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 Nonsocial  Social  Nonsocial groups:  Social facilitation—do better on easy tasks and worse on hard tasks  For children winding fishing wire (Triplett,

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Presentation on theme: " Nonsocial  Social  Nonsocial groups:  Social facilitation—do better on easy tasks and worse on hard tasks  For children winding fishing wire (Triplett,"— Presentation transcript:

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2  Nonsocial  Social

3  Nonsocial groups:  Social facilitation—do better on easy tasks and worse on hard tasks  For children winding fishing wire (Triplett, 1897)  Adults doing various tasks  And even cockroaches  Why?  Arousal  Evaluation apprehension  Distraction

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5  Social loafing—put in less effort for group tasks  Ringelmann, 1880  Over 150 tasks  Women and Asians tend to do less, at least on easier tasks  BUT  People think they are doing as much or more as when they are alone

6  Sat participant in a group of 6 people…  Blindfolded participant and had them put on headphones  Played clapping or shouting over headphones  I.V. thought they were making noise alone or with 5 others  Results: 1/3 less noise when they thought others were also making noise

7  Brainstorming 1. The more ideas better 2. the wilder and more creative the better 3. listen, improve, and combine 4. don't be critical of self or others  Come up with ideas to improve KNU

8  Evaluation apprehension  Social loafing  Productivity blocking  Category activation

9  Reasons  “Debate” instructions—do criticize—seems to work better  Brainstorming alone and then together can also work  Electronic brainstorming

10  Cohesive groups do better on tasks that require a lot of cooperation  Doing well or being less diverse can make groups more cohesive  BUT  Cohesion can cause elements of groupthink

11  When retaining group solidarity becomes more important than getting the right answer  Group is highly cohesive  Group is isolated from outside points of view  There is a directive leader  There is high stress  There are poor decision making procedures  149/Groupthink.html 149/Groupthink.html

12  Groups are less likely to listen to outside influences than are individuals (reading for today).

13  Leader should be impartial  Group should seek outside opinions  Create small groups then come back together  Get opinions anonymously

14  Diverse groups can be good because more people have different types of information  BUT people tend not to share unique information in group discussions  People focus on the information that they all know in the discussions, leading to poorer decisions

15  Wendy is a college senior planning her graduate work in chemistry. She has been admitted to a university that has very rigorous standards of excellence so that only a fraction of the students succeed in getting their PhD’s. She could also go to a school with a lesser reputation but where most students succeed. What is the LOWEST probability Wendy should accept of getting a degree before deciding to go to school at Cal Tech, the top university?  1 in 106 in 10  2 in 107 in 10  3 in 108 in 10  4 in 109 in 10  5 in 1010 in 10

16  No, groups tend to come up with more extreme opinions than individuals do  Why?  Social comparison—want to be like others  Persuasive arguments—people talk more about shared information  May happen even more now that it’s easier to seek out confirming information

17  What would you do if you could be invisible for a day?  Deindividuation can make people feel less personally responsible.  Zimbardo prison study example:   People become more obedient to group norms  So, it depends on the norm.  Wearing disguises vs. nurse uniforms  What about the internet?

18  Transactive memory—the memory of groups is better than that of individuals

19  Personality doesn’t seem to affect much (other than being tall)  Leaders can be task or relationship oriented  Which is better depends on type of task and relationship between group and with leader  Transformational leaders

20  Over 17,000 managers in 62 countries  2 seemed to be important across countries  Charisma  Team-orientation

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