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The Cold War: 1946 - 1989 East v. West Communists v. Capitalists Soviets v. America.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War: 1946 - 1989 East v. West Communists v. Capitalists Soviets v. America."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Cold War: 1946 - 1989 East v. West Communists v. Capitalists Soviets v. America

3 What is a Cold War?  Competition between the US and the Soviet Union for power and influence in the world. Political tension Economic conflict Military tension –HOT WAR – direct military action.

4 What caused the Cold War?  Churchill and Stalin hated one another.  Stalin betrayed the Yalta agreement and forced his totalitarianism on other countries. The Iron Curtain  Containment Policy / Domino Theory  Peenemunde / The Bomb Weapons Race Space Race

5 Personality Clashes  Churchill and Stalin only pretended friendship in front of the cameras in WWII.  Both respected Roosevelt. Everyone behaved.  Truman didn ’ t trust Stalin Allies became 2 against 1 FOR GOOD REASONS!

6 Yalta: Stalin ’ s Betrayal of the Allies  Remember the MARSHALL PLAN for rebuilding Germany?  Russia punished instead of rebuilding.  The Soviet Union made Eastern Europe into Satellite Countries. Puppet Regimes

7 The Iron Curtain – Winston Churchill  Enclosing the satellite nations.

8 What was Stalin doing that was so bad in Eastern Europe?  Show Trials  Purges  Concentration camps  Stripping other countries economies to support the Soviet Union. Slave labor made of Nazis and political prisoners. Ethnic Cleansing

9 What was Stalin doing in Eastern Europe?  Lack of freedom  Lack of choices  No freedom of movement.  Only one source for information Stalin and the Soviets Communism spreads

10 The Berlin Blockade: 1948  Clear Stalin wasn ’ t going to reunify Germany. West Germany – Democracy and Capitalist East Germany - Totalitarian  Berlin was in the Russian zone – but Berlin had been divided like Germany. American, French, British zone that joined to be West Berlin.

11 The Berlin Blockade: 1948  Most people escaping Stalin went to East Berlin, passed to West Berlin and into freedom.  Stalin closed the escape route in 1948.  Blocked roads so food and aid couldn ’ t get to 2.5 million West Berliners.

12 The Berlin Airlift  15 months British and American military aircraft flew in aid to West Berlin.  1949 – Russia abandoned the blockade  BUT Berlin remained a focal point for the Cold War.

13 What did Truman do about the Iron Curtain?  The Marshall Plan  The Berlin Airlift  The Truman Doctrine  NATO

14 The Marshall Plan  Created by General George Marshall  To stop future Hitlers, to stop Stalin – rebuild the war- ruined countries of Europe. 13 Billion dollars Get people jobs Restore electricity, water, medical, roads, police / fire Schools, homes

15 The Marshall Plan  Austria, Belgium, Denmark,France, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, England, Western Germany

16 Stalin and the the Marshall Plan  Stalin would not let the Marshall Plan into any area he controlled.  Thought it only spread capitalistic propaganda.  Wanted to keep punishing people.

17 The Berlin Wall  Too many Berliners in the Soviet section wanted to live in freedom.  The Soviets built a wall, manned it with machine guns to keep the people in.  1960

18 Truman Doctrine: 1947  Communism had to be “ contained ”.  Any time there is a threat of Communism, the US had to stand up to it.  The US was the best country to lead the world. Not as damaged by WWII

19 The Domino Theory and Containment  Like dominos, one falls, the others in the region will fall too. Used to justify US involvement in Vietnam in 1960s. Used to justify US involvement in Central America / South America 1960-1970s. Europe and Africa

20 NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization  1949: US joined European countries to create an alliance.  Armed attack on one – considered an attack on all.  Meant to keep Soviet Union “ contained ”

21 Stalin ’ s Response?  Warsaw Pact: Protect against a NATO invasion. Eastern Europe was militarized – so they ’ d be a buffer to protect Russian soil. No choice for Eastern Europe countries on joining. –EXCEPT: Yugoslavia

22 Don ’ t Forget the role of technology in creating the Cold War  Did Stalin know about the A-bomb?  Was he or wasn ’ t he scared that NATO might drop the bomb on Russia?  Russia felt they needed an A-bomb to counter the Americans.

23 Peenemunde: Also a cause of the Cold War  Peenemunde: Germany ’ s secret island developing weapons. Their version of Los Alamos. Jet engines A-bomb V1 and V2 guided missiles Guided Rockets Plasma weapons

24 Dividing up the scientists after WWII  The US took half and the Soviets took the other half.  Developed weapons for their new countries. Russia had bomb by 1948. Russian Sputnik program – 1957.

25 Werner Von Braun: Our German Scientist  Created our NASA program.  We launched the astronauts in Gemini and the Apollo programs because of his Nazi technology.

26 The Peenemunde scientists launched  Weapons Race MAD –Mutual Assured Destruction  Space Race

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