hung in Milan, April 29, 1945
Hitler’s Death: V-E Day: May 8, 1945 On April 30, 1945, Hitler realized that all hope for a German victory was lost. He committed suicide in his Berlin bunker. Berlin surrendered on May 2, Karl Dönitz, who had taken over as Germany’s leader, agreed to a surrender on May 7, which would take place the following day. In the United States, May 8 was proclaimed V-E Day— Victory in Europe Day.
V-E Day (May 8, 1945) General Keitel
Winning the War in the Pacific The cost of capturing Okinawa were high. – High rates of battle-related psychological casualties – Thousands suffered from battle fatigue and other disorders. – Many dreaded the possibility of invading the major islands of Japan. General MacArthur and Admiral Nimitz developed plans for a massive invasion of Japan. A new bombing tactic was used on Japanese cities, one designed to produce tremendous firestorms in the bombed area. Some Japanese leaders began to see the need for peace and began to contact the Soviet Union. President Harry S Truman decided to drop an atomic bomb on Japan. Japan surrendered on August 15, 1945.
Potsdam Conference: July Stalin's armies were occupying most of Central and Eastern Europe – Soviet troops had expelled the armies of the Third Reich from country after country in Eastern Europe, but instead of withdrawing his troops Stalin had left them there. – By July, Stalin's troops effectively controlled the Baltic States, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania – Refugees were fleeing out of these countries fearing a Communist take-over, Stalin had set up a Communist government in Poland, ignoring the wishes of the majority of Poles. – Britain and the U.S. protested, but Stalin defended his actions. He insisted that his control of Eastern Europe was a defensive measure against possible future attacks. In the 5 months since Yalta a number of changes had taken place which would greatly affect the relationships between the leaders:
Potsdam Conference: July America had a new President – On 12 April 1945, President Roosevelt died. He was replaced by his Vice- President, Harry Truman. Truman was a very different man from Roosevelt. – He was much more anti-Communist than Roosevelt and was very suspicious of Stalin. – Truman and his advisers saw Soviet actions in Eastern Europe as preparations for a Soviet take-over of the rest of Europe. In the 5 months since Yalta a number of changes had taken place which would greatly affect the relationships between the leaders:
Potsdam Conference: July The Allies had tested an atomic bomb – On 16 July 1945 the Americans successfully tested an atomic bomb at Alamogordo in the New Mexico desert, USA. July 21 st. – Churchill and Truman agreed that the weapon should be used. – Truman did not tell Stalin of the weapon until July 25 th when he advised Stalin that America had 'a new weapon of unusually destructive force.' – While Stalin seemed unaffected at hearing this news, he was later noted as being outraged at President Truman for not sharing this information earlier. – Stalin was actually aware of the atomic bomb before Truman was as he had two spies that had infiltrated the Manhattan Project. – By the 26 th of July, the Potsdam Declaration had been broadcast to Japan, threatening total destruction unless the Imperial Japanese government submitted to unconditional surrender. In the 5 months since Yalta a number of changes had taken place which would greatly affect the relationships between the leaders:
Potsdam Conference: July, 1945 FDR dead, Churchill out of office as Prime Minister during conference. Stalin only original. The United States has the A-bomb. Allies agree Germany is to be divided into occupation zones Poland moved around to suit the Soviets. P.M. Clement President Joseph Atlee Truman Stalin P.M. Clement President Joseph Atlee Truman Stalin
Potsdam Conference: July, 1945 The western allies, and especially Churchill, were suspicious of the motives of Stalin, who had already installed communist governments in the central European countries under his influence; the Potsdam conference turned out to be the last conference among the allied leaders. After prime minister Kantaro Suzuki's declaration that the Empire of Japan should ignore the ultimatum, atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and August 9, 1945, respectively. During the conference, Truman mentioned an unspecified "powerful new weapon" to Stalin. – Towards the end of the conference, Japan was given an ultimatum to surrender (in the name of U.S., Great Britain, China and USSR) or meet "prompt and utter destruction", which did not mention the new bomb.
The Manhattan Project: Los Alamos, NM Dr. Robert Oppenheimer I am become death, the shatterer of worlds! Major General Lesley R. Groves Harry S. Truman became president when Roosevelt died. He had to decide whether the United States should use the Manhattan Project’s atomic bomb. After consulting with his advisors, Truman decided to drop the bomb on a Japanese city. There would be no warning. President Harry S. Truman is briefed by Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson on August 8, 1945, two days after the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan.
Tinian Island, 1945 Enola Gay Crew One of the three principal islands of the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands. It is perhaps best known for being the base from which the American atomic bomb attacks on Japan during World War II were launched.
Dropping the Atomic Bombs on Japan, 1945 Little Boy Fat Man After 6 months of intense fire-bombing of 67 other Japanese cities, followed by an ultimatum which was ignored by the Shōwa regime, the nuclear weapon "Little Boy" was dropped on the city of Hiroshima on Monday, August 6, 1945, followed on August 9 by the detonation of the "Fat Man" nuclear bomb over Nagasaki. These are to date the only attacks with nuclear weapons in the history of warfare
Colonel Paul Tibbets & the A-Bomb The Enola Gay is the B-29 Superfortress bomber that dropped the first atomic bomb, code-named "Little Boy", to be used in war, by the U.S. Army Air Forces (USAAF) in the attack on Hiroshima, Japan on 6 August 1945, just before the end of World War II. Because of the bomber's role in the atomic bombings of Japan, its name has been synonymous with the controversy over the bombings themselves. The B-29 was named after Enola Gay Tibbets, the mother of the pilot, Paul Tibbets.
Hiroshima – August 6, ,000 killed immediately. 70,000 killed immediately. 48,000 buildings destroyed. 48,000 buildings destroyed. 100,000s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later. 100,000s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later. Enola Gay On August 6, 1945, the Enola Gay dropped its atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima. Despite the horror caused by the bomb, the Japanese did not surrender.
Nagasaki – August 9, ,000 killed immediately. 40,000 killed immediately. 60,000 injured. 60,000 injured. 100,000s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later. 100,000s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later. On August 9, the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Nagasaki. Even this did not bring an end to the war.
Japanese A-Bomb Survivors
V-J Day (September 2, 1945) V-J Day Finally, on August 15 – known from then on as V-J Day—the Japanese emperor Hirohito announced the end of the war.
V-J Day in Times Square, NYC
Japanese POWs, Guam
Potsdam Conference Allied leaders met in the German city of Potsdam to discuss the spread of communism and Soviet influence in the postwar world. Truman hoped to get Stalin to live up to his promises from Yalta. Stalin did not do this. Challenges After the War Rebuilding MacArthur led efforts to help Japan rebuild its government and economy. Seven Japanese leaders were tried for war crimes. Rebuilding Europe caused tensions between the U.S and the Soviet Union.
On 25 April 1945, the UN Conference on International Organization began in San Francisco, attended by 50 governments and a number of non-governmental organizations involved in drafting the Charter of the United Nations. The UN officially came into existence on 24 October 1945 upon ratification of the Charter by the 5 permanent members of the Security Council — France, the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States — and by a majority of the other 46 signatories. The first meetings of the General Assembly, with 51 nations represented, and the Security Council, took place in Westminster Central Hall in London in January Challenges after the War: Creation of the United Nations The signing of the UN Charter in San Francisco, 1945
Representatives from 50 countries met to form a new organization, the United Nations. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. The UN was meant to encourage cooperation among nations and to prevent wars. The UN’s stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achieving world peace. There are currently 192 member states, including nearly every recognized independent state in the world. Challenges after the War: Creation of the United Nations
Structure & Functions of the United Nations The UN is divided into administrative bodies, primarily: – The General Assembly (the main deliberative assembly); – The Security Council (decides certain resolutions for peace and security); – The Economic and Social Council (assists in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development); – The Secretariat (provides studies, information, and facilities needed by the UN); – The International Court of Justice (the primary judicial organ).
Structure & Functions of the United Nations Additional bodies deal with the governance of all other UN System agencies, such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). The UN's most visible public figure is the Secretary-General, currently Ban Ki-moon of South Korea, who attained the post in The organization is financed from assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states, and has six official languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish. Above: The Secretariat building at the UN headquarters in New York City, NY in the United states. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon of South Korea Left: Flags of the 5 permanent members of the UN Security Council France Russian Federation United Kingdom United States China
World War II Casualties: Europe Each symbol indicates 100,000 dead in the appropriate theater of operations
World War II Casualties: Asia Each symbol indicates 100,000 dead in the appropriate theater of operations
World War II Casualties Country Men in war Battle deaths Wounded Australia1,000,00026,976180,864 Austria800,000280,000350,117 Belgium625,0008,460 55,513 1 Brazil 2 40, ,222 Bulgaria339,7606,67121,878 Canada 1,086, , ,145 China 3 17,250,5211,324,5161,762,006 Czechoslovakia— 6, ,017 Denmark—4,339— Finland500,00079,04750,000 France—201,568400,000 Germany20,000,000 3,250, ,250,000 Greece—17,02447,290 Hungary—147,43589,313 India2,393,89132,12164,354 Italy3,100, , ,716 Japan9,700,0001,270,000140,000 Netherlands280,0006,5002,860 New Zealand 194,000 11, ,000 Norway75,0002,000— Poland—664,000530,000 Romania 650, ,000 6 — South Africa 410,0562,473— U.S.S.R.— 6,115, ,012,000 United Kingdom 5,896, , ,267 United States 16,112,566291,557670,846 Yugoslavia3,741,000305,000425,000 1.Civilians only. 2.Army and navy figures. 3.Figures cover period July 7, 1937 to Sept. 2, 1945, and concern only Chinese regular troops. They do not include casualties suffered by guerrillas and local military corps. 4.Deaths from all causes. 5.Against Soviet Russia; 385,847 against Nazi Germany. 6.Against Soviet Russia; 169,822 against Nazi Germany. 7.National Defense Ctr., Canadian Forces Hq., Director of History.
Massive Human Dislocations
The Nuremberg War Trials: Crimes Against Humanity Twelve trials were conducted, involving more than a hundred defendants. In addition to the individual indictments, three organizations were tried and found guilty. They were the SS, the Gestapo, and the Corps of the Political Leaders of the Nazi Party. The Nuremberg War Trials took place from 1945 to 1949.
Japanese War Crimes Trials General Hideki Tojo The International Military Tribunal for the Far East was formed to try accused people in Japan itself. High ranking officers who were tried included Koichi Kido and Sadao Araki. Three former (unelected) prime ministers: Koki Hirota, Hideki Tojo, and Kuniaki Koiso were convicted of Class-A war crimes. Many military leaders were also convicted. – Two people convicted as Class-A war criminals later served as ministers in post-war Japanese governments.
Japanese War Crimes Trials Emperor Hirohito Hirohito and all members of the imperial family implicated in the war such as Prince Chichibu, Prince Asaka, Prince Takeda and Prince Higashikuni were exonerated from criminal prosecutions by MacArthur, with the help of Bonner Fellers who allowed the major criminal suspects to coordinate their stories so that the Emperor would be spared from indictment.
The De-Colonization of European Empires
The Bi-Polarization of Europe: The Beginning of the Cold War
American Occupation of Japan After the fall of Japan, the Allies, led by the U.S., which supervised the writing a new constitution, abolished the armed forces, except for the purposes of defense, gave women the right to vote, enacted democratic reforms, and established the groundwork for a full economic recovery The U.S. government believed that establishing democracy in Japan involved change in all areas of Japanese life. – Under MacArthur and with the cooperation of the Japanese, Japan undertook tremendous changes in just seven short years- -the Occupation lasted from 1945 to Douglas MacArthur and Emperor Hirohito.
Changes in Post War Japan Political Changes: The most obvious changes were political. During the Occupation, Japan adopted a new constitution (sometimes called the MacArthur Constitution because of the major role Americans played in its drafting). Economic Changes: To support these political changes, the Americans instituted reforms to make economic power in Japan more "democratic." The land reform took land away from big landlords and redistributed it to the farmers, so that farm families could own the land they worked.Because farm families became more independent economically, they could participate more freely in the new democracy. Changes in Civic Values: Besides changing Japanese institutions, the Americans wanted the Japanese people to understand better the idea of democracy. To do this, the occupation government used its control of newspapers and magazines to explain and popularize democracy. 1947: New Japanese constitution enacted
World War II Statistics World War II took the lives of more people than any other war in history. Eastern Europe and East Asia suffered the heaviest losses. Germany and the Soviet Union, and the nations that had been ground between them, may have lost as much as a tenth of their populations. World War II was the most expensive war in history. It has been estimated that the cost of the war totaled between $1 and $2 trillion, and the property damage amounted to more than $239 billion. The United States spent about 10 times as much as it had spent in all its previous wars put together. The national debt rose from $42 billion in 1940 to $269 billion in 1946.
World War II Achievements World War II brought an end to the Depression everywhere. Industries had been ignited for the production of arms and resources to equip fighting forces. "The man behind the man behind the gun" helped win World War II. – People on the home front built weapons, produced food and supplies, and bought war bonds. – Many historians believe that war production was the key to Allied victory. The Allies not only mobilized more men and women in their armed forces, but also outproduced the Axis in weapons and machinery. Scientific inventions and discoveries also helped shorten the war. The United States organized its scientific resources in the Office of Scientific Research and Development. – That government agency invented or improved such commodities as radar, rocket launchers, jet engines, amphibious assault boats, long-range navigational aids, devices for detecting submarines, and more. – Scientists also made it possible to produce large quantities of penicillin to fight a wide range of diseases, as well as DDT to fight jungle diseases caused by insects.
Early Computer Technology Came Out of World War II Early Computer Technology Came Out of World War II Mark I, 1944 Admiral Grace Hooper, COBOL language Colossus, 1941
The Aftermath of World War II The United States formally ended hostilities with Germany on October 19, West Germany would accept neither the division of Germany nor East Germany's frontiers. Thus, Germany was the only Axis power that did not become a member of the United Nations. Cold War A Cold War between the Soviets and the democracies ensued. In Asia, victory resulted in the takeover of China and Manchuria by the People's Republic of China, chaos in Southeast Asia, and a division of Korea, with the Soviets in the North and American's in the South. Another war already lay on the horizon.
The Division of Germany:
The Aftermath of World War II The war solved some problems, but created many others. Germany had been the dominant power on the European continent, while Japan had held that role in Asia. Their defeat in World War II left open positions of leadership. – The Soviet Union moved in quickly to replace Germany as the most powerful country in Europe and also aimed at taking Japan's place as the dominant power in Asia. – The Communists under Mao Zedong defeated the forces of Chiang Kai-shek and took over mainland China by the fall of With China, France, and Great Britain devastated and financially exhausted by the war, the United States and the Soviet Union became the two major powers of the world.
The Emergence of Third World Nationalist Movements