Presentation on theme: "Communism, Containment and Cold War. China in the 20 th c. Chinese Revolution in 1911 overthrows the Qing Empire and initiates a Republic led by Sun Yatsen."— Presentation transcript:
China in the 20 th c. Chinese Revolution in 1911 overthrows the Qing Empire and initiates a Republic led by Sun Yatsen. Call for reform and removal of imperialist foreign forces led to the Fourth of May Movement against “unequal treaties.” New Culture Movement to bring about progress in China but not western
Chinese political movements Sun Yat-sen establishes the Nationalist party Guomindang (GMD) or National People’s Party. Three Principles of the People Initially GMD contains all political parties looking to reform China, including communism.
Chiang Kai Shek Takes over GMD after Sun Yat-sen dies in 1925. Trained in military in China and USSR. Pro-nationalist, not pro Communist. 1927 launches Northern Expedition to unify China. Late 1927 turns violently repressive against Communists (CCP)
Chinese Communist Party (CCP) After purging by GMD, communists withdraw to southeast China. Mao ZeDong takes control of CCP. 1934 Chaing Kai Shek launches full offensive against CCP, which is forced into The Long March
Japan vs. China 1937 July 1937 Japan invades China, bringing a coalition of GMD and CCP. Invasion of Shanghai The Rape of Nanking Asia’s parallel to the Spanish Civil War, civilian targets
The Axis Powers in WW II Hitler signs the Tripartite Agreement with Japan in 1939, hoping that Japan will slow down Russia or the US. Japan signs neutrality agreement with USSR in 1940.
Japan is under economic Embargo by US over oil interests in China, but not openly in the war yet. December 7, 1941, Japan bombs Pearl Harbor to force US into war.
China and CCP Meanwhile, Mao is running the CCP and using guerilla tactics against the Japanese, still somewhat with GMD. Lot of peasant support against Japanese invasion.
End to the Asian War August 6 and 9, 1945, the US drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, killing 200,000 citizens. August 15, 1945, Emperor Hirohito signs an unconditional surrender Japan is barred from any military development and left to rebuild an infrastructure
Cold War During WW II, Big Three meetings between Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt determine what Europe and Russia will look like after the War. (Tehran, Yalta, Potsdam. Churchill begins worrying about the “buffer zone” that Stalin wants. By 1945 Roosevelt is dead and Churchill is out of office, only Stalin left 1946 Fulton Missouri, Churchill wars of an “Iron Curtain” descending across Europe.
Factors of the Cold War US having atomic weapons. 1949 USSR counters with their own atomic detonation. NATO vs. Warsaw Pact Economic recovery plans
1957 Sputnik is first satellite to orbit earth, from USSR. Containment of Communism has already led to US “red scare” Arms race
The Crises of 1956 Stalin died in 1953, leaving a vacuum of power in the Politburo in USSR. Ultimately Khrushchev wins out, unexpected. Possible thaw?
1956 Khrushchev’s “secret speech” begins a policy of de-Stalinization. Polish uprising sees Wladislaw Gomulko as the new President. Hungarian protest against Soviet presence led by Imre Nagy, overthrown, tanks in Budapest, crackdown. Thaw is over.
Arms race, SALT talks The arms race continues through the 1970s, ultimately sees the Helsinki Accords signed by 35 nations. Reaganomics and the escalation eventually bankrupts the Soviet Union “The Evil Empire” begins to change under Gorbychev with glasnost’ and perestroika The inability to retain Eastern Europe in communism, plus Reagan’s “Tear Down the Wall” (not pink floyd) sees the destruction of the Berlin Wall in 1989.
Stick a Fork in it Gorbychev forced from office in 1991. Yeltsin takes over and institutes “democracy” or something like that. Mao died in 1975 after the Cultural Revolution, attempting to instill full communism, but not terribly successfully. China has a hybrid of capitalism and communism but political opposition