Presentation on theme: "World War II, The Atomic Bomb, and the Origins of the Cold War The creation of the Grand Alliance, the Victory of the Grand Alliance, the Atomic Bomb and."— Presentation transcript:
World War II, The Atomic Bomb, and the Origins of the Cold War The creation of the Grand Alliance, the Victory of the Grand Alliance, the Atomic Bomb and the Coming of the Cold War were not inevitable or clearly foreseeable.
The Orthodox View The Soviet Union is responsible: Soviet Insecurity drove them to confront the United States. There was nothing the US could have done. The Ideological perspective here is that Communism is a danger/aggressive. Thus Soviet leaders are driven position to put forward dogma which pictures the outside world as evil, destined to be wracked with growing internal convulsions until it is given final coup de grace by rising power of socialism and yield to a better world. This thesis provides justification for that increase of military and police power in Russia state,
The Revisionist View The United States is responsible: United States needs to have markets and resources to feed its economy. The Soviet Union impeded these goals and therefore had to be confronted. Economic Issues drive US policy. The Ideological perspective here is that Capitalism is the danger/aggressor.
Post-Revisionism There is truth in both arguments. The Soviet Union under Stalin was paranoid and difficult to deal with. The United States was driven in large part by the fear of another depression. Other issues played a serious role in the origins of the Cold War: Domestic Policy, Security, Allies, and perceptions.
The End of WWII/The Bomb/ Cold War The former contend that the bomb was necessary as a military means to hasten the end of the war with Japan, while scholars of the latter - the "atomic diplomacy" – claim the bomb was meant as a political- diplomatic threat aimed against the Soviet Union in the emerging Cold War. Bernstein advances a third interpretation, arguing that the bomb, although primarily aimed at the speedy surrender of Japan, had a "bonus" effect of intimidating the Soviet Union.
Big Ideas Regarding the Origins of the Cold War: Number #1 Nuclear weapons changed how international relations were conducted. The nature of security changes from physical to psychological. Number #2 In seeking the their legitimate security needs, both the United States and the Soviet Union made each other increasingly insecure. Number 3 The United States and the Soviet Union both created empires in Europe, the USSR by force and the US by invitation.
The Roots of the Cold War – World War II and the Diplomacy Three Visions of the World From 3 leaders
1.Franklin Roosevelt – US President World View - Collective Security / Internationalism (Economic Integration) - The Four Policeman (US, GB, USSR, China) envisioned a postwar order in which the victors, along with China, would act as a board of directors of the world, enforcing peace against any potential Danger
2. Winston Churchill World View - Balance of Power reconstruct the traditional balance of power in Europe. rebuilding GB, FR,, and even defeated GRM. With the US these countries could counter balance the Soviet colossus to the east. –Danger to the World Order – American Return to Isolation, England Alone & Separate Peace
3.Joseph Stalin World View – Power Politics communist ideology and traditional Russian foreign policy. He strove to cash in on his country’s victory by extending Russian influence into Central Europe. Turn the countries he conquered by soviet armies into buffer zones to protect Russia against future German aggression. –Danger to the World Order – Stalin's Paranoia The Role of Intelligence
The Conferences –1942 - Russia: The Grand Alliance Complete –Molotov – may 20-june 2 1942 (London and Washington) - The Second Front –Churchill & Roosevelt – June 18-25 1942 (Washington) - The Second Front & The Atomic Bomb –Churchill & Stalin – Aug 12-15 1942 (Moscow) - The Second Front and Torch
The War Conferences –Casablanca – January 14-25 1943 - Churchill & Roosevelt –Cairo – November 22-26 1943 - Roosevelt, Churchill & Chiang Kai-shek Tehran - Nov-Dec 1943 –-“Big Three” (FDR, Churchill, Stalin) Agreed to an American-British (& Canadian)invasion through France. –The plan: Western Allies meet up w. Soviet Allies in anorth-south dividing line in defeated Germany, –Planned partition postwar Germany.
Yalta Conference Feb 4-11 1945 - Roosevelt, Stalin & Churchill 11 million Soviet soldiers occupying much of E & C Europe. Stalin wanted to create of buffer zone of pro- Soviet govts. FDR -self-determination for liberated Europe –“democratic institutions of their own choice.” –free elections became a dividing point.
Yalta continued FDR wanted Soviet help vs. Japan, Soviets would get-2 JPNS islands, warm-water ports, & RR rights in Manchuria. Plan Creation -United Nations was agreed upon Germany would be partitioned into four zones (GB, US, Fr & USSR). The attempt to address the security needs of the Soviet Union, create a balance of power, establish a workable international system.
Potsdam July 17-Aug 2 1945 Truman, Churchill / Attlee & Stalin -Stalin had two ideas: a new war should be prevented, and the Soviet Union should get share of the spheres of influence, -Soviets had lost more people and wanted post-war communist neighbors. -The United States and Great Britain had to pay for the enormous Soviet war effort. -Truman, demanded free elections in E. Europe. -Stalin responded, “A freely elected govt. in any of these East European countries would be anti- Soviet,”
The Long Telegram – George Kennan (22 February 1946) Created because Soviet did not support a World Bank and Monetary Fund The USSR saw itself at a perpetual war with capitalism; The Soviet government's structure prohibited objective or accurate pictures of internal and external reality to keep order It would be too costly to disarm Soviet Union Suspicion in key part of Soviet Foreign policy and must be dealt with
-The Soviets viewed US was taking too heavy a hand in determining what form of government nations ought to adopt. -Stalin went on to create what Winston Churchill called the Iron Curtain “from Stettin on the Baltic to Trieste on the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of central and eastern Europe -- Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia. From what I have seen of our Russian friends and allies during the war I am convinced that there is nothing they admire so much as strength and nothing for which they have less respect than military weakness.” CHURCHILL Iron Curtain Speech March 5, 1946
USSR Takes Eastern Europe after WWII IRON CURTAIN-(Churchill)Separate East communist and West democracy –USSR Army stayed in areas they freed from Nazi’s
By early 1947 the Truman admin had three major decisions concerning Europe: 1. to restrict Soviet and Eastern European access to American trade and capital, 2. restore Western European productivity and commerce, and to 3. reindustrialize Germany. Thus, in seeking approval for aid to Greece and Turkey from Congress, Acheson and other officials again emphasized the Communist danger.
The Truman Doctrine milestone in American history four reasons : March 12, 1947 *economically and militarily aid countries fighting communism (Greece) 1.Truman used the American fear of communism both at home and abroad to convince Americans they must embark upon a Cold War foreign policy. 2. Congress was giving the President great powers to wage this Cold War -Truman's personal popularity began spiraling upward after his speech.
3. first postwar US anticommunist intervention other nations civil war In the future, America would intervene in similar wars for same reason and different results Greek affairs started bad but success in the (stopped communist rebellion) –1947 US discussed sending two divisions of Americans to save the situation. –unnecessary, Yugoslavia left the communist bloc in early 1948, stopped aiding Greek rebels As it was, the success in Greece seemed to prove that Americans could, if they wished, control such conflicts by defining the problem as "Communist "
4. Doctrine used to justify aid program to prevent the fall of the Euro and US economies Later programs expanded globally. Problems of reconstruction and U.S. need of world trade were complicated to Americans, Anticommunism easy to understand and supported. So Americans embarked upon the Cold War for the good reasons given in the Truman Doctrine, which they understood, and for real reasons which they did not understand. From 1947 on, therefore, any threat to that Western system could be easily explained as communist- inspired,
George Kennan's Containment - "only five centers of industrial and military power in the world which are important to us from a standpoint of national security." : US, GB, GRM, USSR, JP –Only nations who could develop a possible threat Only one was hostile at that time (Soviet Union) –Key interest of the US in world affairs was to see to it that no others fell under such control. –CONTAINMENT-Stopping the spread of Communism –Soviets goal was to spread communism
Marshall Plan, June 5, 1947 -IN 1947 George C Marshall met with Stalin in Moscow discuss Germany issue -Marshal felt Stalin hoping for economic fall of W Europe to make spread of soviet influence easier -Goal to help W European economic fall & prevent spread of soviet influence -This influence would take American allied nations and world trade partners -cold devastate us security and econ -US dedicated to help supported W European economies with massive amounts of capitol -Plan was a success W Europe began to thrive.
Marshal Plan Countries we helped Recover after WWII
-Soviet-dominated organization of Communist parties -September, 1947 Poland -conference in response to question Eastern European governments taking Marshall Aid in July 1947. -Purpose of Cominform was to coordinate actions between Communist parties under Soviet direction. -Cominform was dissolved in 1956 after Soviet rapprochement with Yugoslavia and the process of De- Stalinization Early Soviet Response Cominform
The War Scare of March 1948 (Czechoslovakia) (European Recovery Plan) Bill1948, supported when Soviet influence overthrew democratic gov in Czechoslovakia. "pattern" of Soviet aggression and Communist subversion” The President expressed support for the Brussels Pact, the forerunner of NATO, and asked for congressional approval of the Marshall Plan, universal military training (UMT), selective service because "
Berlin Air lift 1948 Stalin wanted all of Berlin so he cut the city off from basic supplies(Berlin Blockade) –Force them to join Communist side West Berlin –FR US, GB and East Berlin USSR US, GB drop supplies by air. –Berlin would be separated Berlin Wall.1961
Alliances Military 1949- NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization- Demo countries 1955-Warsaw Pact- Communist E. Euro countries Economic 1948 OECD- Organization for Economic Co- operation and Development Western European nations 1949 COMECON- Council of Mutual Economic Assistance- Soviet Bloc nations and other communist nations
USA VS USSR COLD WAR (Super Powers) USA promote “self determination” Aid rebuild Euro gov to organize trade W. Europe key trade partner help both economies Capitalist USSR Promote Communism Control E. Europe protect USSR Use E. Europe to rebuild USSR –Resources and capital Socialism
The United Nations 50 nations-3/4 of world population English, Russian, French, Spanish, Chinese 8-weeks to form charter Oct. 24 th UN Day Six major parts
Part 1-Security Council Police authority to prevent war. 11 members with 5 perm seats, and 6 open seats with a two-year term. US, USSR, G.B., France, & China Need seven members to decide, but all five perm seats have to agree. Each perm seat has a veto.
Part 2-General Assembly Town hall style meeting Elects the other six security members. Appoints Trusteeship council and all other council and committee leaders. Appoints the world court judges. Elects a Secretariat
Part 3-Economic Council Study economic, social, cultural, and health problems in the world.
Part 4-Inter. Ct of Justice Decides legal disputes and provides recommendations to the General Assembly.
Part 5-Secretariat Administrative work of the UN. Prepares General Assembly meetings.
Part 6-Trustee Look after areas under colonial rule. No longer part of the UN.