Presentation on theme: "25 The United States in World War II Mobilizing for Defense"— Presentation transcript:
125 The United States in World War II Mobilizing for Defense QUIT25C H A P T E RThe United States in World War IICHAPTER OBJECTIVEINTERACT WITH HISTORYTIME LINESECTION1Mobilizing for DefenseSECTION2The War for Europe and North AfricaMAPSECTION3The War in the PacificGRAPHSECTION4The Home FrontVISUAL SUMMARY
225 The United States in World War II HOME25C H A P T E RThe United States in World War IICHAPTER OBJECTIVETo understand the military campaigns, political decisions, and efforts on the home front that won World War II
325 The United States in World War II I N T E R A C T HOME25C H A P T E RThe United States in World War III N T E R A C TW I T H H I S T O R YIt is December of After Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor, the U.S. has entered the war. As a citizen, you and millions like you must mobilize a depressed peacetime country for war. The United States must produce the workers, soldiers, weapons, and equipment that will help to win the war.How can the United States use its resources to achieve victory?Examine the Issues• How can the government encourage businesses to convert to wartime production?• What sacrifices will you and your family be willing to make?• How can the military attract recruits?
425 The United States in World War II The United States The World HOME C H A P T E RThe United States in World War IITIME LINEThe United StatesThe World1941 Hitler invades the Soviet Union.1941 The Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor. A. Philip Randolph demands that war industries hire African Americans.1942 Roosevelt creates the War Production Board to coordinate mobilization. Japanese Americans are sent to relocation centers.1942 In the Pacific, the Battle of Midway turns the tide in favor of the Allies. Nazis develop the "final solution" for exterminating Jews.1943 Zoot-suit riots rock Los Angeles.1943 Rommel’s forces surrender in North Africa.1944 GI Bill of Rights is passed. President Roosevelt is elected to a fourth term.1944 On June 6, the Allies launch D-Day, a massive invasion of Europe.1945 U.S. Marines take Iwo Jima. Harry S. Truman becomes president when Roosevelt dies.1945 Nazi retreat begins after the Battle of the Bulge. Japan surrenders after atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
5Mobilizing for Defense S E C T I O N1Mobilizing for DefenseHOMEKEY IDEAThe United States enters the war and mobilizes its citizens and resources to give its allies unprecedented military and industrial support.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
6Mobilizing for Defense S E C T I O N1Mobilizing for DefenseHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWFollowing the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States mobilized for war.Military industries in the United States today are a major part of the American economy.TERMS & NAMES• War Production Board (WPB)• Manhattan Project• A. Philip Randolph• Office of Price Administration (OPA)• Women’s Auxiliary Army Corp (WAAC)• rationing• George MarshallASSESSMENT
7Mobilizing for Defense S E C T I O N1Mobilizing for DefenseHOMEASSESSMENT1. List four ways that America prepared for war.Industries geared up for wartime production.Creation of WAACPreparation for War,Employment of women in the war industryEstablishment of OPA and WPBcontinued . . .
8Mobilizing for Defense S E C T I O N1Mobilizing for DefenseHOMEASSESSMENT2. How did government regulations impact the lives of civilians?ANSWERRationing forced people to use resources wisely or do without some goods. Gas rationing forced people to carpool or walk to work. A “black market” developed that illegally sold scarce goods.End of Section 1
9The War for Europe and North Africa MAPHOME2S E C T I O NThe War for Europe and North AfricaKEY IDEAThe United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union cooperate in the fight to defeat Germany and its allies.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
10The War for Europe and North Africa MAPHOME2S E C T I O NThe War for Europe and North AfricaOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWAllied forces, led by the United States and Great Britain, battled Axis powers for control of Europe and North Africa.During World War II, the United States assumed a leading role in world affairs that continues today.TERMS & NAMES• Omar Bradley• George Patton• Harry S. Truman• Dwight D. Eisenhower• Battle of the Bulge• D-Day• V-E DayASSESSMENT
11The War for Europe and North Africa MAPHOME2S E C T I O NThe War for Europe and North AfricaASSESSMENT1. List the major events influencing the fighting in Europe and North Africa.Event TwoEvent OneEvent FourEvent SixEvent EightEvent ThreeEvent FiveEvent SevenJan. 31, Germans surrender at Stalingrad.May Battle of Anzio ends.July Russians liberate first death camp.May 8, Germany surrenders.Dec. 22, Churchill and Roosevelt meet at the White House.May Last of Afrika Korps surrenders.June 6, Allies invade Normandy.January Germany loses Battle of the Bulge.continued . . .
12The War for Europe and North Africa MAPHOME2S E C T I O NThe War for Europe and North AfricaASSESSMENT2. Do you agree with the decision made by Roosevelt and Churchill to require unconditional surrender by the Axis powers? Why or why not? Think About:• the advantages of defeating a foe decisively• the advantages of ending a war quickly• how other conflicts, such as the Civil War and World War I, endedANSWERAgree: Hitler had to be crushed completely so that he would not have the opportunity to rebuild his army.Disagree: If something less than unconditional surrender were required, the bloodshed would stop earlier and fewer Allied soldiers would be killed.continued . . .
13The War for Europe and North Africa MAPHOME2S E C T I O NThe War for Europe and North AfricaASSESSMENT3. When President Roosevelt’s body was brought by train to Washington, Betty Conrad was among the servicewomen who escorted his casket.“ The body in the casket was not only our leader but the bodies of all the men and women who had given their lives for freedom. They must not and will not have died in vain.”What did Roosevelt’s body symbolize to Betty Conrad?ANSWERRoosevelt’s body symbolized the bodies of all the men and women who had given their lives for freedom.End of Section 2
143 The War in the Pacific KEY IDEA S E C T I O N3The War in the PacificHOMEKEY IDEAAmerica wages an aggressive military campaign against Japan in the Pacific Islands and finally ends the war.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
153 The War in the Pacific OVERVIEW S E C T I O N3The War in the PacificHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWIn order to defeat Japan and end the war in the Pacific, the United States unleashed a terrible new weapon, the atomic bomb.Countries of the modern world struggle to find ways to prevent the use of nuclear weapons.TERMS & NAMES• Chester Nimitz• Battle of Midway• Nuremberg trials• J. Robert Oppenheimer• Douglas MacArthur• Nagasaki• Hiroshima• kamikazeASSESSMENT
16S E C T I O N3The War in the PacificHOMEASSESSMENT1. List the key military actions in the Pacific during World War II and note the significance of each.Military ActionSignificancePhilippinesJapanese victory destroyed the myth of white supremacy in Asia.Doolittle’s raidAmerican spirits lifted by the Tokyo bombing.MidwayDamaged Japanese air powerLeyte GulfReduced Japanese navy to minor roleOkinawaAllowed attack on Japan itselfHiroshimaAmerica is first to use the atomic bomb.NagasakiLed to Japan’s surrendercontinued . . .
17S E C T I O N3The War in the PacificHOMEASSESSMENT2. At the trials, many Nazis defended themselves by saying they were only following orders. What does this rationale tell you about the German military? Why was it important to negate this justification?ANSWERSoldiers observed the German military tradition of following orders issued by commanding officers. It is important to negate this point of view to stress the importance of individual responsibility.continued . . .
18S E C T I O N3The War in the PacificHOMEASSESSMENT3. Explain how the United States was able to defeat the Japanese in the Pacific.ANSWERThe United States followed an island-by-island strategy of winning territory back from Japan. With each victory, Allied forces moved closer to Japan.continued . . .
19S E C T I O N3The War in the PacificHOMEASSESSMENT4. Is it legitimate to hold people accountable for crimes committed during wartime? Why or why not? Think About:• the laws that govern society• the likelihood of conducting a fair trial• the behavior of soldiers, politicians, and civilians during warANSWERPOSSIBLE RESPONSES:Legitimate—People should be prosecuted for committing atrocities as much during war time as during peacetime.Not Legitimate—In war, people are expected to kill the enemy. Ordinary laws do not apply during wartime.End of Section 3
20S E C T I O N4The Home FrontGRAPHHOMEKEY IDEAAmericans begin to adjust to new economic opportunities and continuing social problems after World War II.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
214 The Home Front OVERVIEW S E C T I O N4The Home FrontGRAPHHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWAfter World War II, Americans adjusted to new economic opportunities and harsh social tensions.Economic opportunities afforded by World War II led to a more diverse middle class in the United States.TERMS & NAMES• GI Bill of Rights• Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)• Japanese American Citizens League (JACL)• internment• James FarmerASSESSMENT
22S E C T I O N4The Home FrontGRAPHHOMEASSESSMENT1. List the advances and problems in the economy and in civil rights during World War II.AdvancesProblemsEconomyCivil RightsLow unemployment, rising crop prices, opportunities for womenShortage of housing and food, rationingMore equality in the military, founding of CORESegregation, discrimination, race riots in Detroit and Los Angeles; internment of Japanese Americanscontinued . . .
23S E C T I O N4The Home FrontGRAPHHOMEASSESSMENT2. How were the experiences of African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Japanese Americans similar during World War II? How were they different?ANSWERSimilar: All three groups suffered from discrimination.Different: Japanese Americans living on the West Coast were forced into internment camps.continued . . .
24S E C T I O N4The Home FrontGRAPHHOMEASSESSMENT3. Do you think that the government’s policy of evacuating Japanese Americans to camps was justified on the basis of “military necessity”? Explain your answer.ANSWERPOSSIBLE RESPONSES:Yes: The United States government had no way of telling with certainty that Japanese citizens were loyal.No: There was no proof that Japanese Americans were disloyal to their country.continued . . .
25S E C T I O N4The Home FrontGRAPHHOMEASSESSMENT4. What effect did World War II have on American families? Think About:• the role of women in families and the economy• the relationship between the races• the impact of the federal government on societyANSWERThe war changed traditional gender roles as women enlisted in the armed forces and took jobs outside the home. The war also reinforced the country’s long-standing policy of discrimination against minorities.End of Section 4