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Retaking Europe World War II. Warm-up Match the following; 1.MontgomeryA. Allied commander 2. PattonB. Invasion of Italy 3. RommelC. British Comm. In.

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Presentation on theme: "Retaking Europe World War II. Warm-up Match the following; 1.MontgomeryA. Allied commander 2. PattonB. Invasion of Italy 3. RommelC. British Comm. In."— Presentation transcript:

1 Retaking Europe World War II

2 Warm-up Match the following; 1.MontgomeryA. Allied commander 2. PattonB. Invasion of Italy 3. RommelC. British Comm. In Africa 4. EisenhowerD. German Comm. In Africa

3 Warm-up Match the following; 1.Operation OverlordA. Russia 2. Operation BarbarossaB. Italy 3. Operation TorchC. Africa

4

5 RETAKING EUROPE The liberation of Europe from Axis control and the defeat of Hitler’s Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy

6 The Atlantic Charter Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt met in August, 1941 (in secret aboard the HMS Prince of Wales) to decide their goals for the war –Both sign THE ATLANTIC CHARTER –Outline of allied war goals (Later, this will form the basis of the United Nations)

7 Battle of the Atlantic Winning control of Atlantic shipping lanes to allow movement of military from the United States to Europe.Winning control of Atlantic shipping lanes to allow movement of military from the United States to Europe.

8 Battle of the Atlantic “Rattlesnakes of the Atlantic” -FDR“Rattlesnakes of the Atlantic” -FDR German u-boats worked in “wolf packs” to sink Allied shipping in the Atlantic.German u-boats worked in “wolf packs” to sink Allied shipping in the Atlantic.

9 Battle of the Atlantic Keys to Allied victoryKeys to Allied victory –Convoys

10 Battle of the Atlantic Keys to Allied victoryKeys to Allied victory –Convoys –Sonar (Sound Navigation and Ranging)

11 Battle of the Atlantic Keys to Allied victoryKeys to Allied victory –Convoys –Sonar –Air patrols

12 Battle of the Atlantic Keys to Allied victoryKeys to Allied victory –Convoys –Sonar –Air patrols –Allies capture ENIGMA

13 North African Campaign 1941: Hitler sends General Irwin Rommel “Desert Fox” & German Afrika Corps to reinforce Italians1941: Hitler sends General Irwin Rommel “Desert Fox” & German Afrika Corps to reinforce Italians

14 The “Desert Fox” Advances Rommel pushed deep into British- controlled Egypt attempting to capture areas of Middle East for oil & Suez Canal

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16 Battle of EL ALAMEIN British forces under General Bernard Montgomery defeat Rommel’s Afrika Corps in Egypt.British forces under General Bernard Montgomery defeat Rommel’s Afrika Corps in Egypt. Turning point of the war in North AfricaTurning point of the war in North Africa

17 OPERATION TORCH Allied operation to capture German Afrika Corps. American forces under General Dwight Eisenhower land to the west; Montgomery’s British forces push Germans from the east. German Afrika Corps trapped and surrender.

18 Casablanca Conference FDR & Churchill agreed to concentrate Allied resources on Europe first, and the Pacific secondFDR & Churchill agreed to concentrate Allied resources on Europe first, and the Pacific second

19 Stalin and FDR & Churchill The Big Three. Joseph Stalin premier of the Soviet Union, Franklin D. Roosevelt President of the United States, and Winston Churchill Prime Minister of Great Britain

20 “Uncle Joe” Communist dictator Joseph Stalin was also part of the Allied powers. Strange and strained alliance. Communism & Democracy.

21 Stalin and Western Allies Stalin wanted the British and the Americans to open a western front in Europe against Germany to take pressure off the embattled Red Army fighting against the German invaders in Russia. FDR and Churchill delayed because the Western armies were not prepared to begin such an assault.

22 Invasion of Italy “The Soft Underbelly of the Axis” FDR & Churchill decide to invade the weaker AXIS power – Italy.

23 Invasion of Italy July 1943: U.S. 7 th Army under General George Patton invaded Sicily

24 Mussolini Overthrown Italians lost faith in Mussolini, voted to remove him from office, arrested him – is “captured” by the Germans and evacuated to northern ItalyItalians lost faith in Mussolini, voted to remove him from office, arrested him – is “captured” by the Germans and evacuated to northern Italy Italy surrenders September 8, 1943Italy surrenders September 8, 1943 Fighting continuesFighting continues

25 Invasion of Italy January, 1944 the Allis invaded Anzio Beach, Italy (35 miles South of Rome)January, 1944 the Allis invaded Anzio Beach, Italy (35 miles South of Rome)

26 Italian Campaign The German forces in Italy were trapped but continued to fight.The German forces in Italy were trapped but continued to fight. June, 1944 Allied forces occupy Rome.June, 1944 Allied forces occupy Rome. May 1, 1945: Germans surrenderedMay 1, 1945: Germans surrendered –Mussolini was shot and killed by the Italians

27 April , Benito Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci were shot and hanged. His last words were, “Shoot me in the chest.”

28 War in the Soviet Union OPERATION BARBAROSSA June 22, 1941: Hitler broke the Non-Aggression Pact & invaded the Soviet Union HITLER’S GREATEST MISTAKE DURING THE WAR. (Two-front war)

29 Stalin orders a scorched earth policy destroy everything that might be useful to the enemy Stalin asks for help from the Allies – FDR extends the Lend Lease Act to the Soviets

30 RUSSIAN WINTER Advance of the German army stopped by severe Russian winter weather.Advance of the German army stopped by severe Russian winter weather.

31 Battle of Stalingrad Russians are able to regain ground in the summer of 1942Russians are able to regain ground in the summer of 1942 September 1942: Germans launch fierce campaign of firebombing and shelling (2 months) of the city of StalingradSeptember 1942: Germans launch fierce campaign of firebombing and shelling (2 months) of the city of Stalingrad

32 Stalingrad

33 Battle of Stalingrad January 1943: 90,000 German troops surrender to the Soviet Red ArmyJanuary 1943: 90,000 German troops surrender to the Soviet Red Army Turning Point of the war in Eastern EuropeTurning Point of the war in Eastern Europe

34 Allied Air War Strategic precision Bombing: planes scattered large numbers of bombs over a small specific areaStrategic precision Bombing: planes scattered large numbers of bombs over a small specific area –Destroy specific targets (daylight raids) –B-17’s rained bombs on German aircraft factories, railway lines, bridges, and cities

35 Allied Air War Strategic Carpet Bombing: planes scattered large numbers of bombs over a wide areaStrategic Carpet Bombing: planes scattered large numbers of bombs over a wide area –Destroy German cities including military targets –Destroy German ability and German people’s will to continue war.

36 Dresden after bombing raid --

37 D-DAY The Great Crusade to liberate Western Europe from Adolf Hitler’s stranglehold

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39 Invasion of Western Europe Code nameCode name “Operation Overlord” Allied invasion of Western EuropeAllied invasion of Western Europe –Dwight D. Eisenhower named Supreme Allied Commander in Western Europe

40 Invasion of Western Europe January 1944 Allies begin massive military buildup in Southern England

41 Hitler’s Atlantic Wall –Germany had to fortify defenses along entire French coast –Germany knew an invasion was coming – They just didn’t know WHEN or WHERE

42 General Erwin Rommel Rommel placed in command of German defenses in France.Rommel placed in command of German defenses in France. To stop invasion had to stop invading army when it hit the beach.To stop invasion had to stop invading army when it hit the beach.

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44 Where Allies wanted Hitler to believe invasion would be at Calais – The shortest distance across the English Channel.

45 Allied Deception General Patton put in command of fake army stationed in England across channel from Calais.General Patton put in command of fake army stationed in England across channel from Calais.

46 GARBO British double agent.British double agent. Hitler thought ‘Garbo’ was a spy working for Nazi Germany.Hitler thought ‘Garbo’ was a spy working for Nazi Germany. British used Garbo to deceive Hitler.British used Garbo to deceive Hitler. On D-Day would convince Hitler that invasion force was going to attack Calais and force at Normandy was a diversion.On D-Day would convince Hitler that invasion force was going to attack Calais and force at Normandy was a diversion.

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48 OVERLOARD

49 OPERATION OVERLORAD

50 OPERATION OVERLORD Airborne divisions drop behind German defenses and cut off German reinforcements from interior.Airborne divisions drop behind German defenses and cut off German reinforcements from interior.

51 OPERATION OVERLORD Allied bombers were bomb German defenses at Normandy.Allied bombers were bomb German defenses at Normandy.

52 OPERATION OVERLORD At 0600, Allied troops would land on Normandy beaches.At 0600, Allied troops would land on Normandy beaches.

53 OPERATION OVERLORD Beaches code namedBeaches code named –Utah (U.S.) –Omaha (U.S.) –Gold (British) –Juno (Canadian) –Sword (British)

54 Bad Weather Invasion set for June 5.Invasion set for June 5. Storm over the English channel delayed invasionStorm over the English channel delayed invasion Weather man predicts break in the storm.Weather man predicts break in the storm. Eisenhower orders invasion to GOEisenhower orders invasion to GO Rommel’s weather man predicts storm without break. Rommel goes back to Germany to celebrate his wife’s birthday.Rommel’s weather man predicts storm without break. Rommel goes back to Germany to celebrate his wife’s birthday.

55 Allied Armada Sets Sail Across the Channel

56 Airborne Divisions Prepare for Assualt

57 “Ike” meets with 101 st Airborne before the mission

58 Eisenhower addressing the Paratroopers of 101 st Airborne

59 Airborne Troops Load onto Gliders

60 Paratroopers of the 101 st Airborne await drop

61 Airborne Troops seize bridges and roads

62 D-Day Landing Craft – “Higgins Boats”

63 Troops Landing at Normandy Beaches

64 Landing at Normandy Beaches

65 Infantry Forces Landing at the Normandy Beaches

66 Beach Obstacles

67 The fighting to establish a beachhead The fighting to establish a beachhead

68 D-Day Invasion 155,000 troops are transported from Southern England to Normandy, France155,000 troops are transported from Southern England to Normandy, France

69 Gather the Dead & Wounded

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72 Moving From the Normandy Beaches to the Interior

73 Omaha Beach

74 2,000+ casualties

75 Liberating France August, 1944: Patton used blitzkrieg to encircle & destroy German forcesAugust, 1944: Patton used blitzkrieg to encircle & destroy German forces August 25, 1944: Paris officially liberatedAugust 25, 1944: Paris officially liberated –Gen. Charles de Gaulle prepared to take charge of the city

76 The Battle of the Bulge Mid-September, 1944: parts of Belgium and the Netherlands are liberatedMid-September, 1944: parts of Belgium and the Netherlands are liberated Hitler reinforces the army and launched a counterattack in Belgium & LuxembourgHitler reinforces the army and launched a counterattack in Belgium & Luxembourg –Smashed into U.S. 1 st Army and pushed it back – forming a bulge in the Allied line

77 Largest battle in Western Europe in WWIILargest battle in Western Europe in WWII Largest battle fought by U.S. ArmyLargest battle fought by U.S. Army Involved +600,000 troopsInvolved +600,000 troops –80,000 killed, wounded, or captured –German loses = 100,000

78 Soviet Forces Advance U.S. troops pushed from the WestU.S. troops pushed from the West Soviet troops pushed from the EastSoviet troops pushed from the East –At any given time +9 million soldiers were fighting on the Eastern Front –Soviets lost 11 million; Germans lost 9 million –Soviet leaders considered the capture of Berlin a matter of honor

79 Soviets Take Berlin April, 1945: Soviets entered BerlinApril, 1945: Soviets entered Berlin April 30 th : Hitler commits suicideApril 30 th : Hitler commits suicide May 8 th : German soldiers surrenderedMay 8 th : German soldiers surrendered

80 V-E Day Victory in Europe Day May 7, 1945

81 Yalta Conference Feb. 1945: Churchill, FDR, & Stalin meet in Yalta (Soviet Union)Feb. 1945: Churchill, FDR, & Stalin meet in Yalta (Soviet Union) –Planned the final defeat of Germany –Decide the shape of the postwar world –Agreed to split Germany in 4 parts (each would be controlled by one of the major Allies) –Agreed upon the division of Berlin –Stalin promised to allow elections in Eastern European countries liberated from the Germans –Stalin also promised to enter the war against Japan within 3 months of Germany’s surrender


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