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NEUROANATOMY OF LANGUAGE 2 SEPT 13, 2013 – DAY 10 Brain & Language LING 4110-4890-5110-7960 NSCI 4110-4891-6110 Harry Howard Tulane University.

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Presentation on theme: "NEUROANATOMY OF LANGUAGE 2 SEPT 13, 2013 – DAY 10 Brain & Language LING 4110-4890-5110-7960 NSCI 4110-4891-6110 Harry Howard Tulane University."— Presentation transcript:

1 NEUROANATOMY OF LANGUAGE 2 SEPT 13, 2013 – DAY 10 Brain & Language LING NSCI Harry Howard Tulane University

2 Course organization The syllabus, these slides and my recordings are available at If you want to learn more about EEG and neurolinguistics, you are welcome to participate in my lab. This is also a good way to get started on an honor's thesis. The grades are posted to Blackboard. 9/18/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 2

3 REVIEW 9/18/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 3

4 Linguistic model, Fig. 2.1 p. 37 9/18/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 4 Discourse model Syntax Sentence prosody Morphology Word prosody Segmental phonology perception Segmental phonology perception Acoustic phonetics Feature extraction Segmental phonology production Segmental phonology production Articulatory phonetics Speech motor control INPUT Sentence level Word level

5 9/18/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 5 Short history of research DateEvent 1836Abercrombie? 1836 Marc Dax claimed that the LH of right-handers has “ memory for words ” 1861 Paul Broca claimed that the LH of right-handers has “ faculty of articulate speech ” 1874 Karl Wernicke discovered that damage to a certain area could cause receptive aphasia. John Hughlings Jackson claimed that the LH is responsible for language, while the RH is responsible for visual cognition (recognition, discrimination, recall). WWI- II Many observations of the cognitive results of head injuries end WWII Juhn A. Wada developed carotid amytal test for cerebral dominance for speech 1950s Penfield & Wilder use cortical stimulation to map the cortex > treat epilepsy, discover the motor-sensory homunculus 1960sCorpus callosotomy (commissurotomy) > split-brain patients 1970sHemifield tachistoscopy, dichotic listening > laterality research 1980sNoninvasive imaging techniques

6 MACROSTRUCTURE The parts of the brain that you can see with the naked eye 9/18/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 6

7 9/18/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 7 Questions What are the axes of the brain? What are the lobes of the brain and what do they do? What connections important for language? How does one refer to the areas of the brain?

8 AXES 9/18/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 8

9 9/18/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 9 Vertical axis: ventral/dorsal Orientation of picture Which way is forward? to the left: cerebellum at back Which hemisphere do we see? medial side of right; left is cut away > sagittal view Vertical axis Dorsal is up, like dorsal fin (dorsal comes from Latin word for back) Ventral is down (ventral comes from Latin word for belly) Cortical vs. subcortical division Cerebrum vs. cerebellum Cerebral cortex (neocortex) vs. cerebellar cortex

10 Longitudinal axis: anterior/posterior lobes Sylvian fissure perisylvian area 9/18/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 10

11 9/18/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 11 Longitudinal axis, functions

12 9/18/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 12 Motor & somatosensory homunucli (sg. homunculus)

13 9/18/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 13 Lateral axis: left/right

14 9/18/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 14 Lateral axis General Which way is anterior? motor and sensory organs are crossed (decussation) ipsilateral, contralateral LH language math logic RH spatial abilities visual imagery face recognition music

15 CONNECTIONS 9/18/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 15

16 The cerebrum is mostly connections 9/20/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 16

17 Diffusion tensor imaging 9/20/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 17

18 Connections Corpus callosumArcuate fasciculus 9/18/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 18

19 NAMING CONVENTIONS How to refer to specific areas of the brain 9/18/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 19

20 Gyrii AnG - angular gyrus FP - frontal pole IFG - inferior frontal gyrus IOG - inferior occipital gyrus ITG - inferior temporal gyrus LOG - lateral occipital gyrus MFG - middle frontal gyrus MTG - middle temporal gyrus OG - orbital gyrus oper - pars opercularis (IFG) orb - pars orbitalis (IFG) tri - pars triangularis (IFG) poCG - postcentral gyrus preCG - precentral gyrus SFG - superior frontal gyrus SOG - superior occipital gyrus SPL - superior parietal lobe STG - superior temporal gyrus SmG - supramarginal gyrus TP - temporal pole 9/18/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 20

21 Sulcii cs - central sulcus (Rolandic) hr - horizontal ramus ifs - inferior frontal sulcus ios - inferior occipital sulcus ips - intraparietal sulcus syl - lateral fissure (Sylvian) los - lateral occipital sulcus ls - lunate sulcus pof - parieto-occipital fissure pocs - postcentral sulcus precs - precentral sulcus sfs - superior frontal sulcus tos - transoccipital sulcus vr - vertical ramus 9/18/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 21

22 Brodmann's areas 9/18/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 22

23 Brodmann's areas, functions 9/18/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 23

24 Stereotaxic (Talairach) coordinates MRI scans vary greatly between individuals due to differences in slice orientation and brain features (i.e. brain size and shape varies across individuals). Therefore, it is generally useful to ‘normalize’ scans to a standard template. Normalization is the process of translating, rotating, scaling, and maybe warping a brain to roughly match a standard template image. After normalization, it is possible to report locations using stereotaxic (“Talairach”) coordinates, which are three numbers (X,Y,Z) that describe the distance from the anterior commissure (the 'origin' of Talairach space). The X,Y,Z dimensions refer to left-right, posterior-anterior, and ventral-dorsal respectively. So 38x-64x58mm refers to a point in right posterior dorsal region of the brain. 9/18/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 24

25 NEXT TIME Ingram §3: Neuroanatomy of language, any leftovers ☞ Go over questions at end of chapter. 9/18/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 25


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