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Higher order functions (such as memory, attention, emotion, thought, consciousness, identity) require large-scale or global processes in the brain.

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Presentation on theme: "Higher order functions (such as memory, attention, emotion, thought, consciousness, identity) require large-scale or global processes in the brain."— Presentation transcript:




4 Higher order functions (such as memory, attention, emotion, thought, consciousness, identity) require large-scale or global processes in the brain. While many activities of the brain are functionally segregated and localized, activity is synchronized and coordinated despite the lack of a central coordinatory area. The left side of the cortex relates most directly to the right side of the body and vice versa. Smell is an exception. The right side of the nose connects to the right side of the brain. A century of clinical neurology has shown clearly that the two hemispheres are specialized for different mental capacities. The most striking asymmetry involves language. The left hemisphere (for virtually all right-handed people and most left- handers) is specialized not only for the actual production of speech sounds but also for the imposition of syntactic structures on speech and for much of what is called semantics - comprehension of meaning. The right hemisphere, on the other hand seems to be concerned with more subtle aspects of language such as nuances of metaphor, allegory, and ambiguity. A person with an extensive stroke to the left hemisphere but with an undamaged right-side brain may still be able to swear and even sing. Such a person may still be able to distinguish a male voice from a female voice. Other obvious specializations involve vision and emotion. The right hemisphere is concerned with holistic aspects of vision and with the appropriate emotion to evocative situations. Text and Images How do mental functions map on to the brain? During the 1940's and 1950's, the brilliant Canadian neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield performed extensive brain surgeries on patients with local anaesthetic. During the operations, he stimulated specific regions of the patients' brains with an electrode and simply asked them what they felt. All kinds of sensations, images, and even memories were elicited by the electrode, and the somatosensory areas of the brain that were responsible could be mapped. Penfield concluded that memories left permanent imprints on the brain. (also called engrams) Among other things, Penfield found a narrow strip running from top to bottom down both sides of the brain where his electrode produced sensations localized in various parts of the body. This "sensory homunculus," as it is now called, forms a greatly distorted representation of the body on the surface of the brain, with the parts that are particularly important taking up disproportionately large parts. (see image below) (see also body image ) For the most part, the map is orderly but upside down. However, the map is not entirely continuous. The face is not near the neck, where it should be, but is below the hand. The genitals, instead of being between the thighs, are located below the foot.

5 A German Shepherd has 225 million scent receptors while a human has only 5 million. The percent of a dog’s brain devoted to analyzing smells is 40 times larger than that of a human. It is estimated that dogs can smell somewhere between 1,000 to 100,000 times better than humans. Of dogs: Blood hounds are #1, followed by Basset hounds for being the best sniffers. Which animals do you think are the worlds best for: Sight Smell Hearing Taste Touch


7 Smell 2: Best Underwater Sense of Smell Smell 4: Best Landmine Sense of Smell Smell 3: Best Bird Sense of Smell Smell 1: Best Sense of Smell


9 Smell 6: Best Sniffer Detective Smell 7: Best Mate Sense of Smell Hearing 1: Best Natural Sonar System Smell 5: Best Air Sniffer


11 Hearing 2: Best Navigator Using Sound Taste 3: Turbocharged Taste Buds Taste 2: Best Tasting With Their Feet Taste 1: What Can Humans Taste? (5 things)


13 Hearing 6: Best Hearing Defense Hearing 5: Sharpest Hearing Hearing 3: Cats versus Dogs? Hearing 4: Best Rain Detector by Hearing


15 Taste 4: I Can’t Taste Sweets Taste 7: I Have the Strangest Taste Taste 5: Chocolate Kills Me Taste 6: I Love the Taste of Fat


17 Touch 4: Most Sensitive (Touchy) Nose Touch 3: Deadly Vibration Detection Touch 1: Best Fire Detector Touch 2: Best Earthquake Detector


19 Touch 8: Most Sensitive Hairs Touch 7: Good Vibrations Touch 5: Best Whiskers Touch 6: Best “Touch at a Distance”


21 Vision 3: Best Bird Night Vision Sharpest Vison Facts Vision 1: Best Thermal Vision Vision 2: Best Mammal Night Vison


23 Vision 7: Best Underwater Vision Vision 6: Sharpest Vision Vision 4: Best Looking All Around Vision 5: Best Motion Detectors


25 Vision 11: Best Independent Vision Vision 10: Best Colour Vision Vision 8: Looking UP, Looking Down Vision 9: Most Eyes

26 Best camouflaged, largest and heaviest, longest & tallest, smallest Coldest, deepest, highest, hottest, oldest, on the farm Best athletes, builders, medics, deadliest, fastest, strongest Best and worst friends, parents Greediest, smelliest


28 Taste Facts Who can taste better than us? Smartest Facts Smartest Ape Smartest 1: Smartest Memory Smartest 2: In the Ocean


30 Smartest 3: Smartest After Us Smartest 6: Biggest Brain For Body Size Smartest 4: Smartest Bird Smartest 5: Smartest Bug


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