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Steps to the Political, Economic and Military Division of Europe Part I of II.

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Presentation on theme: "Steps to the Political, Economic and Military Division of Europe Part I of II."— Presentation transcript:

1 Steps to the Political, Economic and Military Division of Europe Part I of II

2 Introduction By 1949, Europe divided into two sphere’s of influence, West Germany and East Germany established Steps that led to this division ◦ Wartime Conferences: Tehran, Yalta, Potsdam ◦ Kennan’s Long Telegram ◦ Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech ◦ Truman Doctrine and Cominform ◦ Marshall Plan ◦ Red Army Occupation of Eastern Europe ◦ Czech Coup ◦ Berlin Blockade ◦ East Germany and West Germany Established ◦ NATO Established

3 Breakdown of the Grand Alliance Beginning of alliance was when Soviets received aid from Churchill and Roosevelt in 1941 ◦ Churchill still disliked Stalin, mutual suspicion Stalin had demanded a second front in Europe ◦ Allies had only agreed in principle, Stalin thinks delays are intentional

4 Wartime Conferences Issues to be addressed ◦ State of the war ◦ Status of Germany, Poland, Eastern Europe and Japan ◦ United Nations

5 Tehran Conference Nov ◦ Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill – Big Three State of the War ◦ By 1943, Allies had begun to win the war ◦ Soviets pushing Germans in East, Allies in North Africa ◦ Not yet a second front Germany ◦ Differences from wartime experiences, unconditional surrender confirmed Poland ◦ Stalin seeking security, wanted territory from Poland, pro-Soviet government there ◦ Tensions increased in 1943 with discovery of mass graves in Katyn forest

6 Tehran Conference Eastern Europe ◦ Soviets demanded territory they had seized, meant the Baltic States, parts of Finland and Romania ◦ Agreed, but against the Atlantic Charter Japan ◦ Pressed Soviets to enter the war, could not be convinced United Nations ◦ Supported by all participants Conclusion ◦ Agreement on UN ◦ Need for a post-war weak Germany Roosevelt played mediator between the other two ◦ May have believed British imperialism was the real problem ◦ Not concerned about Stalin

7 Yalta Conference Feb. 1945, Stalin’s position strengthened as Red Army occupied most of Eastern Europe State of the War ◦ Germany almost defeated, second front opened, Ready to invade Germany ◦ USA in control of the air and sea in the Pacific, preparing for invasion Germany ◦ Would be disarmed, demilitarized, de-Nazified and divided ◦ Four zones, temporary, run as one country by the Allied Control Commission ◦ Would pay $20 billion, 50 percent to USSR

8 Yalta Conference Poland ◦ Presented the greatest problem still ◦ Borders established at Russo-Polish War of 1921 lines  Oder-Neisse Line in the west ◦ Stalin got what he wanted  Gave in to ‘free elections’ in democratic government  British supported ‘London Poles’, pre-war government, Russians wanted Communist group

9 Yalta Conference Eastern Europe ◦ Again ‘free elections’, seen as significant for British and Americans Japan ◦ Stalin promised to enter the war with Japan as soon as Europe was finished  Demanded territory in return, accepted United Nations ◦ Stalin agreed to join ◦ Five permanent members of the Security Council, each with veto power Conclusions ◦ Structure of the UN ◦ Soviets help with Japan ◦ ‘Declaration for Liberated Europe’

10 Between the Conferences Radical changes occur before Potsdam ◦ Roosevelt died in April 1945, Truman in with ‘get tough’ policy towards Stalin ◦ Germany finally surrendered unconditionally May 7 ◦ Churchill lost the 1945 UK general election  Succeeded by Labour Party leader Clement Atlee ◦ Soviet Red Army occupied Germany ◦ Day after the conference began, US tested the bomb

11 Potsdam Conference July 1945, Stalin, Truman, Atlee State of the War ◦ Americans poised to invade Japan, introduced bomb Germany ◦ Would be administrating in their own ways throughout each occupation zone ◦ Economy was to be run as a whole  Eastern zone to give food to others Poland ◦ Truman not happy over prior agreements ◦ Stalin could not appease Truman, left alone

12 Potsdam Conference Eastern Europe ◦ U.S. also unhappy with Eastern Europe Percentage Agreements  Too much for Soviets, but they were already in the land  Difficult to force them to change, an occupation force Japan ◦ Atomic bomb tests successful, August 6 first one ◦ Did not ask for Soviet aid United Nations ◦ Established with Treaty of San Francisco in same year ◦ Stalin used veto power well Conclusion ◦ Agreement for immediate, practical control of Germany ◦ Establishment of UN

13 Churchill’s Copy of Percentages Agreement

14 Other Key Developments

15 Salami Tactics Slicing off Eastern Europe piece by piece ◦ Supervised organization of anti-fascist governments ◦ Parties were pruned, leaving only Communists trained by Moscow Leaders were often those who spent the war hiding in Moscow

16 Case Study: Poland Free elections promised at Yalta to be held in weeks January 19, 1947 Campaign of murder, censorship and intimidation 50,000 deported to Siberia Polish Peasant Party had 246 candidates disqualified ◦ 149 arrested, 18 murdered One million voters taken off the register Soviets called all of this a victory over Western expansionism ◦ Pattern in Eastern Europe

17 Soviet Pressure on Iran At Tehran, had been agreed British and Soviets would withdraw their troops from Iran after the war Stalin left his there, quelling ‘internal rebellion’ Soviet troops encouraged a Communism uprising ◦ Iranian government complained to British and Americans First UN crisis ◦ Moscow finally removed troops

18 Instability Elsewhere Pro-Communist rebellions in Greece and Turkey ◦ Believed to be supported by Soviets Communist parties also grew in Italy and France due to economic deprivation at the end of the war ◦ Certainly weak links in anti-Communist Western Europe

19 Kennan’s Long Telegram, Feb Key U.S. diplomat in Moscow, George F. Kennan sent a telegram to the State Dept. ◦ Views would have a lasting impact USSR view of the world was one of insecurity Soviets wanted to advance Stalinism Soviets were cruel and repression and justified it through perceived evil outside of the Stalinist system Fanatically hostile to the West, but not suicidal ◦ Logic of force

20 Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech March 1946, former PM now in Missouri at Westminster College h?v=jvax5VUvjWQ h?v=jvax5VUvjWQ Despite hopes for free elections, Eastern Europe was Communist, presence of Red Army Soviet Reaction ◦ Stalin saw the speech as racist, called it a call to war, compared Churchill to Hitler  Withdrew from IMF  Stepped up propaganda  Five-Year Plan


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