Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Curriculum Orientations Academic Rationalism Cognitive Processes Self-actualisation Social Reconstructionist Focus.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Curriculum Orientations Academic Rationalism Cognitive Processes Self-actualisation Social Reconstructionist Focus."— Presentation transcript:

1 Curriculum Orientations Academic Rationalism Cognitive Processes Self-actualisation Social Reconstructionist Focus

2 Assignment questions Being wrong Orientation island Helpful ideas Homework Predictions and questions

3 Helpful ideas Veteran teacher Rita Tenorio (2004, in Churchill, et al, 2010, p. 178) insists: –Curriculum is everything that happens. It's not just books and lesson plans. It's relationships, attitudes, feelings, interactions. If kids feel safe, if they feel inspired, if they feel motivated, they’re going to learn important and positive things. But if those elements are not there, if they feel disrespected or neglected in school, they’re learning from that too. But they’re not necessarily learning the curriculum you think you’re teaching them. Churchill, R. et al. (2010). Teaching: Making a Difference. Australia: John Wiley & Sons).

4 Helpful ideas Hendrick and Weissman (2007, in Churchill, et al, 2010, p. 178) describe everything that happens to a learner in the course of a day as the curriculum. Again, such a definition reminds us that it not just about what is planned and intended, but about all that transpires, and the meanings, feelings and understanding that those events generate. Lots of lessons get taught that were not necessarily intended…; they also occur as the result of the unintended curriculum. Lots of lessons get learned each day, in positive ways — unexpected teachable moments and spontaneous opportunities to veer off in a new direction — and less positive ways — mishaps, accidents, things not going to plan, and the silencing or marginalising of certain students. Churchill, R. et al. (2010). Teaching: Making a Difference. Australia: John Wiley & Sons).

5 Helpful ideas Michael Apple (1979, 1990, in Churchill, et al, 2010, pp ) asks about whose knowledge is of most worth and who benefits from that knowledge. If teachers ask those questions of the school curriculum, what will they find? Take, for instance, the idea that schooling is and should be committed to democratic ideals (see, for example, Apple & Beane 2007). How is that evident in the curriculum — beyond explicit teaching about democracy and the democratic process? From your earliest years you were probably taught about sharing, turn-taking, consensus decision making, listening to all opinions and the like. Whose values are espoused in such lessons? Whose knowledge is demonstrated as of most worth through such lessons? The point is not to suggest that these lessons were inappropriate (though some people might), but rather to simply illustrate that what is learned has been chosen by people who have particular values and want to transmit those values and even inculcate them in others. Churchill, R. et al. (2010). Teaching: Making a Difference. Australia: John Wiley & Sons).

6 …the curriculum as a construction, or more specifically, that it is a social and cultural construction. Such a notion is meant to work against a naturalised conception of curriculum that sees it as universal, unchanging or obvious. Quite to the contrary, what a curriculum could and should entail is almost always a matter of great debate. Far from being obvious or straightforward, curriculum needs to be delineated and debated upon, and as such it is indeed a construction of the social and cultural contexts from which it arises. –cultural construction: Something that was created by people who are located in a particular time and place, and who bring their own values, attitudes, interests and priorities to bear on its construction and articulation. Churchill, R. et al. (2010). Teaching: Making a Difference. Australia: John Wiley & Sons). Helpful ideas

7 A little research project Cognitive Processes Social Reconstructionism Academic Rationalism

8 Cognitive Processes Self Actualisation Social Reconstructionism History Knowledge Learners & Learning Teachers & Teaching Evaluation

9 You and EDUC8678 AR SA CP SR Orientation Island Key AR – Academic Rationalism SA – Self Actualisation CP – Cognitive Processes SR – Social Reconstructionism

10 Writing your essay questions Describe Analyse Evaluate Tuesday’s schedule: Prepare a 10 minute presentation –Option 1,2 or 3 –My Topic –Why I am interested in this topic? –My general question –My 3 guiding questions My descriptive question My analytical question My evaluation question TimePresenter 11:00 11:10 11:20 11:30 11:40 11:50 12:00Lunch Break 1:00 1:10 1:20 1:30

11 My General Question Do curriculum materials in primary science education in Singapore encourage student collaboration or competition? How do curriculum materials shape our understanding of civics/science/art…? Is there room for greater creativity and innovation in the … (name of curriculum) for…(name of institution, subject, year level)? Is there a case for reforming clinical supervision practices in the nursing curriculum of a Singapore hospital? Then and Now: How has the nursing curriculum changed? To what extent is team work and collaboration fostered by the problem-based curriculum in the Diploma in Communication and Automation Electronics at the Republic Polytechnic? How does the content, pedagogy and assessment of primary science syllabus orientate this curriculum? What is the ideological orientation of …(name of curriculum materials)? How should values be taught? What are the implicit values being presented by the textbook for…? Whose voices are being heard? Whose voices are absent?

12 Questions about Curriculum Models What is a: –Inquiry-based curriculum –Problem-solving curriculum –Emergent curriculum –Integrated curriculum –Curriculum for thinking –Art-based curriculum –Outcomes-based curriculum Describe it, analyse it (compare and contrast to …), evaluate it (could the implementation of this curriculum model be justified for Nursing Education?)

13 A hierarchy Area Nurse Education Topic Clinical supervision General question Is there case for reforming the clinical supervision practices in the nursing curriculum of a Singapore hospital? Specific questions What are the overt characteristics of clinical supervision practices in the nursing curriculums of Singapore and the UK? What are the similarities and differences between clinical supervision practices in the nursing curriculums of Singapore and the UK? What arguments can be made ‘for’ and ‘against’ reforming the clinical supervision practices in the nursing curriculum of a Singapore hospital?

14 Kathryn Schulz On being wrong –Directions: View the presentation and jot down key words and phrases Write a 20 word summary using as many of the key words and phrases as you can Share your summary with your group.

15

16 Having a go… Take 15 minutes Write your current ideas down Try out the hierarchy Chat about your ideas Be prepared to be wrong – writing your own assignment question is not easy Sharing our thoughts

17 AR SA CP SR Orientation Island Key AR – Academic Rationalism SA – Self Actualisation CP – Cognitive Processes SR – Social Reconstructionism

18

19 Graphing curriculum orientations Transfer inventory responses to sorting form Transfer data from sorting form to graph Part 1Part 2Part 3Part 4Part 5Part 6 CDABCDAB DCBADCBA DABCDABC ABDCABDC DABCDABC DBCADBCA Part 1Part 2Part 3Part 4Part 5Part 6 A-1 A-2 A-3 A-4 B-1 B-2 B-3 B-4 C-1 C-2 C-3 C

20 Your Orientation How accurate is the graph of your ideology? When you were in high school, did you ever have a teacher who you think taught in accordance with the Scholar Academic (Academic Rationalism), Social Efficiency (Cognitive Processes), Learner Centered (Self-actualisation), or Social Reconstruction ideology? Describe the teacher(s). When you were in college/univerity, did you ever have a teacher who you think taught in accordance with the Scholar Academic (Academic Rationalism), Social Efficiency (Cognitive Processes), Learner Centered (Self-actualisation), or Social Reconstruction ideology? Describe the teacher(s).

21 Curriculum Orientations Academic Rationalism Cognitive Processes Self-actualisation Social Reconstructionist

22 Academic Rationalist Orientation Oldest curriculum orientation A knowledge perspective to curriculum –Subject areas most worthy of study –Depositories of accumulated wisdom Production of effective members in adult society –Development of the rational mind Two directions –Traditional pathway –Recent theories Approaches, characteristics and Issues

23 Approaches Forms of knowledge –Students learn how to acquire or justify facts rather than just recall them Integrated studies –Two or more previously separate subjects are combined Back to basics –The direct teaching of school subjects with the emphasis on learning to read, write and solve mathematical problems

24 Characteristics Purpose –To develop rational minds –To train students to do research Methods –Exposition –Inquiry Organisation –Themes –Integration –Problems Evaluation –Aligned to the objectives of the subject matter

25 Issues Selecting subjects –Categorising academic disciplines 8 Forms of Knowledge –Mathematics –Physical Sciences –History –Human Sciences –Driven by university entrance requirements Making learning interesting –Fallacy of content Preoccupied with ‘what’ rather than the ‘how’ of learning –Fallacy of universalism Content is interesting regardless of learner characteristics –Morals –Religion –Philosophy –Literature and the Fine Arts

26 Sir Ken Robertson

27 Curriculum Orientations Academic Rationalism Cognitive Processes Self-actualisation Social Reconstructionist

28 Cognitive Processes Orientation Critical of academic rationalism –excessively content-bound –underemphasises processes –content is outdated Focuses on cognitive faculties and abilities Problem solving Visualising Extrapolating Synthesising Conceptualising Evaluating Dealing with ambiguity Analysing Qualifier –Academic disciplines provide the framework or structure that make sense out of acquiring cognitive skills Purpose of the curriculum is to develop cognitive skills

29 Curriculum Orientations Academic Rationalism Cognitive Processes Self-actualisation Social Reconstructionist

30 Self Actualisation Orientation A Confluent (add-on) Curriculum –Adding on the affective domain (emotions, attitudes and feelings) to the traditional cognitive domain (intellectual knowledge and abilities) of curriculum The curriculum does not teach students what to feel or what attitudes to have but provides choices that encourages students to take responsibility for their choices Intrinsically rewarding experiences to enhance personal development –Third force of psychology supportive environment Facilitation A response to public pressure for growth in subject- matter knowledge

31 Resisting Academic Rationalism A concentration on subject matter might lead to depersonalisation Element of a Confluent Curriculum –Participation –Integration –Relevance –Self –Goal

32 Self-directed Learning A response to the threat of depersonalisation of academic rationalism A desire to promote: –sense of ability –clarity of values –a positive self-concept –a capacity for innovation –openness Key curriculum ideas –Achievement motivation –Attribution theory –Student’s interests –Locus of control

33

34 Curriculum Orientations Academic Rationalism Cognitive Processes Self-actualisation Social Reconstructionist

35 Purpose of Education Schools as agents for social change Possible areas of study Role of the Teacher Social Reconstructionist Orientation

36 Academic Rationalism Cognitive Processes Self Actualisation Social Reconstructionism Knowledge The Child Learning Teaching Evaluation


Download ppt "Curriculum Orientations Academic Rationalism Cognitive Processes Self-actualisation Social Reconstructionist Focus."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google