5RETAKING EUROPEThe liberation of Europe from Axis control and the defeat of Hitler’s Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy
6The Atlantic Charter Both sign THE ATLANTIC CHARTER Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt met in August, 1941 (in secret aboard the HMS Prince of Wales) to decide their goals for the warBoth sign THE ATLANTIC CHARTEROutline of allied war goals (Later, this will form the basis of the United Nations)
7Battle of the AtlanticWinning control of Atlantic shipping lanes to allow movement of military from the United States to Europe.
8Battle of the Atlantic “Rattlesnakes of the Atlantic” -FDR German u-boats worked in “wolf packs” to sink Allied shipping in the Atlantic.
9Battle of the AtlanticKeys to Allied victoryConvoys
10Battle of the Atlantic Keys to Allied victory Convoys Sonar (Sound Navigation and Ranging)
11Battle of the Atlantic Keys to Allied victory Convoys Sonar Air patrols
12Battle of the Atlantic Keys to Allied victory Convoys Sonar Air patrolsAllies capture ENIGMA
13North African Campaign 1941: Hitler sends General Irwin Rommel “Desert Fox” & German Afrika Corps to reinforce Italians
14The “Desert Fox” Advances Rommel pushed deep into British-controlled Egypt attempting to capture areas of Middle East for oil & Suez Canal
16Battle of EL ALAMEINBritish forces under General Bernard Montgomery defeat Rommel’s Afrika Corps in Egypt.Turning point of the war in North Africa
17OPERATION TORCHAllied operation to capture German Afrika Corps. American forces under General Dwight Eisenhower land to the west; Montgomery’s British forces push Germans from the east. German Afrika Corps trapped and surrender.
18Casablanca Conference FDR & Churchill agreed to concentrate Allied resources on Europe first, and the Pacific second
19Stalin and FDR & Churchill The Big Three. Joseph Stalin premier of the Soviet Union, Franklin D. Roosevelt President of the United States, and Winston Churchill Prime Minister of Great Britain
20“Uncle Joe”Communist dictator Joseph Stalin was also part of the Allied powers.Strange and strained alliance.Communism & Democracy.
21Stalin and Western Allies Stalin wanted the British and the Americans to open a western front in Europe against Germany to take pressure off the embattled Red Army fighting against the German invaders in Russia.FDR and Churchill delayed because the Western armies were not prepared to begin such an assault.
22FDR & Churchill decide to invade the weaker AXIS power – Italy. Invasion of Italy “The Soft Underbelly of the Axis”FDR & Churchill decide to invade the weaker AXIS power – Italy.
23July 1943: U.S. 7th Army under General George Patton invaded Sicily Invasion of ItalyJuly 1943: U.S. 7th Army under General George Patton invaded Sicily
24Mussolini OverthrownItalians lost faith in Mussolini, voted to remove him from office, arrested him – is “captured” by the Germans and evacuated to northern ItalyItaly surrenders September 8, 1943Fighting continues
25Invasion of ItalyJanuary, 1944 the Allis invaded Anzio Beach, Italy (35 miles South of Rome)
26Italian CampaignThe German forces in Italy were trapped but continued to fight.June, 1944 Allied forces occupy Rome.May 1, 1945: Germans surrenderedMussolini was shot and killed by the Italians
27April , Benito Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci were shot and hanged. His last words were, “Shoot me in the chest.”
28War in the Soviet Union OPERATION BARBAROSSA June 22, 1941: Hitler broke the Non-Aggression Pact & invaded the Soviet UnionHITLER’S GREATEST MISTAKE DURING THE WAR. (Two-front war)
29Stalin orders a scorched earth policy destroy everything that might be useful to the enemyStalin asks for help from the Allies – FDR extends the Lend Lease Act to the Soviets
30RUSSIAN WINTERAdvance of the German army stopped by severe Russian winter weather.
31Battle of StalingradRussians are able to regain ground in the summer of 1942September 1942: Germans launch fierce campaign of firebombing and shelling (2 months) of the city of Stalingrad
33Battle of StalingradJanuary 1943: 90,000 German troops surrender to the Soviet Red ArmyTurning Point of the war in Eastern Europe
34Allied Air WarStrategic precision Bombing: planes scattered large numbers of bombs over a small specific areaDestroy specific targets (daylight raids)B-17’s rained bombs on German aircraft factories, railway lines, bridges, and cities
35Allied Air WarStrategic Carpet Bombing: planes scattered large numbers of bombs over a wide areaDestroy German cities including military targetsDestroy German ability and German people’s will to continue war.
44WhereAllies wanted Hitler to believe invasion would be at Calais – The shortest distance across the English Channel.
45Allied DeceptionGeneral Patton put in command of fake army stationed in England across channel from Calais.
46GARBO British double agent. Hitler thought ‘Garbo’ was a spy working for Nazi Germany.British used Garbo to deceive Hitler.On D-Day would convince Hitler that invasion force was going to attack Calais and force at Normandy was a diversion.
54Bad Weather Invasion set for June 5. Storm over the English channel delayed invasionWeather man predicts break in the storm.Eisenhower orders invasion to GORommel’s weather man predicts storm without break. Rommel goes back to Germany to celebrate his wife’s birthday.
75Liberating FranceAugust, 1944: Patton used blitzkrieg to encircle & destroy German forcesAugust 25, 1944: Paris officially liberatedGen. Charles de Gaulle prepared to take charge of the city
76The Battle of the BulgeMid-September, 1944: parts of Belgium and the Netherlands are liberatedHitler reinforces the army and launched a counterattack in Belgium & LuxembourgSmashed into U.S. 1st Army and pushed it back – forming a bulge in the Allied line
77Largest battle in Western Europe in WWII Largest battle fought by U.S. ArmyInvolved +600,000 troops80,000 killed, wounded, or capturedGerman loses = 100,000
78Soviet Forces Advance U.S. troops pushed from the West Soviet troops pushed from the EastAt any given time +9 million soldiers were fighting on the Eastern FrontSoviets lost 11 million; Germans lost 9 millionSoviet leaders considered the capture of Berlin a matter of honor
79Soviets Take Berlin April, 1945: Soviets entered Berlin April 30th: Hitler commits suicideMay 8th: German soldiers surrendered
81Yalta ConferenceFeb. 1945: Churchill, FDR, & Stalin meet in Yalta (Soviet Union)Planned the final defeat of GermanyDecide the shape of the postwar worldAgreed to split Germany in 4 parts (each would be controlled by one of the major Allies)Agreed upon the division of BerlinStalin promised to allow elections in Eastern European countries liberated from the GermansStalin also promised to enter the war against Japan within 3 months of Germany’s surrender