2Helpful ideasHomeworkPredictions and questionsAssignment questionsBeing wrongOrientation island
3Helpful ideasVeteran teacher Rita Tenorio (2004, in Churchill, et al, 2010, p. 178) insists:Curriculum is everything that happens. It's not just books and lesson plans. It's relationships, attitudes, feelings, interactions. If kids feel safe, if they feel inspired, if they feel motivated, they’re going to learn important and positive things. But if those elements are not there, if they feel disrespected or neglected in school, they’re learning from that too. But they’re not necessarily learning the curriculum you think you’re teaching them.Churchill, R. et al. (2010). Teaching: Making a Difference. Australia: John Wiley & Sons).
4Helpful ideasHendrick and Weissman (2007, in Churchill, et al, 2010, p. 178) describe everything that happens to a learner in the course of a day as the curriculum. Again, such a definition reminds us that it not just about what is planned and intended, but about all that transpires, and the meanings, feelings and understanding that those events generate. Lots of lessons get taught that were not necessarily intended…; they also occur as the result of the unintended curriculum. Lots of lessons get learned each day, in positive ways — unexpected teachable moments and spontaneous opportunities to veer off in a new direction — and less positive ways — mishaps, accidents, things not going to plan, and the silencing or marginalising of certain students.Churchill, R. et al. (2010). Teaching: Making a Difference. Australia: John Wiley & Sons).
5Helpful ideasMichael Apple (1979, 1990, in Churchill, et al, 2010, pp ) asks about whose knowledge is of most worth and who benefits from that knowledge. If teachers ask those questions of the school curriculum, what will they find? Take, for instance, the idea that schooling is and should be committed to democratic ideals (see, for example, Apple & Beane 2007). How is that evident in the curriculum — beyond explicit teaching about democracy and the democratic process? From your earliest years you were probably taught about sharing, turn-taking, consensus decision making, listening to all opinions and the like. Whose values are espoused in such lessons? Whose knowledge is demonstrated as of most worth through such lessons? The point is not to suggest that these lessons were inappropriate (though some people might), but rather to simply illustrate that what is learned has been chosen by people who have particular values and want to transmit those values and even inculcate them in others.Churchill, R. et al. (2010). Teaching: Making a Difference. Australia: John Wiley & Sons).
6Helpful ideas…the curriculum as a construction, or more specifically, that it is a social and cultural construction. Such a notion is meant to work against a naturalised conception of curriculum that sees it as universal, unchanging or obvious. Quite to the contrary, what a curriculum could and should entail is almost always a matter of great debate. Far from being obvious or straightforward, curriculum needs to be delineated and debated upon, and as such it is indeed a construction of the social and cultural contexts from which it arises.cultural construction: Something that was created by people who are located in a particular time and place, and who bring their own values, attitudes, interests and priorities to bear on its construction and articulation.Churchill, R. et al. (2010). Teaching: Making a Difference. Australia: John Wiley & Sons).
7A little research project Social ReconstructionismAcademic RationalismCognitive ProcessesThe group allocated to Academic rationalism reports back
9Orientation Island You and EDUC8678 SA AR SR CP Key AR – Academic RationalismSA – Self ActualisationCP – Cognitive ProcessesSR – Social Reconstructionism
10Writing your essay questions DescribeAnalyseEvaluateTuesday’s schedule:Prepare a 10 minute presentationOption 1 ,2 or 3My TopicWhy I am interested in this topic?My general questionMy 3 guiding questionsMy descriptive questionMy analytical questionMy evaluation questionTimePresenter11:0011:1011:2011:3011:4011:5012:00Lunch Break1:001:101:201:30Hand out assignment questions sheet.
11My General QuestionDo curriculum materials in primary science education in Singapore encourage student collaboration or competition?How do curriculum materials shape our understanding of civics/science/art…?Is there room for greater creativity and innovation in the … (name of curriculum) for…(name of institution, subject, year level)?Is there a case for reforming clinical supervision practices in the nursing curriculum of a Singapore hospital?Then and Now: How has the nursing curriculum changed?To what extent is team work and collaboration fostered by the problem-based curriculum in the Diploma in Communication and Automation Electronics at the Republic Polytechnic?How does the content, pedagogy and assessment of primary science syllabus orientate this curriculum?What is the ideological orientation of …(name of curriculum materials)?How should values be taught?What are the implicit values being presented by the textbook for…? Whose voices are being heard? Whose voices are absent?
12Questions about Curriculum Models What is a:Inquiry-based curriculumProblem-solving curriculumEmergent curriculumIntegrated curriculumCurriculum for thinkingArt-based curriculumOutcomes-based curriculumDescribe it, analyse it (compare and contrast to …), evaluate it (could the implementation of this curriculum model be justified for Nursing Education?)
13A hierarchy Area Topic General question Specific questions Nurse EducationTopicClinical supervisionGeneral questionIs there case for reforming the clinical supervision practices in the nursing curriculum of a Singapore hospital?Specific questionsWhat are the overt characteristics of clinical supervision practices in the nursing curriculums of Singapore and the UK?What are the similarities and differences between clinical supervision practices in the nursing curriculums of Singapore and the UK?What arguments can be made ‘for’ and ‘against’ reforming the clinical supervision practices in the nursing curriculum of a Singapore hospital?
14Kathryn Schulz On being wrong Directions: View the presentation and jot down key words and phrasesWrite a 20 word summary using as many of the key words and phrases as you canShare your summary with your group.
19Graphing curriculum orientations Transfer inventory responses to sorting formTransfer data from sorting form to graphPart 1Part 2Part 3Part 4Part 5Part 6CD A BD C B AD A B CA B D CD B C A3241Part 1Part 2Part 3Part 4Part 5Part 6A-1A-2A-3A-4B-1B-2B-3B-4C-1C-2C-3C-4Ask students to complete the survey.After completing the graph give students 6 dots and ask them to stick on in each column to indicate their strongest response.As a group analyse the graph to see where the classes preference lies in terms of orientations. That is, can we see which is our preferred orientation and can we tell what we associate with most within each of the orientations?
20Your Orientation How accurate is the graph of your ideology? When you were in high school, did you ever have a teacher who you think taught in accordance with the Scholar Academic (Academic Rationalism), Social Efficiency (Cognitive Processes), Learner Centered (Self-actualisation), or Social Reconstruction ideology? Describe the teacher(s). When you were in college/univerity, did you ever have a teacher who you think taught in accordance with the Scholar Academic (Academic Rationalism), Social Efficiency (Cognitive Processes), Learner Centered (Self-actualisation), or Social Reconstruction ideology? Describe the teacher(s).
22Academic Rationalist Orientation Oldest curriculum orientationA knowledge perspective to curriculumSubject areas most worthy of studyDepositories of accumulated wisdomProduction of effective members in adult societyDevelopment of the rational mindTwo directionsTraditional pathwayRecent theoriesApproaches, characteristics and Issues
23Approaches Forms of knowledge Integrated studies Back to basics Students learn how to acquire or justify facts rather than just recall themIntegrated studiesTwo or more previously separate subjects are combinedBack to basicsThe direct teaching of school subjects with the emphasis on learning to read, write and solve mathematical problems
24Characteristics Purpose Methods Organisation Evaluation To develop rational mindsTo train students to do researchMethodsExpositionInquiryOrganisationThemesIntegrationProblemsEvaluationAligned to the objectives of the subject matter
25Issues Selecting subjects Making learning interesting Categorising academic disciplines8 Forms of KnowledgeMathematicsPhysical SciencesHistoryHuman SciencesDriven by university entrance requirementsMaking learning interestingFallacy of contentPreoccupied with ‘what’ rather than the ‘how’ of learningFallacy of universalismContent is interesting regardless of learner characteristicsMoralsReligionPhilosophyLiterature and the Fine Arts
26Sir Ken Robertson One the w/b write the five questions as headings: What is Sir Ken trying to tell us?Why we think he is telling us this?What would you like to tell him?What do you think is his strongest argument? Why do you think this?What advice would you give to Sir Ken?Ask students to view the clip.After the clip give each group a sheet of butchers paperAsk the groups to create a chart with the questions and their responsesPost the charts on the wallGo over the charts and discuss groups’ responses with the class
28Cognitive Processes Orientation Critical of academic rationalismexcessively content-boundunderemphasises processescontent is outdatedFocuses on cognitive faculties and abilitiesProblem solvingVisualisingExtrapolatingSynthesisingConceptualisingEvaluatingDealing with ambiguityAnalysingPurpose of the curriculum is to develop cognitive skillsQualifierAcademic disciplines provide the framework or structure that make sense out of acquiring cognitive skills
30Self Actualisation Orientation A Confluent (add-on) CurriculumAdding on the affective domain (emotions, attitudes and feelings) to the traditional cognitive domain (intellectual knowledge and abilities) of curriculumThe curriculum does not teach students what to feel or what attitudes to have but provides choices that encourages students to take responsibility for their choicesIntrinsically rewarding experiences to enhance personal developmentThird force of psychologysupportive environmentFacilitationA response to public pressure for growth in subject-matter knowledge
31Resisting Academic Rationalism A concentration on subject matter might lead to depersonalisationElement of a Confluent CurriculumParticipationIntegrationRelevanceSelfGoalParticipationThere is consent, power sharing, negotiation and joint responsibility by co-participants (Nonauthoritarian)IntegrationThere is interaction and integration of thinking, feeling and actionRelevanceThe subject matter is emotionally and intellectually linked to the needs and lives of the participantsSelfThe self as a legitimate object of learningGoalThe purpose is to develop the whole person within a human society
32Self-directed Learning A response to the threat of depersonalisation of academic rationalismA desire to promote:sense of abilityclarity of valuesa positive self-concepta capacity for innovationopennessKey curriculum ideasAchievement motivationAttribution theoryStudent’s interestsLocus of controlAchievement motivationRealistic challenge and an expectation of successAttribution theorySeeing oneself as the cause of one’s successStudent’s interestsFreedom to learn concentrates effortLocus of controlInternal control is highly correlated with achievement
35Social Reconstructionist Orientation Purpose of EducationSchools as agents for social changePossible areas of studyRole of the TeacherPurpose of EducationNo universal objectives and contentTo confront the learner with the problems facing humanity in an effort to produce a better societySchools as agents for social changePossible areas of studyenvironmental issuesworld peacepolitical corruptionracial prejudicereligious valuesRole of the TeacherHelp students discover their own interestsRelate local, national and world purposes to students’ goalsStress cooperation with the local community and its resources