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Lesson 13 WW II – 1940: Fall of France & Battle of Britain.

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Presentation on theme: "Lesson 13 WW II – 1940: Fall of France & Battle of Britain."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Lesson 13 WW II – 1940: Fall of France & Battle of Britain

3 Lesson Objectives Describe the sequence and implications of events from the invasion of Poland to the fall of France. Be able to describe and analyze the German strategy in the Battle of Britain. Describe the impact of new technology on the Battle of Britain. Begin to understand the implications of strategic air warfare in World War II.

4 Events September 3, 1939 Britain, France declare war on Germany “Phony war” begins Germany invades Denmark & Norway Germany invades Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg April 9, 1940 May 10, 1940 Chamberlain resigns * Churchill becomes PM * September 1, 1939 Germany invades Poland Britain occupies Iceland * * Not related to invasion

5 Battle of France Dyle Plan 1939 French Plan Schlieffen Plan 1914 Manstein Plan

6 Events September 3, 1939 Britain, France declare war on Germany “Phony war” begins Germany invades Denmark & Norway Germany invades Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg April 9, 1940 May 10, 1940 September 1, 1939 Germany invades Poland May 27-29, 1940 Evacuation of Dunkirk

7 Dunkirk May 26-31, 1940

8 Dunkirk Trapped on the beach

9 German Halt at Dunkirk German army had little amphibious experience Looked at the Channel as a barrier Didn’t believe British could possibly get away Panzer units arrived well ahead of the infantry Were exhausted, out of supply Called halt to rest, resupply, allow infantry to catch up Luftwaffe hadn’t gotten much credit in battle Asked for and received permission to destroy BEF British saw Channel as a highway - organized evacuation

10 Withdraw to Dunkirk "The Circle of Modern War" and logo © Thomas D. Pilsch (1:32:09 – 1:35:35)

11 Miracle of Dunkirk “The Small Ships”

12 Miracle of Dunkirk 300,000+ rescued Equipment abandoned

13 Evacuation at Dunkirk

14 The troops were saved to fight another day.. but their equipment was left behind

15 Evacuation From Dunkirk May 26-31, 1940 "The Circle of Modern War" and logo © Thomas D. Pilsch (1:35:40 - 1:44:45)

16 Myth Mechanized Juggernaut

17 Reality 3/4 of German infantry moved by foot or horse

18 Battle of France First Phase 4-14 June 1940

19 Battle of France 4-22 June 1940

20 Events September 3, 1939 Britain, France declare war on Germany “Phony war” begins Germany invades Denmark & Norway Germany invades Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg April 9, 1940 May 10, 1940 September 1, 1939 Germany invades Poland May 27-29, 1940 Evacuation of Dunkirk June 4-22, 1940 Battle of France June 22, 1940France Surrenders

21 French surrendered at Compiègne – June 20, 1940

22 Fall & Occupation of France "The Circle of Modern War" and logo © Thomas D. Pilsch (0 – 4:10 & 4:11-10:00) (one opinion)

23 Britain Stands Alone “Very well, Alone!”

24 Winston S. Churchill Sandhurst (1894) Served in Sudan (1898), the Second Boer War ( ), the Western Front ( ) First elected to Parliament (1900) First Lord of the Admiralty ( and ) Prime Minister May 10, July 27, 1945 * * Also October 26, April 17, 1955 Led Great Britain during its darkest hour.

25 Britain At Bay

26 Battle of Britain "What General Weygand called the Battle of France is over. The Battle of Britain is about to begin." Winston Churchill June 18, 1940 Excerpt-LoC Full Speech (external, 6:08) Excerpt (internal, 1:35)

27 Battle of Britain Background Operation Seelöwe (Sea Lion)

28 Battle of Britain Background Operation Seelöwe (Sealion)

29 Operation Seelöwe Invasion barges in Channel ports July 1940

30 Operation Sealion * The Royal Navy had to be eliminated. * The Royal Air Force (RAF) air strength had to be eliminated. * British coastal defenses had to be destroyed. * British submarine action against landing forces had to be prevented. Germans began planning for invasion in November 1939 Initial criteria for success:

31 First Law of Modern War The air battle must be won if the war is to be won. General of the Army Omar Bradley November 1951

32 USAF Doctrine (modern) Priorities for tactical (theater) airpower: 1. Air Superiority 2. Interdiction 3. Close Air Support

33 Operation Sealion Defeat of the Royal Navy in the invasion area required control of the air Hitler’s conditions for Sealion: The RAF is to be "beaten down in its morale and in fact, that it can no longer display any appreciable aggressive force in opposition to the German crossing". Warning Order for Seelöwe, 16 July 1940

34 Operation Sea Lion 1940 German Plan Source: Royal Air Force Take control of the air  Defeat the RAF Isolate the invasion area  Neutralize Royal Navy, destroy communications & defenses Invade England  Land Panzers to employ Blitzkrieg tactics

35 Battle of Britain 1940 Orders of Battle Source RAFLuftwaffe Single-seat fighters Twin-seat fighter Bombers Maritime patrol , ,300 / 428* 233 * Dive-bombers

36 German Fighters Messerschmitt Bf 110 "Zerstörer"

37 German Fighters Messerschmitt Bf 109 Most widely produced aircraft in WW II (33,000+ units)

38 British Fighter Supermarine Spitfire

39 British Fighter Hawker Hurricane

40 Spitfire vs. Bf 109 Generally felt to be evenly matched More rugged Better handling characteristics Better visibility Higher maximum dive speed Heavier armament (cannon) Heavy on controls at high speed Source

41 German Bombers Junkers Ju 88 Dornier Do 17 Heinkle He 111

42 Battle of Britain 1940 Orders of Battle Source RAFLuftwaffe Single-seat fighters Twin-seat fighter Bombers Maritime patrol , ,300 / 428* 233 * Dive-bombers

43 How to overcome a numerical disadvantage Battle of Britain British Challenge:

44 Principles of War Objective Offensive Mass Economy of Force Maneuver Unity of Command Security Surprise Simplicity

45 Principles of War Objective Offensive Mass Economy of Force Maneuver Unity of Command Security Surprise Simplicity

46 Early Warning System Source: Royal Air Force Ground Observers

47 Battle Management Source: Royal Air Force

48 Battle of Britain Chain Home Radar Site - Dover

49 Battle of Britain Chain Home Radar Towers

50 Chain Home RDF Source: Royal Air Force

51 Alignment of Forces Source

52 Alignment of Forces Source

53 Battle of Britain: Phase I Source: Royal Air Force Attacks on Channel Ports and Shipping 10 July –12 August

54 Junkers Ju 87 Stuka Junkers Ju 87 “Stuka” Problem: They were vulnerable to fighters

55 Battle of Britain: Phase II Source: Royal Air Force Attacks on RAF: Fighter Bases, Radar 12 August – 6 September

56 The Fog of War August 24, 1940 Luftwaffe bomber crews mistakenly bombed London Residential area RAF bombers hit Berlin industrial area in retaliation Enraged, Hitler orders massive attacks against London and other British cities Attacks on cities continue into the fall, switching to night raids after September 15th Significance: Gave the RAF a critically needed breather August 25 August 26

57 Battle of Britain: Phase III Source: Royal Air Force Daylight Attacks on Cities & Industrial Areas 7 September- 5 October

58 Battle of Britain: Phase III London’s East End Burning - September 7, 1940

59 Attacks on British Cities September 7, May 10, 1941 “The Blitz” London experienced 57 consecutive nights of bombing September - November 1940 Over 41,000 civilians killed, 137,000 injured throughout Britain Source St. Paul’s Cathedral, 26 December 1940

60 Climax September 15, 1940 Massive daylight raid on London Largest to date 56 German aircraft lost versus 28 RAF fighters Germans switched to night raids on cities Considered the turning point of the battle RAF used every fighter in 11 Group (no reserves)

61 Climax September 15, 1940 September 15th is celebrated as Battle of Britain Day RAF Battle of Britain Memorial Flight

62 Battle of Britain Action "The Circle of Modern War" and logo © Thomas D. Pilsch

63 Battle of Britain: Phase IV Source: Royal Air Force Night Attacks on Cities & Industrial Areas 6 October May 1941 (unofficially)

64 Battle of Britain Operation Sealion September 17, 1940 Operation Sealion postponed indefinitely October 31, 1940 Battle of Britain declared over by Air Ministry Night bombings of cities continued through winter

65 Bad Weather Operations Knickebein (Crocked Leg) Navigation System Source

66 Coventry Industrial city in the midlands Subjected to a massive air raid (400+) on November 14, 1940 Center city and cathedral wiped out 1,400 killed or injured Myth:Churchill knew about raid but could not act to defend

67 Coventry Cathedral of Saint Michael c 1880

68 Coventry X-Gerät Navigation Aid

69 Battle of Britain Summary Source

70 Battle of Britain 1940 Orders of Battle Source RAFLuftwaffe Single-seat fighters Twin-seat fighter Bombers Maritime patrol , ,300 / 428* 233 * Dive-bombers

71 Battle of Britain 1940 Losses Source RAFLuftwaffe Single-seat fighters Twin-seat fighter Bombers Maritime patrol 1, , ,014 2,600+ } Pilots Lost

72 Total War “… the whole population … committed to total victory” Princess Elizabeth- Age 17

73 Battle of Britain Did the British Win or the Germans Lose ?

74 Principles of War Objective Offensive Mass Economy of Force Maneuver Unity of Command Security Surprise Simplicity

75 Principles of War Objective Offensive Mass Economy of Force Maneuver Unity of Command Security Surprise Simplicity

76 Battle of Britain Factors British use of radar (command & control) Allowed RAF to concentrate scarce resources where needed Allowed RAF to hold aircraft on ground until last moment

77 Battle of Britain Factors British use of radar (command & control) German underestimation of RAF strength Initial fighter strength Fighter production capabilities

78 Battle of Britain Factors British use of radar (command & control) German underestimation of RAF strength Fighting close to home airfields Closer to the fight, more combat time British “home field” advantage RAF pilots shot down had a good chance of returning to the fight

79 Battle of Britain Factors British use of radar (command & control) German underestimation of RAF strength British “home field” advantage German loss of focus (Change of Objective)

80 Battle of Britain Did the British Win or the Germans Lose ?

81 First Law of Modern War First of all, you must win the battle of the air. That must come before you start a single land or sea engagement. Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1943

82 Lesson 14 WW II -- Second Battle of the Atlantic

83 Lesson Objectives Understand the magnitude and significance of the Battle of the Atlantic during World War II. Understand the degree of British dependence on maritime lines of communication. Describe U.S. participation in the Battle of the Atlantic prior to December Describe and analyze the tactics and technology used by both sides in the Battle of the Atlantic. Understand the importance of code breaking in the Atlantic war.

84 End

85 Video Title "The Circle of Modern War" and logo © Thomas D. Pilsch


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