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1 1 Presented by George McCloskey, Ph.D. Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine or Executive Functions Assessment and Intervention

2 Mentally healthy persons maintain many illusory beliefs, including: –Overly positive view of themselves –Convenient “forgetting” of negative facts about themselves –Perceptions of having greater control over events than is actually the case –“Unrealistic” optimism about themselves –“Unrealistic” optimism about the future –“Abnormal” cheerfulness Brain/Mind Bulletin, 1988

3 Newberg’s Best Ways to Exercise Your Brain  Yawn  Consciously Relax  Stay Intellectually Active  Smile

4 Benefits of Yawning  Stimulates alertness & concentration  Optimizes brain activity and metabolism  Improves cognitive functioning  Increases memory recall  Enhances consciousness and introspection  Lowers stress  Relaxes every part of your body  Improves voluntary muscle control  Enhances athletic skills  Fine tunes your sense of time  Increases empathy and social awareness  Enhances pleasure and sensuality

5 Newberg’s Best Ways to Exercise Your Brain  Maintain Faith (Positive Belief System)  Dialogue with Others  Engage in Aerobic Exercise  Meditate  Yawn  Consciously Relax  Stay Intellectually Active  Smile

6 6 HH How God Changes Your Brain Andrew Newberg & Mark Robert Waldman

7 7

8 8 Chapter 10: Interventions for Students with Executive Skills and Executive Functions Difficulties George McCloskey Caitlin Gilmartin Betti Stanco

9 EFs Emotions Actions Perceptions Thoughts

10 10 Key Concept Executive Functions:  Directive capacities of the mind  Multiple in nature, not a single capacity  Part of neural circuits that are routed through the frontal lobes  Cue the use of other mental capacities  Direct and control perceptions, thoughts, actions, and to some degree emotions

11 11 All Assessment of the Use or Disuse of Executive Functions Hinges on Careful Observation of Behavior. Key Concept

12 What’s the difference between a Similarities Scaled Score of 12 (75 th percentile)… …and a Similarities Scaled Score of 12 (75 th percentile)? Behavior Observation and Inferences about Brain Function

13 13 Task Performance is directed by Executive Functions or an Executive Functions substitute. The neural networks used to perform a task depend on perceptions about how the task should be done. Key Concept

14 14 Most of what a teacher says to students is intended to activate specific areas of the students’ brains. Key Concept

15 15 The more specific the language used by a teacher, the more likely it is that students will be activating the necessary brain areas. Key Concept

16 16 “Despite the frequency with which it is mentioned in the neuropsychological literature, the concept of executive functions is one that still awaits a formal definition. Research efforts aimed at exploring the different aspects of this construct have often yielded contradictory evidence, resulting in a lack of clarity and even controversy regarding the true nature of executive abilities.” Jurado & Rosselli, 2007, page 213. What Are Executive Functions?

17 17 “There is nothing more practical than a good theory.” The Wisdom of Kurt Lewin Known for his field theory of behavior that posits that human behavior is a function of an individual’s psychological environment.

18 Frequently referred to as “the CEO of the Brain” or the “Conductor of the Orchestra These metaphors  hint at the nature of EFs, but are far too general for effective understanding of the concept  create the impression of a central control center or a singular control capacity Executive Functions Are Not a Unitary Trait

19 EF EF as the Conductor of the Brain’s Orchestra (i.e., EF as “g”)

20 Appropriate Metaphors for Executive Functions:  The conductor and section leaders of the mind’s Orchestra  The management structure of a multinational mind corporation  The coaching staff of team mind Executive Functions Are Not a Unitary Trait

21 Perception Cognition Action EmotionEmotion Domains of Functioning Directed by Executive Functions Action Executive control of modes of output including behavior in the external world and storage and retrieval of internal representations Cognition Executive control of thoughts and thought processing Emotion Executive control of moods, feelings, and the processing of emotions Perception Executive control of modes of perceptual input including external sensory stimuli (visual, auditory, kinesthetic) and internal (representational) stimuli

22 EF ef Activation ef Co-Conductors in a Holarchical Model of EF

23 EF Tiers within the Holarchical Model of Executive Functions Perceive Focus Sustain Energize Initiate Inhibit Stop Interrupt Flexible Shift Modulate Plan Evaluate/Compare Decide Sense Time Pace Sequence Execute Hold Manipulate Store Retrieve Trans-Self Integration Self-Activation Self-Realization Self-Awareness Other-Awareness Self-Analysis Self-Determination Goal setting Long-range Planning & Foresight Self-Generation Monitor Correct Balance Gauge Anticipate Estimate Time Analyze Generate Associate Organize Prioritize Self-Regulation EF ef Activation EF

24 24 Executive Functions cue and direct in different ways at different levels. Key Concept

25 25 It is important to distinguish between Key Concept and Executive Skills Executive Functions.

26 26 Executive Skills involve the use of neural networks routed throughout the brain to perform specific tasks (e.g., attending, inhibiting, modulating, planning, organizing, associating). Self Regulation Executive Skills

27 Executive Functions involve the part of the executive network that is routed through the frontal lobes and that is used to cue, direct, and coordinate the use of executive skills and other mental capacities. Self Regulation Executive Functions

28 EF ef Co-Conductors in a Holarchical Model of EF Executive Functions Executive Skills Executive Capacities

29 29  A set of control capacities that cue and direct functioning across the domains of perception, emotion, cognition, and action  The current model posits 33 self-regulation executive functions Self Regulation

30  Perceive  Focus  Sustain  Energize  Initiate  Inhibit  Stop  Interrupt  Flexible  Shift  Modulate  Balance  Monitor  Correct  Gauge  Anticipate  Est Time  Analyze  Generate  Associate  Plan  Organize  Analyze  Compare  Choose  Prioritize  Compare/Eval  Decide  Sense Time  Pace  Sequence  Execute  Hold  Manipulate  Store  Retrieve 33 Self-Regulation EFs

31 31 Self-regulation Executive Functions can be organized into 7 basic clusters. Key Concept

32  The 33 self-regulation executive functions can be grouped based on “Clusters” in which several srefs are used in an integrative manner.  There are seven primary clusters to consider. SREF “Clusters”

33  Attention  Engagement  Optimization  Efficiency  Memory  Inquiry  Solution SREF “Clusters”

34 34 Self Regulation Executive Function “Clusters” Sense Time Pace Sequence Use Routine EFFICIENCY Energize Initiate Inhibit Stop Pause Flexible Shift ENGAGEMENT Monitor Modulate Balance Correct OPTIMIZATION Perceive Focus Sustain ATTENTION Hold Manipulate Store Retrieve MEMORY Anticipate Gauge Analyze Estimate Time Evaluate INQUIRY Generate Associate Prioritize Plan Organize Decide SOLUTION

35 35 Effective use of Executive Functions can vary by Arena of Involvement as well as by Domain of Functioning. Key Concept

36 Environment Control of Self in Relation to Surroundings Symbol System Control of Self in Relation to Academics (Reading, Writing, Math) Interpersonal Control of Self in Relation to Others Intrapersonal Control of Self in Relation to Self Arenas of Involvement

37 37 Executive Functions are developing form birth; maturational delays can cause difficulties. Key Concept

38 38 Some EF-based clinical syndromes, such as ADHD, demonstrate clear patterns of delayed developmental progression. Barkley (1998) estimates developmental delays of about 30% associated with various EF processes such as Inhibit, Manipulate, Shift, Sustain, Time, Monitor, Correct. Executive Function Development

39 39 EFAGEEQEFAGEEQ Chronological Age Developmental Progression with a 30% Delay

40 40 EF Development does not progress by continuous equal intervals

41 41 EF Development does not progress by continuous equal intervals

42 42 Virtually all individuals who struggle with psychological disorders exhibit executive function difficulties. Key Concept

43 “Deficits in PFC [prefrontal cortex, aka frontal lobes] function are evident in every neuropsychiatric disorder (indeed, the term “psychiatric problem” seems synonymous with PFC dysfunction).” Arnsten & Robbins 2002 in Principles of Frontal Lobe Function Executive Functions and Clinical Diagnoses

44  Most of the clinical conditions described in the DSM-V reflect some form of Executive Dysfunction  The DSM-V can be thought of as “A User’s Guide to All the Things That Can Go Wrong With the Frontal Lobes” Executive Functions and Clinical Diagnoses

45 A sampling of conditions involving EF deficits:  Autism Asperger’s Syndrome  ADHD and ADD  Conduct Disorder  Oppositional Defiant Disorder  Depression and/or Anxiety  Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Executive Functions and Clinical Diagnoses

46 46 All individuals with ADHD exhibit EF deficits but not all individuals that exhibit EF deficits are ADHD. Key Concept ADHD Executive Function Deficits

47 47 All individuals with ADHD have executive functions deficits… ADHD Executive Function Deficits …but not all individuals with executive functions deficits have ADHD. Executive Functions and ADHD?

48  EF and ADHD are not synonymous terms; rather ADHD is a condition involving EF deficits in:  Focus/Select, Sustain, Inhibit, Modulate  Nearly all persons with ADHD also have additional self-regulation difficulties; the nature of these additional difficulties is what makes ADHD so variable from one person to the next and what causes confusion in diagnosis. Executive Functions and ADHD

49 Initiate Modulate Execute FocusSustain Monitor Interrupt Inhibit Perceive Organize Manipulate Store Retrieve Plan Hold Balance Correct Generate Gauge Shift Associate Initiate Execute Monitor Interrupt Perceive Organize Manipulate Store Retrieve Plan Hold Balance Correct Generate Est Time Pace Gauge Shift Associate Modulate Focus Sustain Inhibit Pace Sense Time Same Core Different Constellations Analyze Evaluate Energize Sequence Analyze Decide Flexible Stop Anticipate Sense Time Stop Energize Flexible Anticipate Est Time Evaluate Decide Alan Age 10 Katie Age 11

50  Pharmacological treatment of ADHD usually only addresses the problems associated with the EFs specific to ADHD (Inhibit, Modulate, Focus/Select, Sustain)  Most persons with ADHD will require additional interventions to assist with the additional self-regulation difficulties that persist even when medication is being used effectively to treat the primary ADHD problems. Executive Functions and ADHD

51  Although executive functions are used to guide cognitive processing involved in new learning, many new learning situations are structured in ways that reduce the need for strong executive direction.  In contrast, demonstrating what has been learned usually requires significant involvement of executive control processes. Executive Functions and School

52 52 Executive Functions activation can be internally or externally driven; EFs can cue the use of learned strategies. Key Concept

53 53 The neural circuits for executive function activation are routed differently depending on whether the activation is based on an internally driven desire or command versus an external demand. Internal versus External Control

54 54 Because internally driven production is much easier to accomplish than externally demanded production for children with “producing difficulties” their lack of production on demand often stands in stark contrast to their seemingly effortless production “when the spirit moves them.” Internal versus External Control

55 55 The on-demand deficiencies observed by others are often attributed to negative personal characteristics such as lack of responsibility, apathy, passive aggressive stance, or oppositional defiance. Internal versus External Control

56 56 Nucleus Accumbens Executive Functions Internal Command Pathway: Intrinsically Rewarding External Demand External Demand Pathway ??? Internal Command Extrinsic Rewards & Punishments Engagement of Self-Regulation Teach how to self- regulate in a way that increases the desire to self-regulate

57 57 Production based on External Demand: Production based on Internal Command:

58 58 Producing difficulties are different from learning difficulties; producing difficulties reflect poor use of EFs. Key Concept

59 Executive Function difficulties of a severe nature (especially in the Symbol System Arena) do not result in Learning Difficulties; they result in Producing Difficulties. Producing versus Learning

60 60 Learning Difficulties Only Learning Difficulties And Producing Difficulties Producing Difficulties Only Often NOT recognized as a Learning Disability, even when severe, unless an evaluation involving process assessment is done Recognized fairly quickly as a Learning Disability When severe, typically attributed to lack of motivation, character flaws, or behavior/personality problems A General Model for Conceptualizing Learning and Producing Difficulties

61  The concept of executive functions is not synonymous with the traditional concepts of intelligence or “IQ”  Executive functions often are not directly assessed with standard intelligence tests Executive Functions and Intelligence

62 Directions for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST): I can’t tell you much about how to do this task. Which of these do you think this one goes with? I’ll tell you if your answer is right or wrong. Measuring Executive Functions with a Reasoning Task

63 The more classroom instruction resembles tests of executive functions like the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (figure out what we’re learning, I’ll tell you whether you are right or wrong), the more executive difficulties are going to impact classroom learning and performance. Executive Functions and School

64 Test taking can be exceptionally difficult for a student with executive function difficulties if the test format emphasizes executive function demands over content knowledge. Executive Functions and Assessment

65  Use of Executive Functions varies depending on:  the arena(s) of involvement in which the EF(s) are operating,  the domain(s) being directed by the EF(s) The Multidimensional Nature of Executive Functions

66  The Multidimensional Nature of the use of Executive Functions necessitates a Multidimensional approach to their assessment.  Assessment of Executive Functions needs to address the use of Efs within all four domains of functioning and across all four arenas of involvement The Multidimensional Nature of EF Assessment

67 67 Effective EF assessment is multidimensional in nature and addresses the use of Efs within all four domains of functioning and across all four arenas of involvement. Key Concept

68 PerceptionEmotionCognitionAction Self Others Environ- ment Symbol Systems EF Assessment Matrix

69 Assessment Perspective Assessment Method Formal Methods – Using interviews, records reviews, and observation and interpretation methods that make use of standards established through normative comparisons Informal Methods – Using interviews, records reviews, and observation and interpretation methods that do not make use of standards established through normative comparisons Indirect Perspective – Collecting information in a manner that does not require direct contact with, or observation of, the client Behavior Rating Scales Parent & Teacher Behavior Rating Scales Self-Report Rating Scales (e.g., BRIEF or MEFS Parent, Teacher and Self Rating forms) Interviews of Parents, Teachers (e.g., use of the EFSO) Review of School Records Process-oriented Interpretation of Parent and Teacher Ratings and Self Reports Direct Perspective – Collecting information through direct interactions with, or through direct observations of, the client Individually-Administered Standardized Tests (e.g., D-KEFS, NEPSY-II, WCST, BADS, BADS-C) Child Interview Systematic and Nonsystematic Behavioral Observations (e.g., use of the EFSO and EFCO) Process-oriented Interpretation of Standardized Test Performance and Classroom Work Samples EF Assessment Perspective x Method

70 Interpersonal Intrapersonal Environment Symbol System Cognitive Academic Motor Cognitive Academic Motor Social- Emotional Adaptive Social- Emotional Adaptive Cognitive Academic Motor Social- Emotional Cognitive Academic Motor Social- Emotional Adaptive

71 Norm-referenced assessments of executive functions are currently available, including:  Individually-administered tests  Behavior rating scales Assessment of Executive Functions

72 The limitations of the current methods available need to be understood and taken into account when conducting an assessment. Assessment of Executive Functions

73 73 Standardized, individually-administered measures of executive functions only assess the use of executive functions within the Symbol System Arena. Key Concept

74 PerceptionEmotionCognitionAction Self Others Environ- ment Symbol Systems XXX EF Assessment Using Individually Administered Tests

75 The most frequently used EF behavior rating scale, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF) covers a broader range of Arenas and Domains, but items are highly nonspecific, combining many arenas and domains at once. The Multidimensional Nature of EF Assessment

76 PerceptionEmotionCognitionAction SelfXXX OthersXX Environ- ment X Symbol Systems XX EF Assessment Using the BRIEF

77 The most effective approach to EF assessment involves:  Conducting a thorough clinical interview(s)  Using additional data collection methods to test hypotheses generated from the interview(s) The Multidimensional Nature of EF Assessment

78 Conducting a thorough clinical interview:  Identify arenas of involvement that are of concern, within the arenas of concern:  Identify domains of functioning that are of concern  Identify the specific executive function levels that are of concern  Identify the specific executive functions that are of concern within the level The Multidimensional Nature of EF Assessment

79 Use additional data collection methods to test hypotheses generated from the clinical interview:  Parent, Teacher, Self Report Inventories  Background information/Records review  Individually-administered standardized testing (for Symbol System arena concerns) The Multidimensional Nature of EF Assessment

80 80 The most effective approach to EF assessment involves 1) Clinical interview(s) 2) Use of additional data collection methods to test hypotheses generated from the interview(s) Key Concept

81 Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF)  Parent, Teacher and Self-Report Forms  Preschool, School-Age, Adult forms  Norm-referenced scores BRIEF Parent, Teacher, Self-Report Inventories

82 The BRIEF assesses self-regulation EFs under the following 8 headings: Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, Org. of Materials, Monitor Parent, Teacher, Self-Report Inventories

83 T-Scores and (Percentile Ranks) ScalesMotherFather Math Teacher Social Studies Teacher Language Arts Teacher Learning Support Teacher Inhibit49 (65)47 (55)53 (75)49 (65)77 (96)85 (98) Shift38 (14)42 (28)53 (78)45 (50)65 (92)57 (85) Emotional Control37 ( 8)39 (17)50 (65)46 (50)54 (80)46 (50) Initiate56 (80)53 (71)69 (95)85(>99)96(>99)81(>99) Working Memory 60 (84)62 (88)85(>99)92(>99) 106(>99) Planning/ Organize 62 (86)60 (83)73 (95)80 (98) 92 (>99) Organize Materials 49 (52)43 (33)57 (88)46 (60)69 (95)111(>99) Monitor46 (42)40 (20)63 (90)66 (93)80 (98)77 (97) Parent, Teacher, Self-Report Inventories

84 84 Executive Functions BRIEF INHIBIT SCALE Likely to be Associated with Behaviors Item DescriptionPTPRIMARY EFSECONDARY Efs WILDER than othersxMODULATEMONITOR INTERRUPTS othersxxINHIBITMONITOR OUT OF SEATxxINHIBITMONITOR OUT OF CONTROLxxMODULATEMONITOR BLURTS OUTxINHIBITMONITOR TOO WILDxxMODULATEMONITOR Trouble STOPPINGxxSTOPMODULATEMONITOR TROUBLE when NOT SUPERVxxINHIBITMODULATEMONITOR TOO SILLYxMODULATEMONITOR Talks at WRONG TIMExINHIBITMONITOR NO THOUGHT BEFORE ACTxANTICIPATE IMPULSIVExINHIBITMONITOR TOLD to STOPxSTOPMONITOR NO THOUGHT BEFORE ACTxANTICIPATE

85 85 Executive Functions BRIEF SHIFT SCALE Likely to be Associated with Behaviors Item DescriptionsPTPRIMARY EFSECONDARY Efs RESISTS different waysxxFLEXIBLE GETS UPSET with new situationsxxMODULATEFLEXIBLE SAME THING OVER AND OVERxSHIFTGERERATESTOP UPSET by change in plansxxMODULATEFLEXIBLE DISTURBED by change of teacherxxMODULATEFLEXIBLE RESISTS routine changesxxFLEXIBLE TROUBLE GETTING USED TO new situationsxxFLEXIBLEMODULATE Thinks too much about SAME TOPICxxSTOPGENERATESHIFT GETS STUCK ON ONE topic or activityxSHIFTGENERATESTOP STAYS DISAPPOINTEDxSTOPSHIFT STAYS DISAPPOINTEDxMODULATESTOPSHIFT

86 86 BRIEF EMOTIONAL CONTROL SCALE Executive Functions Likely to be Associated with Behaviors Item DescriptionsPTPRIMARY EFSECONDARY Efs OVERREACTS to small problemsxxMODULATE EXPLOSIVE angry OUTBURSTSxxINHIBIT EASILY becomes tearfulxMODULATE OUTBURSTS for little reasonxxINHIBIT Mood CHANGES FREQUENTLYxxMODULATE Reacts MORE STRONGLYxxMODULATE Mood EASILY INFLUENCEDxxMODULATE INTENSE OUTBURSTS over quicklyxxINHIBIT BIG REACTION to small eventsxxINHIBIT Gets UPSET TOO EASILYxxMODULATE

87 87 BRIEF INITIATE SCALEExecutive Functions Likely to be Associated with Behaviors Item DescriptionsPTPRIMARY EFSECONDARY Efs NOT A SELF STARTERxxINITIATEGENERATEENERGIZE MUST BE TOLD TO BEGINxxINITIATEENERGIZE TROUBLE THINKING OF THINGS TO DOxGENERATE TROUBLE GETTING STARTEDxxINITIATEENERGIZE TROUBLE ORGANIZING ActivitiesxORGANIZEDECIDE DOESN'T TAKE INITIATIVExxINITIATEGENERATEENERGIZE Complains NOTHING TO DOxGENERATE LIES AROUNDxINITIATEENERGIZE DOESN'T SHOW CREATIVITYxGENERATE Trouble finding NEW WAYS TO SOLVE PROBLEMSxGENERATE Trouble finding NEW WAYS TO SOLVE PROBLEMSxGENERATE

88 88 BRIEF WORKING MEMORY SCALEExecutive Functions Likely to be Associated with Behaviors Item DescriptionsPTPRIMARY EFSECONDARY Efs HOLDS ONTO only first or lastxxHOLDSUSTAIN SHORT ATTENTION SPANxxSUSTAINFOCUS/SEL TROUBLE CONCENTRATINGxxSUSTAINFOCUS/SEL EASILY DISTRACTEDxxSUSTAINFOCUS/SEL TROUBLE with tasks having MORE THAN ONE STEPxxHOLDSUSTAIN NEEDS HELP TO STAY ON TASKxxSUSTAINFOCUS/SELENERGIZE DOESN'T HOLD ONTO what their doingxxHOLDSUSTAIN DOESN'T HOLD ON TO multi- step directionsxxHOLDSUSTAIN TROUBLE FINISHING TASKSxxSUSTAINPACEEST TIME TROUBLE HOLDING INFORMATION for a few minutesxxHOLDSUSTAIN

89 89 BRIEF PLAN/ORGANIZE SCALEExecutive Functions Likely to be Associated with Behaviors Item DescriptionPTPRIMARY EFSECONDARY Efs DOESN'T REMEMBER to brxxRETRIEVEMONITOR CAN'T GET IDEAS ONTO PAxxMANIPULATEHOLDEXECUTE DOESN’T ASSOCIATE homexANTICIPATEASSOCIATE DOESN'T REMEMBER to haxxMONITORRETRIEVEANTICIPATE MISSES BIG PICTURE - OVExxBALANCE DOESN'T GET JOB DONExxSUSTAINENERGIZE OVERWHELMED by largexxMODULATEORGANIZEFOCUS/SEL UNDERESTIMATES TIME foxxESTTIMEGAUGE STARTS tasks AT LAST MINxxESTTIMEGAUGESENSE TINITI DOESN'T PLAN AHEADxxPLANANTICIPATE POORLY ORGANIZED writxxORGANIZESEQUENCE DOESN'T COMPLETE ACTxSUSTAINENERGIZE

90 90 BRIEF ORGANIZATION OF MATERIALS SCALEExecutive Functions Likely to be Associated with Behaviors Item DescriptionsPTPRIMARY EFSECONDARY Efs Leaves room a MESSxORGANIZE Keeps a MESSY roomxORGANIZE CAN'T FIND THINGSxxRETRIEVEMONITOR LEAVES THINGS lyingxxCORRECTMONITOR Leaves MESSES for others to cleanxxCORRECTMONITOR MESSY closetxxORGANIZE LOSES THINGSxRETRIEVEMONITORORGANIZE CAN'T FIND THINGSxRETRIEVEMONITOR DISORGANIZED backpackxORGANIZE

91 91 BRIEF MONITOR SCALEExecutive Functions Likely to be Associated with Behaviors Item DescriptionPTPRIMARY EFSECONDARY Efs DOESN'T CHECK FOR MISTAxxMONITOR MAKES CARELESS ERRORSxxMONITOR POOR HANDWRITINGxEXECUTE UNWARE OF EFFECT ON OTxxSR-AWAREMONITOR UNAWARE OF EFFECT ONxxSR-AWAREMONITOR POOR UNDERSTANDINGxxSR-ANALYSISMONITOR SLOPPY WORKxxMODULATEEXECUTEMONITOR UNAWARE OF EFFECT ONxxSR-AWAREMONITOR LEAVES WORK INCOMPLETExMONITORCORRECTEST TIME UNAWARE OF SELF IN A GRxSR-AWAREMONITOR Talks or plays TOO LOUDLYxMODULATEMONITOR

92 BRIEF Interpretive Cautions:  Identical BRIEF Scale T-scores can result from very different response patterns.  Critical EF difficulties may be masked by low T-scores based on aggregation of multiple items. Parent, Teacher, Self-Report Inventories

93 BRIEF Interpretive Cautions:  An elevated T-score can result from a rating of “Sometimes” for all, or nearly all, items on a Scale, or from a rating of “Often” for a smaller subset of items on a Scale. Parent, Teacher, Self-Report Inventories

94 BRIEF Interpretive Cautions:  Because each BRIEF Scale is an amalgam of multiple EFs, certain areas of deficit may not be reflected in the T-score. Parent, Teacher, Self-Report Inventories

95 BRIEF Interpretive Cautions:  Example: The BRIEF Inhibit Scale combines items assessing Inhibit, Modulate, and Stop. If a client only exhibits Modulate problems, the T- score may not be clinically elevated. The low T-score will be masking the Modulate difficulties. Parent, Teacher, Self-Report Inventories

96 Recently, 3 additional EF Rating Scales have been published: D-REFS (Delis Rating of Executive Function; 2012) BDEFS-CA (Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale; 2012) CEFI (Comprehensive Executive Functions Inventory; 2013) Parent, Teacher, Self-Report Inventories

97 Ideally, behavior rating inventories would offer coverage of a broad array of executive functions across all 4 domains within all 4 arenas of involvement. Parent, Teacher, Self-Report Inventories

98 The McCloskey Executive Function Scales are being developed to assess 33 self-regulation executive functions across multiple domains of function within multiple arenas of involvement. Parent, Teacher, Self-Report Inventories

99 5AA Always or almost always does this on his or her own. Does not need to be prompted or reminded (cued) to do it. 4FFrequently does this on own without prompting 3SSeldom does this on own without being prompted, reminded, or cued to do so. 2APDoes this only after being prompted, reminded, or cued to do it. 1DA Only does it with direct assistance. Requires much more than a simple prompt or cue to be able to get it done in situations that require it. 0UAUnable to do this, even when direct assistance is provided.

100 100 Although limited in scope, individually-administered assessment of executive functions can provide valuable information about the child’s capacities to self- regulate perception, cognition and action within the Symbol System arena, especially in school. Key Concept

101 Cognitive Constructs Level Item Level Subtest Level GAI & Specific Composite Indexes / Clinical Clusters Level Global Composite Full Scale IQ Level Interpretive Levels Framework

102 102  An Information Processing Model provides a theoretical framework for understanding task component cognitive capacities and their role in learning and production.  An information processing model represents a dynamic model of cognition rather than a taxonomy of cognitive abilities. Identifying Task Construct Processes

103 Copyright 2007 George McCloskey, Ph.D. 103 Initial Registration Active Working Memory Long-Term Memory visual auditory kinesthetic Sensory Input indicate Executive Functions at work Sensory Memory Attention detail pattern Processing Mental Representation Lexicons Motor Output

104 104 Assessment of Executive Functions does not occur “in a vacuum.” In order to evaluate how EFs cue and direct, they must have something (i.e., specific perceptions, emotions, thoughts, or actions) to cue and direct. Key Concept

105  Executive Functions must be assessed in tandem with other mental constructs.  Specific measures of Executive Functions always involve the assessment, to some degree, of a construct other than executive functions.  For the most accurate observation or measurement of EFs, the contributions of other constructs need to be minimized, controlled for, or acknowledged. Individually-administered Assessments of EF

106 106 EFs in the Symbol System arena are best assessed by using methods that can reveal Cascading Production Decrements or Cascading Production Increments Key Concept

107 Construct Construct + EF Construct + + EF Construct+ + + EF Progressive deterioration of performance is observed as executive function demands (+ EF) become greater. Start here Cascading Production Decrement

108  Identify a specific cognitive construct baseline using a measure that minimizes EF involvement.  Select and use a measure that adds executive function demands to the baseline construct and observe the results.  Continue to add additional EF demands and observe results. Individually-administered Assessments of EF

109 Increment Production Cascading Cascading production increment: Progressive improvement of performance is observed as task embedded executive function demands (+ EF) are lessened. Construct + EF Construct + + EF Construct EF Start here

110 Cascading Production Decrement Reasoning Ability: Matrix Reasoning Reasoning Ability EF: WCST Progressive deterioration of performance is observed as executive function demands (+ EF) become greater. Start here

111 Cascading Production Decrement Visuo-motorAbility: Design Copying Ability + EF: BVMGT Ability + + EF Ability EF: RCFT Progressive deterioration of performance is observed as executive function demands (+ EF) become greater. Start here

112 112 Examples:  Naming animals in 60 seconds  Naming foods in 60 seconds  Naming words that begin with the letter “s” in 60 seconds  Naming words that begin with the letter “f” in 60 seconds Assessing Retrieval Fluency

113 Examples of response patterns:  Semantic “Flooding” – Retrieval with minimal executive direction; uncontrolled flow of words  Controlled Access – Executive Functions used to organize retrieval of words by semantic clusters 113 Assessing Retrieval Fluency

114 Examples of response patterns:  Semantic “Flooding” results in uneven performance across a 60 second interval with decreased production in each successive 15 second interval. 114 Assessing Retrieval Fluency

115 115 1” – 15” 16” – 30” 31” – 45” 46” – 60” Largest number of responses Reduced number of responses Few, if any, responses 15 responses 4 responses 1 response 0 responses Assessing Retrieval Fluency

116 116 Examples of response patterns:  Controlled Access typically results in a more even distribution of responses across a 60 second interval. Responses are often reflect organized, sequential access of various subcategories (e.g., water animals; flying animals; farm animals; forest animals; jungle animals; Assessing Retrieval Fluency

117 117 1” – 15” 16” – 30” 31” – 45” 46” – 60” Similar numbers of responses for each interval 6 responses 5 responses Assessing Retrieval Fluency

118 Retrieval Ability: Semantic Fluency Retrieval Ability + EF: Initial Letter Fluency Progressive deterioration of performance is observed as executive function demands (+ EF) become greater. Start here Cascading Production Decrement

119 119 Executive Functions are inextricably interwoven with all forms of academic production. Key Concept

120 120 Executive Functions are inextricably interwoven into the act of reading. Executive Functions and Reading

121 121 Visuospatial LanguageReasoning Decoding Unfamiliar and/or Nonsense Words Comprehending Words and Text indicate Executive Function processing at work Working Memory Initial Registration (Immediate Memory) Retrieval from Long Term Storage Reading Familiar (Sight) Words + Prosody = Reading Rate aka “Fluency” Speed General & Specific Knowledge Lexicons Semantic Lexicon Word & Phrase Knowledge Orthographic Processing Oral Motor Processing Phonological Processing An Integrative Model Specifying Processes, Abilities, Knowledge Bases, Skills, and Memory in Reading

122 122 Example of D-KEFS Color-Word Interference Word Reading task: “Look at this page…read these words as quickly as you can without making any mistakes.” Assessing Executive Functions Related to Reading

123 123 Example of D-KEFS Color-Word Interference Inhibition task: “Look at this page…the color names are printed in a different colored ink. You are to name the color of the ink that the letters are printed in not read the word.” Assessing Executive Functions Related to Reading

124 124 Example of D-KEFS Color-Word Interference Inhibition-Switching task: “This time, for many of the words you are to name the color of the ink and not read the words. But if a word is inside a little box, you should read the word and not name the ink color.” Assessing Executive Functions Related to Reading

125 Cascading Production Decrement Process: D-KEFS Color & Word Naming Process + EF: D-KEFS CWI Inhibition Process + + EF: D-KEFS Inhibition/ Switching Progressive deterioration of performance is observed as executive function demands (+ EF) become greater.

126 126 In the classroom, the task most frequently impacted by executive function-driven producing difficulties is written expression. Executive Functions and Academic Production

127 Copyright © 2007 George McCloskey, Ph.D. 127 Visuospatial LanguageReasoning Text Generation Text Editing & Revising indicate Executive Function processing at work Working Memory Initial Registration (Immediate Memory) Retrieval from Long Term Storage Text Transcription & Spelling Text Production Automaticity General & Specific Knowledge Lexicons Semantic Lexicon Word & Phrase Knowledge Orthographic Processing GraphoMotor Processing Phonological Processing Visuospatial Processing Idea Generation An Integrative Model Specifying Processes, Abilities, Knowledge Bases, Skills, and Memory in Writing

128 PLAN 128 PLAN ORGANIZE Idea Generation Language RepresentationText Transcription Text Generation Reviewing/Revising Writing as a Holarchically Organized Process

129 What Evan wrote for me: My favorite game is … “mabul roling it is fun. I like making the box to role in to. Iam prety gode as well. It is rell inters ing. It is so fun Executive Functions and Writing

130 What Evan told me: “My favorite game is rolling marbles. I think it is fun. I just learned it yesterday. It can be pretty hard at times. It can be fun and it’s interesting if you make it challenging. I like making the boxes to roll the marbles into. You probably need to be pretty skilled with eye hand coordination to do it. To get up the ramp you need to roll it really fast.” Executive Functions and Writing

131 Cascading Production Decrement PAL-II Alphabet Writing & PAL-II Copying A & B WIAT-III Sentence Composition and/or PAL-II Sentence Writing WIAT-III Essay Composition Progressive deterioration of performance is observed as executive function demands (+ EF) become greater.

132 The Process Approach can be applied effectively to assess a client’s use of executive functions when performing individually-administered symbol system measures. 132 Process Approach to Cognitive Assessment

133 The basic principles of the Process Approach can be applied effectively at the subtest, item and task construct levels of the Interpretive Levels Framework. 133 Process Approach to Cognitive Assessment

134 The Process Approach to cognitive assessment requires a clear understanding of what a cognitive task measures so that performance can be effectively task analyzed to characterize a child’s cognitive capacities as accurately as possible. 134 Process Approach to Cognitive Assessment

135 The Process Approach to assessment represents a different way of thinking about test content, assessment procedures, test session behavior, and test performance interpretation. 135 Process Approach to Assessment

136 Accurate and effective characterization of a child’s cognitive capacities almost always requires effective application of a process approach to test administration and interpretation employed by a clinician skilled in process-oriented testing techniques. 136 Process Approach to Assessment

137 Complex, multi-faceted tasks, such as those represented by subtests from Cognitive and Academic assessments, must be process- analyzed to identify how underlying task component processes might be affecting performance. 137 Process Approach to Assessment

138 The input format, the internal processing demands, and the output requirements of a task all impact on performance and can produce highly variable results for any given child, even those from the “general” population. 138 Process Approach to Assessment

139 The cognitive capacities required to perform a task can change:  across different items of the same task.  the age of the child attempting to perform the task.  the ability level of the child attempting to perform the task. 139 Process Approach to Assessment

140 Careful, systematic observations of problem solving strategies (process) en route to a solution, whether correct or incorrect, can yield more useful information about cognitive functioning than simple right-wrong scoring of the final solution (product or achievement). 140 Process Approach to Assessment

141 Knowing what an individual does wrong is as important as knowing what they do right; it is important to examine the nature of the particular errors made and the particular context in which they were made. 141 Process Approach to Assessment

142 Specific observations can lead to enhanced hypothesis generation and confirmation (or refutation). 142 Process Approach to Assessment

143 Cognitive Constructs Level Item Level Subtest Level GAI & Specific Composite Indexes / Clinical Clusters Level Global Composite Full Scale IQ Level Interpretive Levels Framework

144 What Does WISC-IV Block Design Measure? Consider the following quote from John Carroll ( Human Cognitive Abilities, 1993, page 309) : Process Approach to Assessing EFs

145 What Does WISC-IV Block Design Measure? “…difficulty in factorial classification arises from the fact that most spatial test tasks, even the “simplest,” are actually quite complex, requiring apprehension and encoding of spatial forms, consideration and possibly mental manipulations of these forms, decisions about comparisons of other aspects of the stimuli, and making a response – often under the pressure of being required to respond quickly.” Process Approach to Assessing EFs

146 From Carroll’s description, Block Design can be measuring at least 5 distinct cognitive processes:  Visual perception and discrimination  Reasoning with visual stimuli  Visualization (optional)  Motor dexterity  Speed of motor response Process Approach to Assessing EFs

147 From Carroll’s description of Block Design, which of the 5 distinct cognitive processes do you think Subject 3 lacked?  Visual perception and discrimination  Reasoning with visual stimuli  Visualization (optional)  Motor dexterity  Speed of motor response Process Approach to Assessing EFs

148 …considerable confusion exists about the identification of factors in the domain of visual perception… Some sources of confusion are very real, and difficult to deal with. This is particularly true of confusion arising from the fact that test takers apparently can arrive at answers and solutions – either correct or incorrect ones – by a variety of different strategies. French (1965) demonstrated that different “cognitive styles” can cause wide variation in factor loadings; some of his most dramatic cases had to do with spatial tests, as where a sample of subjects who reported “systematizing” their approach to the Cubes test yielded a large decrease of the loading of this test on a Visualization factor (that is, decreased correlations of Cubes with other spatial tests), as compared to a sample where subjects did not report systematizing. It has been shown (Kyllonen, Lohman, & Woltz, 1984), that subjects can employ different strategies even for different items within the same test. Lohman et al. (1987) have discussed this problem of solution strategies, even rendering the judgment that factor-analytic methodology is hardly up to the task of dealing with it because a basic assumption of factor analysis is that factorial equations are consistent over subjects. Consider the following quote from Carroll (1993, p. 309): Process Approach to Assessing EFs

149 Carroll’s description leaves out a critical 6 th cognitive process, or group of processes, essential for effective performance of Block Design – the ability to initiate, focus, sustain, coordinate/balance, and monitor the use of the other cognitive processes – i.e., Executive Function processes. Process Approach to Assessing EFs

150 Coding requires multitasking requiring continuous motor production while processing associations from a code key. This multi-tasking effort must be coordinated by executive functions involving focusing and sustaining attention and effort, pacing and balancing work effort (speed vs accuracy) and monitoring for accuracy. Coding has predictable elements that can help to improve performance. Process Approach to Assessing EFs

151 Symbol Search assesses processing speed applied to a series of unique visual discrimination tasks with only a minor motor response component. Every symbol search item is a unique task requiring attention to new visual details. Executive functions are required to direct focusing and sustaining attention and effort, pacing and balancing work effort (speed vs accuracy) and monitoring for accuracy. Process Approach to Assessing EFs

152 An effective way to assess the use of executive functions in directing the focusing and sustaining of attention and effort is through the use of 15 or 30 second interval task performance recording. Process Approach to Assessing EFs

153 Interval Recording: – – – – 120 Typical performance on both Coding and Symbol Search reflects steady, consistent attention and effort, with only slight improvements or declines in the final 30 seconds. Process Approach to Assessing EFs

154 Interval Recording: Patterns that deviate substantially are often indicative of difficulties with executive direction of attention and effort, regardless of level of scaled score performance. Process Approach to Assessing EFs

155 Interval Recording: 0 – – – – 120 Examples of clinically relevant patterns of performance: Process Approach to Assessing EFs

156 Memory processes are not required to perform either Coding or Symbol Search, but memory processes can be recruited for the performance of both of these tasks if the persons chooses to engage them. Process Approach to Assessing EFs

157 Memory processes can be used to learn the code associations in Coding and to hold visual images during comparisons on Symbol Search. Choosing to use memory processes to help perform these tasks reflects the use of executive functions to alter test taking strategy. Use of memory processes for these tasks does not, however, guarantee improvement in performance. Process Approach to Assessing EFs

158 The child scans 11 x 17 visual fields with structured and unstructured arrays of pictures and marks all pictures that match a specific target picture within a specified time.  Involves:  Visual Perception and Discrimination  Processing Speed  Processing Accuracy  Executive Coordination of Visual Skills, Speed, and Accuracy  Visual Search Efficiency can be assessed with process-oriented technique (search behavior checklist) Process Approach to Assessing EFs

159  The Cancellation Subtest has two separate items.  Cancellation Random (CAR) offers a random array of pictures; the child must use executive capacities to generate and direct a search pattern.  Cancellation Structured (CAS) offers rows of objects that provide a cue for a search pattern of row-by-row scanning. Process Approach to Assessing EFs

160  Compare performance on CAR and CAS to assess efficiency of using search cues to improve performance.  Observe and record the child’s search pattern for both items to qualitatively assess the effectiveness of executive direction of search patterns Process Approach to Assessing EFs

161  The Picture Concepts Subtest requires the use of executive functions to cue the organization and comparison of multiple associative hypotheses  A process approach to re-testing can reveal the difference between incorrect resposnes due to lack of associative reasoning or due to lack of use of executive functions Process Approach to Assessing EFs

162 The focus of a traditional FBA: “Behavior support plans are designed to alter patterns of problem behavior. The process by which this is done, however, involves change in the behavior of family, teachers, staff, or managers in various settings. Plans of behavior support define what we will do differently. It is the change in our behavior that will result in improved behavior of the focus person.” (O’Neill, Horner, Albin, Sprague, Storey, & Newon, 1997, p. 65). Functional Behavior Assessment

163 A B C In traditional functional behavior assessments antecedents are said to TRIGGER the behavior that results in the consequences, but the reasons WHY the antecedents trigger the behavior is not really addressed. Functional Behavior Assessment

164  Since the antecedent does not trigger the same undesirable behaviors in ALL students in the same situation, there must be something about the students that differs in an important way.  Functional behavior assessment ignores internal considerations (i.e., perceptions, emotions, thought) and focuses on applying external control to effect change in behavior. FBA: A-B-C Is Not Enough

165 Informed by knowledge of executive functions, the functional behavior assessment model can be revised as follows: Antecedents Behavior Response Consequences Perception Emotion CognitionAction EF ABC The EF Driven FBA

166 166 An EF-Driven FBA enables problems to be clearly stated in terms of perceptions, emotions, thoughts or actions that can be changed through intervention. Key Concept

167 The goals of an EF-driven FBA are: 1)to help the child, the parents, and professionals to understand the nature of the deficit and 2)through proper intervention, to assist the child or adolescent in changing the behavior from a negative to positive. EF- Driven FBA

168 168 Progress monitoring techniques for interventions targeting the improvement of the use of executive functions. Progress Monitoring

169 Effectiveness Ratings Rate the students use (or disuse) of the 23 Self-Regulation Executive Functions using the following criteria: Internally Self- Regulated Externally GuidedExternally Controlled Typically self-regulates this executive function. Typically does not self-regulate this executive function but demonstrates the capacity to use this executive function when external guidance is provided. Does not self-regulate; use of this executive function is minimal or non- existent even when external guidance is provided; External control is required as a substitute to maintain adequate functioning Extremely effective; does not require any external guidance; highly independe nt with self- regulation. Effective; usually does not require any external guidance; often independent with self- regulation; may occasionally require some external guidance. Requires only minimal external guidance to maintain the effective use of this executive function. Requires frequent external guidance to maintain the effective use of this executive function. Requires very frequent external guidance to demonstrate the use of this executive function; use is not maintained even when guidance is provided. External control can be used to effectively substitute for the absence of this executive function; the lack of this executive function is apparent when external control is not present. External control is only marginally effective or not effective at all as a substitute for the absence of this executive function; a lack of this executive function is apparent even when external control is present. EF Assessment Using the MEFS-SRAV

170 MODULATE Cues the regulation of the amount and intensity of mental energy invested in perceiving, feeling, thinking, and acting. Internally Regulated Externally Guided Externally Controlled MODULATE Perceiving SelfOthersEnvironsAcademics Feeling Thinking 2332 Acting 6252 Notes: very negative about self and others; has a hard time returning to a calm state once agitated; finds academic work extremely frustrating; cannot modulate attitude toward schoolwork. EF Assessment Using the MEFS

171 Self Regulation Capacity: Focusing and sustaining attention when working independently on tasks. DurationFrequency 1 Never 0% of the time. 2 Occasionally Approximately 10% of the time. 3 Sometimes Approximately 20%-40% of the time. 4 Often Approximately 50%-70% of the time. 5 Very Often Approximately 80% of the time. 6 Almost Always Approximately 90% of the time. 7 Always 100% of the time. 1 Unable to focus and sustain attention for more than a few seconds when independently working on tasks. 2 Able to focus and sustain attention for about 1 minute when working independently on tasks. 3 Able to focus and sustain attention for about 2-3 minutes when working independently on tasks. 4 Able to focus and sustain attention for about 5 minutes when working independently on tasks. 5 Able to focus and sustain attention for about 10 minutes when working independently on tasks. 6 Able to focus and sustain attention for about 15 minutes when working independently on tasks. 7 Able to focus and sustain attention for 20 or more minutes when working independently on tasks.

172 172 3 Fully engaged without frustration Maintained positive engagement throughout class and no frustration was apparent. 2 Frustration managed with self cued strategy Frustration was apparent but was effectively managed and positive engagement occurred likely due to self-cued use of strategies. 1 Frustration managed with teacher cue or Reset Frustration was apparent but was effectively managed and positive engagement occurred after teacher provided a cue for strategy use Or Zach returned after using the Reset strategy. 0 Frustration not managed Frustration was apparent and strategy use was cued by teacher but positive engagement did not occur and student left class. Progress Monitoring Form for Zach Date: __________________ Goal 1: Managing Frustration and Engagement

173 173 3Attended the entire time Attention was focused and sustained during the entire class period 2Attended most of the time Attention was focused and sustained often during the class period. 1Attended some of the time Attention focused and sustained occasionally during the class period, or focused often after returning from a Reset. 0Attended none of the time Attention was never focused or sustained during the class period. Progress Monitoring Form for Zach Date: __________________ Goal 2: Focusing and Sustaining Attention During Class

174 174 3All work completed All assigned class work is completed during class time. 2Most work completed Most assigned class work is completed during class time. 1Some work completed Some assigned school work is completed during class time or after returning from a Reset. 0No work completed No assigned school work is completed during class time. Goal 3: Completing Assigned School Work Progress Monitoring Form for Zach Date: __________________

175 175 Frustration Management 3210 Work Modified: Yes No Comments/Work not completed: Attention3210 Work completed with extended time? Yes No Work Completion 3210 Class ________________ Progress Monitoring Form for Zach Date: __________________

176  Are they the result of:  Disuse through Nononscious Choice  Innate Deficiency  Maturational Delay  Disuse through Conscious Choice Executive Function Difficulties

177 For intervention purposes, it is best to assume that EF deficiencies are the result of disuse through nonconscious choice. The general intervention goal then becomes education to make the child conscious of the EFs needed and how to engage them. Executive Function Intervention

178 178 Intervention efforts require a therapeutic perspective that emphasizes a Growth Mindset over a Fixed Mindset and a patient belief in the idea that EF difficulties “won’t last forever; but probably longer than you would like.” Key Concept

179  EF Self-regulation skills eventually need to be just that—Self-regulated.  During classroom instruction, it is necessary to find the balance between providing enough EF SR cueing to help students function, but not too much to prevent EF skill-development.  It is easy to underestimate the multiplicity of EFs required and focus only on those related to attention and organization. Interventions for EF Difficulties

180  Promoting Executive Functions in the Classroom– Lynn Meltzer (2010)  Executive Function Skills in Children and Adolescents 2 nd Edition – Dawson & Guare (2009)  Smart but Scattered – Dawson & Guare (2009)  Late, Lost, and Unprepared – Cooper Kahn & Deitzel (2008)  Assessment & Intervention for Executive Function Difficulties – McCloskey, Perkins & VanDivner (2009)  Executive Functions in the Classroom – Chris Kaufman (2010) Executive Function References

181 EF Intervention Continuum Orienting Strategies External Control Strategies Bridging Strategies Internal Control Strategies

182 Requires keeping in mind:  The need to increase awareness and provide goals.  The need to move from external control to internal control through bridging strategies.  The environment in which intervention is happening: Requires those close to child to have reasonable EF capacities and be able to model those capacities. Interventions for EF Difficulties

183 183 Improving students’ executive functions starts with increased awareness and goal setting and progresses from external control to internal self-regulation Key Concept

184 184 Orienting Strategies increase awareness of executive functions and expectations for their use and provide self-regulation goals for students. Key Concept

185 185 Nucleus Accumbens Self- Regulation Executive Functions Internal Command Pathway: Intrinsically Rewarding Engagement of Self-Determination Self-Determination Executive Functions

186 186 Chapter 21 Motivational Interviewing with Adolescents and Young Adults John S. Baer and Peggy L. Peterson

187 187 External Control strategies enable students to perform more effectively but do not necessarily help to improve students’ capacity for self- regulated performance. Key Concept

188 Rewards can be a tremendous benefit to a child who has difficulty aligning internal desires with external demands. Use rewards, but heed the following cautions: External Control Strategies

189 Using Rewards to Increase Production  Rewards do not teach the child how to reflect on and alter perceptions, emotions, thoughts or actions, they simply reward the presence of desired behaviors.  Reward programs imply that a child can do it if he/she wants to or is motivated enough. This often leads away from the realization that many children who are motivated and do want to change their behavior don’t know what to do to change it.

190 Punishment in mild form can be an effective means of obtaining compliance with external demands. When choosing to use punishment, heed the following cautions: External Control Strategies

191  Punishment does not teach the child how to reflect on and alter perceptions, emotions, thoughts or actions, they simply punish the presence of undesired behaviors.  Punishment implies that a child can do it if he/she wants to or is motivated enough. This often leads away from the realization that many children who are motivated and do want to change their behavior don’t know what to do to change it. Using Punishment to Increase Production

192 Provide predictable, consistent structure to classroom environments and routines:  Post and discuss class rules and schedules  Review and rehearse routines  Maintain basic room arrangement External Control Strategies

193 Provide external prompts and cues as a substitute for self-regulation. External Control Strategies

194  Perceive cues the use of sensory and perception processes to take information in from the external environment or “inner awareness” to tune into perceptions, emotions, thoughts, or actions as they are occurring.  Prompt examples: “Listen to this.” “Look up at the board.” “How are you feeling right now?” Perceive

195  Focus cues the direction of attention and effort to the most relevant specifics (perceptions, emotions, thoughts, and/or actions) of a given environment, situation, or content while downgrading or ignoring the less relevant elements.  Prompt example: “Pay attention to what happens to the baking soda after the vinegar is added.” Focus

196  Sustain cues sustained attention to the most relevant specifics (perceptions, emotions, thoughts, and/or actions) of a given environment, situation, or content.  Prompt example: “You will need to watch the computer screen carefully for the entire 10 minutes.” Sustain

197  Energize cues the investment of energy to the level needed to achieve the desired results  Prompt example: “This will require a lot of effort.” “You’ll need to focus all of your energy on task if you want to finish.” Energize

198  Initiate cues the initial engagement of perceiving, feeling, thinking, or acting.  Prompt example: “Start walking now.” “Begin work on the count of five.” Initiate

199  Inhibit cues resistance to, or suppression of, urges to perceive, feel, think, or act on first impulse.  Inhibit prompts direct capacities to an alternate source rather than drawing attention to the perception, emotion, thought, or action that should be inhibited.  Prompt example: “Don’t start until I tell you to go.” Inhibit

200  Stop cues the sudden, immediate discontinuation of perceiving, feeling, thinking, or acting.  The Stop cue always precedes the Shift cue when altering problem-solving based on changing conditions, and switching or alternating attention.  Prompt example: “Stop writing now.” Stop

201  Pause cues the brief cessation of, and the return to perceiving, feeling, thinking or acting.  Efficient use of the Pause cue enables a quicker return to a previous mental state or activity.  Prompt example: “Pause for a moment and listen, then I want you to go back to what you were doing.” Pause

202  Flexible cues a willingness to alter the frame of reference for the direction and engagement of perceptions, emotions, thoughts or actions in reaction to what is occurring in the internal or external environments.  Prompt example: “It doesn’t need to be done exactly the same way each time.” Flexible

203  Shift cues a relatively quick change in the direction and engagement of perceptions, emotions, thoughts or actions in reaction to what is occurring in the internal or external environments.  Prompt example: “The museum is closed for emergency repairs, so we won’t be able to go on the field trip.” Shift

204  Monitor cues the activation of appropriate routines for checking the accuracy of perceptions, emotions, thoughts or actions.  Prompt example: “Periodically check the task directions to see if you are following all of them.” Monitor

205  Modulate cues the regulation of the amount and intensity of mental energy invested in perceiving, feeling, thinking, and acting.  Prompt example: “Let’s all use our indoor voices now.” “Please tone it down a bit.” Modulate/Adjust

206  Balance cues the regulation of the trade-off between opposing processes or states (e.g., pattern vs detail; speed vs accuracy; humor vs seriousness) to enhance or improve experiencing, learning, or performing.  Prompt example: “Work as quickly as you can, but be careful not to make any mistakes.” Balance

207  Correct cues the use of appropriate routines for correcting errors of perception, emotion, thought, or action based on feedback from internal or external sources.  Prompt example: “Correct any errors you find.” Correct

208  Sense Time cues the monitoring of the passage of time (e.g., cueing the engagement of the mental functions that enable a person to have an internal sense of how long they have been perceiving, feeling, thinking or acting).  Prompt example: “How long have you been working on that?” Sense Time

209  Pace cues the awareness of, and the regulation of, the rate at which perceptions, emotions, cognitions, and actions are experienced or performed.  Prompt example: “You will need to work quickly as there is not much time left.” Pace

210  Sequence cues the orchestrating of the proper syntax of a series of perceptions, feelings, thoughts, and/or actions, especially in cases where automated routines are being accessed or are initially being developed.  Prompt example: “Remember the order of the steps needed for completion.” Sequence

211  Using Routines (Execute) cues the engagement of a well-known series of perceptions, feelings, thoughts, and/or actions, especially in cases where automated routines have been practiced and used frequently.  Prompt example: “Use the routine you learned to do these.” Using Routines (Execute)

212  Hold cues activation of the necessary cognitive processes required to maintain information in working memory and continues cueing these processes until the information is manipulated, stored, or acted on as desired.  Prompt example: “Hold that thought while we hear a reaction from the other group.” Hold

213  Manipulate cues the use of working memory and other cognitive processes for the manipulation of perceptions, feelings, thoughts or actions as they are being held in mind or being accessed in the environment.  Prompt example: “Visualize what it would look like if you turned it upside down.” Manipulate

214  Store cues the movement of information about perceptions, feelings, thoughts and actions from the mental processing environment of the present moment into “storage” for possible retrieval at a later time.  Prompt example: “This is important; it will be on Friday’s quiz.” Store

215  Retrieve cues the activation of cognitive processes responsible for finding and retrieving previously stored information about perceptions, feelings, thoughts and actions.  The more specific the demands or constraints placed on the retrieval task, the greater the requirements for precision of retrieval cues.  Prompt example: “To answer the question correctly, you will probably need to recall all that we learned about photosynthesis.” Retrieve

216  Gauge cues one to identify the demands (perceptual, emotional, mental, physical) of a task or situation and cues the activation of the resources needed to effectively engage the task or situation.  Prompt example: “Consider what it’s going to take to get this job done right.” Gauge

217  Foresee/Plan cues the anticipation of conditions or events in the very near future, such as the consequences of one’s own perceptions, feelings, thoughts and/or actions.  Prompt example: “If you keep erasing in that same spot, what do you think will happen to the paper?” Anticipate

218  Estimate Time cues the use of time estimation routines (e.g., cueing the engagement of mental functions that enable a person to have an internal sense of how long something will take to complete, or how much time is still left in a specific period of time).  Prompt example: “Tell me how long you think this will take you to do.” Estimate Time

219  Analyze cues the realization of the need to examine more closely perceptions, feelings, thoughts or actions to obtain a greater understanding of a problem or situation.  Prompt examples: “Make a list of the positives and negatives and then compare them.” “Are there additional factors that need to be considered?” Analyze

220  Compare/Evaluate cues the realization of the need to make comparisons among, or evaluate the adequacy of, perceptions, feelings, thoughts or actions.  Prompt examples: “Did you complete all the steps?” “Does yours look like the model?” “Why do you think what you said was a good explanation?” Compare/Evaluate

221  Prioritize cues the use of routines for ordering perceptions, feelings, thoughts, and/or actions, according to their relevance, importance, or urgency.  Prompt example: “Think about how important each of these tasks is, and then list them in order of importance so the most important ones get done first.” Prioritize

222  Generate cues the realization that novel, fluid problem-solving efforts are required and cues the activation of the resources needed to carry out problem-solving routines.  Prompt example: “We haven’t tried to solve a problem like this one before.” “This problem will require some novel thinking if you are going to find a solution.” Generate

223  Associate cues the realization that associations need to be made, and cues the activation of the resources needed to attempt to make the necessary associations.  Prompt examples: “Have you heard anything like that before?” “This problem is very similar to one you worked on last week.” Associate

224  Organize cues the use of routines for sorting, sequencing, or otherwise arranging perceptions, feelings, thoughts, and/or actions, to enhance or improve the efficiency of experience, learning, or performance.  Prompt example: “Let’s establish the order in which you need to do things to get this task done.” Organize

225  Plan cues the engagement of the capacities required to identify a series of perception, feelings, thoughts, and/or actions that, if carried out, would be most likely to produce a desired outcome in the very near future (within minutes to within several hours).  Prompt example: “Write down what you will do over the weekend and when you will do it so that you will be ready for the test on Monday.” Plan (Short-term)

226  Choose cues the need to achieve closure, i.e., to make a choice among alternatives now.  Prompt example: “Make a choice now.” “Pick one now.” “Choose now.”  The Choose cue often must be preceded by the Stop/Interrupt cue.  Prompt example: “You need to stop thinking about it and make a choice now.” Choose/Decide

227 Provide time management aids, such as calendars, clocks, timers, schedules, peer leaders and coaches, work teams, etc. External Control Strategies

228 228 Bridging strategies effect the gradual transition from external control to self-regulated internal control. Key Concept

229 Encourage the engagement of executive functions through the use of reflective questioning Bridging Strategies

230 Repeat the child’s question back to the child instead of providing an answer. In situations where the child seems unaware of the need to be asking questions for adequate engagement, reflective questioning involves the mediator asking the child a question that is intended to make the child aware of the need to engage executive functions. Reflective Questioning

231 Provide immediate and frequent feedback about the effectiveness of attempts to engage self-regulation executive functions. Providing students with feedback about their performance enables them to engage executive capacities more effectively to learn from their mistakes and improve future performance. Bridging Strategies

232 When providing feedback, be sure to emphasize the importance of effort; make sure the child realizes that self- regulation is not simply something you have or don’t have – it can be increased by applying techniques and strategies; the more effort placed into applying the techniques, the more likely the improvements. Feedback About Accuracy

233 Model appropriate use of self-regulation executive function capacities Bridging Strategies

234 Teach self-regulation capacities with specific skill routines using Cognitive Strategy Instruction approaches (e.g. Graham & Harris Self-Regulated Strategy Development approach for Written Expression). Bridging Strategies

235 1.Explain the purpose of self-regulation strategies in general and describe and discuss the specific steps of the strategy that will be taught. 235 Strategies Five Stages of Strategy Instruction

236 2. Model the use of the strategy using language and examples that connect with the students. 236 Strategies Five Stages of Strategy Instruction

237 3. Students memorize the steps in the strategy as well as any mnemonics that are used as part of the strategy. 237 Strategies Five Stages of Strategy Instruction

238 4. Teacher supports the implementation of the strategy by the students, scaffolding as necessary to help the students to master the use of the strategy. 238 Strategies Five Stages of Strategy Instruction

239 5. Students independently apply the self-regulated strategy covertly (in their own minds). Students and teacher collaboratively evaluate the effectiveness of student self- directed strategy application. 239 Strategies Five Stages of Strategy Instruction

240 240 1.Select a topic. 2.Brainstorm what you know and what you want to learn. 3.Organize your information using a visual web. 4.Review your visual web and identify any holes or disconnects. The Report Writing Strategy

241 Lemurs Looks Habits Live Eat? Pets? Active at night ___________ jungle trees Country??? zoos Large eyes Long tails Rings on tail ___________ What do they eat? ___________ Can they be pets? ___________ Web for what I know and what I want to learn

242 242 5.Gather new information and revise your visual web. 6.Use the visual web to help construct an outline for the report or to begin writing. 7.Review, plan and revise as you write. The Report Writing Strategy

243 243 8.Check the visual web; did you write what you wanted to write? 9.Add information that is missing; fix sentences that don’t say what you want to say. The Report Writing Strategy

244 244 1.Read the sentence silently and/or aloud. 2.Does the sentence make sense to you? What does it mean? 3.Is that what you meant to say? Scaffolding Step 9

245 What’s missing? What doesn’t make sense? 5. Restate what you want to write. Repeat it to yourself. 6. Write what you just said. 7. Read what you wrote; go through steps 1-6 if needed. Scaffolding Step 9

246 Develop a common vocabulary and set of nonverbal symbols for describing or signifying self- regulation capacities and signaling their use (e.g., cueing flexibility with “The Coconut Story”) Bridging Strategies

247 Practice and rehearsal of the use of executive functions. This is the single best way to increase engagement and efficiency of the use of executive functions. Bridging Strategies

248 Align external demands with internal desires to maximize motivation.  Allow self-selection or choice of assignments whenever possible  Use high interest material to illustrate application of new knowledge and skills Bridging Strategies

249 249 Once learned and practiced, Internal Control Strategies enable students to effectively “run their own shows.” Key Concept

250 Once learned, the child can use internalized “self-talk” as a means of increasing awareness of executive functions and of when and how to use them (e.g., modified Berninger mantra for writing: “What I can think I can say. What I can say I can write. What I can write I can revise.”) Internal Control Strategy

251 Model and teach the use of self- administered reward routines to increase the use of self-regulation executive functions (e.g., teach the child how to “bargain with yourself” to get homework accomplished). Internal Control Strategy

252 Teach the use self-monitoring routines. These routines can be used to monitor and correct perceptions, feelings, thoughts and actions. Internal Control Strategy

253 Case Example: Zeke Cognitive Strategy Instruction

254 “I’m here to help you get what you want, but in order to do that I need to know what it is that you want.” Motivational Interviews with Zeke

255 Zach’s self-selected long- term goals:  Pass all classes in 8 th grade  Get promoted to 9 th grade and attend 9 th grade at the district Senior High School Goal Setting with Zeke

256 “When I was observing you in Science class, I saw that you just put your head down on the desk and stayed that way for most of the class. What happened?” Collaborative Problem-Solving with Zeke

257 When asked specifically about his refusal to do classwork that day in Science class (as observed by the psychologist), Zeke offered that he was not purposefully refusing to do the work, but that he was unable to get himself to do it, stating: “It feels like I am hitting a wall and the harder I try, the more it hurts.” Collaborative Problem-Solving with Zeke

258 Goals developed through discussion with Zeke about how to achieve his long-term goals:  Improve my mood; get engaged with class  Pay attention in class  Complete class work and home work Goal Setting with Zeke

259 It was also explained to Zeke that it is possible to improve the capacity to respond on demand, especially if he were to have a strategy worked out that he could use in situations where demands were being made of him, such as the demands for participating in class and doing homework. Cognitive Behavior Therapy

260 The Psychologist met with Zeke and his mother to come up with strategies that he could use to achieve his immediate goals. After the strategies were developed, the psychologist summarized them in a powerpoint file. Cognitive Strategy Instruction

261 The Powerpoint file was used to teach Zeke how to use the strategies and used with school staff to help them understand how Zeke was going to work on improving his behavior. Cognitive Strategy Instruction

262 Zeke’s Cognitive Strategy Powerpoint Cognitive Strategy Instruction

263 Long-term Goals Get passing grades in all subjects Get promoted to 9 th grade Immediate Goals Improve my mood; get engaged with class Pay attention in class Complete class work and home work

264 Ask: How am I doing right now? Do I feel good? Am I doing what I need to do for class?

265 Say: I need to use the Purple Elephants Strategy

266 Say: Looking at my Purple Elephants file will help me feel better. Say: I need to adjust my attitude so I can have a good day. Take a deep breath and relax.

267 Say: I feel better. I’m ready to do what I need to do for class. Say: I am in control now!

268 Ask: What should I be doing for class? Say: OK, I’m on it. or Say: I’m not sure. I will ask for help.

269 How am I doing right now? Do I feel good? Am I doing what I need to do for class? I need to use the Purple Elephants Strategy I need to adjust my attitude so I can have a good day. Looking at my Purple Elephants file will help me feel better. OK, I feel better. I’m ready to do what I need to do for class. What should I be doing for class? OK, I’m on it. I’m not sure. I will ask for help. I am in control now!

270 Ask: Am I paying attention right now?

271 Say: I need to use the Focus Strategy

272 Yawn and Stretch.

273 Say: I am energized and ready to pay attention! Say: I am in control now!

274 Say: What should I be doing for class? Say: OK, I’m on it. or Say: I’m not sure. I will ask for help.

275 Am I paying attention right now? I need to use the Focus Strategy Yawn and Stretch. I am energized and ready To pay attention! What should I be doing for class? OK, I’m on it. I’m not sure. I will ask for help. I am in control now!

276 Ask: Am I doing my class work?

277 Say: I need to use the Just Do It Strategy

278 Say: I need to do my class work so I can earn a passing grade and go on to 9 th grade next year.

279 Say: I am energized and ready to work! Say: I am in control now!

280 Say: I can complete my class work if I know what I need to do and how to do it. Ask: Do I know how to do this work?” Say: OK, I’m on it. or Say: I’m not sure. I will ask for help.

281 Am I doing my class work? I need to use the Just Do It Strategy I need to do my class work so I can earn a passing grade and go on to 9 th grade next year. I am energized and ready to work! OK, I’m on it. I’m not sure. I will ask for help. I can complete my class work if I know what I need to do and how to do it. Do I know how to do this work?” I am in control now!

282 The psychologist created a list of cognitive distortions and related cognitive corrections that was used with Zeke to discuss how he could change his thinking about school and academic tasks. The list was shared with Zach’s counselor who also worked with Zeke on cognitive corrections. Cognitive Behavior Therapy

283 283 Cognitive DistortionCognitive Correction Dichotomous Thinking: “I’m either a good student or a failure.” Contextual Thinking: “Sometimes I perform poorly but many times I perform well.” Overgeneralizing: “I hit the wall in class today and couldn’t find the door. I have no control over my emotions.” Specifying: “I hit the wall today and couldn’t find the door. The next time I hit the wall, I will use my Purple Elephant strategy and find the door. Mindreading: “I didn’t do all of the assigned work. I know the teacher is disappointed with me.” Mindsharing: “I didn’t do all my work. I’ll let the teacher know that I plan to finish all of it if that is ok with him/her.”

284 284 Cognitive DistortionCognitive Correction YOU ARE IN CONTROL! Cognitive Distortions and Counteracting Cognitive Corrections Worksheet Developed by George McCloskey, Ph.D. Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

285 Zach’s teacher’s met with the psychologist for 90 minutes to receive training on how to use a series of prompts to cue Zeke to use the strategies he was learning to improve his engagement, attention and work completion during classes. Teacher Training

286  Deliver 1-3 prompts during class  Provide daily ratings of engagement, attention and work completion based on need for and response to prompts Teacher Training

287  Prompt 1: Self-awareness cueing (Zeke, you seem to be having some trouble with…)  Prompt 2: Zeke, you need to use your _ strategy.  Prompt 3: Zeke you need to use your reset strategy. Teacher Training

288  Zeke self-cues engagement, attention and work completion  If prompt 1 is used: Zeke realizes the need to use his strategies  If prompt 2 is used: Zeke, uses his strategy as suggested by teacher  If prompt 3 is used: Zeke leaves the room and uses his reset strategy. Cognitive Strategy Implementation

289 289 3 Fully engaged without frustration Maintained positive engagement throughout class and no frustration was apparent. 2 Frustration managed with self cued strategy Frustration was apparent but was effectively managed and positive engagement occurred likely due to self-cued use of strategies. 1 Frustration managed with teacher cue Frustration was apparent but was effectively managed and positive engagement occurred after teacher provided a cue for strategy use. 0Frustration not managed Frustration was apparent and strategy use was cued by teacher but positive engagement did not occur and student left class. Progress Monitoring Form for Zeke T Date: __________________ Goal 1: Managing Frustration and Engagement

290 290 Frustration Management 3210 Work Modified: Yes No Comments: Attention3210 Work completed with extended time? Yes No Work Completion 3210 Class: _____________________

291 291

292  Staff requested to have the psychologist meet with Zeke on a regular basis to reinforce the strategies and consult with teachers and staff. Staff Collaboration/Consultation

293  Weekly ratings were summarized to help school staff monitor progress and provide Zeke with feedback about his performance. Progress Monitoring

294 294 END OF YEAR SUMMARY ALL CLASSES ENGAGEMENT% Rated 3, 2, or 178% Rated 022% ATTENTION% Rated 3, 2, or 178% Rated 022% WORK COMPLETION% Rated 3, 2, or 170% Rated 030%

295  Zeke passed all of his classes.  Zach’s progress toward behavior goals were judged as reflecting adequate improvement  Zeke was promoted to 9 th grade at the high school instead of being transferred to an alternative program 8 th Grade Outcomes

296 296 Some specific educational programs are designed, either explicitly or implicitly, to improve students’ executive functions. Key Concept

297 Specific Programs and Approaches to Improving Clients’ Executive Functions include the following: Executive Functions Interventions

298 298 Tools of the Mind (Bodrova & Leong) is an effective preschool /kindergarten curriculum that helps young children improve executive functions. Key Concept

299 299 Cognitive Strategy Instruction is an evidence-based methodology that improves students’ use of executive functions to improve academic production. Key Concept

300 Cognitive Strategy Instruction (CSI) emphasizes the development of thinking skills to increase learning and production. CSIs help students to become more strategic, self-reliant, flexible, and productive in their learning endeavors (Scheid, 1993). Use of these strategies have been associated with increased academic production (Borkowski, Carr, & Pressley, 1987; Garner, 1990). Evidence Based Intervention: Cognitive Strategy Instruction

301 CSI techniques employ metacognition and focus on modeling and teaching students strategies for completing tasks and routines and then modeling and teaching methods for self- cueing the use of the strategies. Evidence Based Intervention: Cognitive Strategy Instruction

302 Lynn Meltzer (2010) employs CSI techniques in the Drive to Thrive classroom program and the BrainCogs and Essay Express software programs. Evidence Based Intervention: Cognitive Strategy Instruction

303 Drive to Thrive and BrainCogs both address five general areas of self-regulation:  Goal Setting, Planning and Prioritizing  Organizing  Remembering  Shifting and Flexible Problem-Solving  Self-Monitoring and Self-Checking

304 304 Rueven Feuerstein’s approach to improving cognitive functioning through instrumental enrichment, mediated learning and dynamic assessment, all focused on increasing self-regulation through increased self-awareness and strategy use. Executive Functions Interventions

305 305 The language of Cognitive Behavior Therapy is being used to help teachers improve their ability to engage specific brains areas during classroom instruction. Key Concept

306 306 Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). CBT teaches strategies for improving the use of executive functions to cue and direct effective perceiving, feeling, thinking and acting. Techniques have shown good results at the adult and adolescent levels and some early indications that the techniques can be applied effectively with children in the elementary grades. Executive Functions Interventions

307 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) emphasizes collaborative reality-testing and the monitoring and modification of automatic perceptions, feelings, thoughts, and actions that cause difficulties for the child. Evidence Based Intervention: Cognitive Behavior Therapy

308 Outcomes of CBT with children and adolescents:  Increased ability to monitor perceptions, feelings, thoughts and actions  Increased engagement in positive problem- solving strategies  Increased capacity for self-regulating perceptions, feelings, thoughts and actions Evidence Based Intervention: Cognitive Behavior Therapy

309 309 CBT variants such as Jeffrey Schwartz’s “Brain-Lock: Free Yourself from Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior; subtitled as “a four-step self-treatment method to change your brain chemistry.” This method uses CBT oriented techniques to strengthen self-regulation capacities and decrease unproductive perceptions, feelings, thoughts and actions. Executive Functions Interventions

310 310 Problem-solving approaches are intended to increase students’ use of executive functions to find better solutions to personal difficulties. Key Concept

311 311 Ross Greene’s Collaborative Problem- solving approach featured in his books on Treating Explosive Kids. Although Greene does not specifically use the concept of executive functions, his intervention approach teaches parents techniques for improving both external control and building internal self- regulation capacities. Executive Functions Interventions

312 Myrna B. Shure’s I Can Problem-Solve techniques for teaching young children increased self-control and improved cueing of appropriate problem-solving routines. Executive Functions Interventions

313 313 Michelle Garcia Winner’s Social Thinking Curriculum Superflex. Uses cartoon characters to teach about self-regulation concepts (e.g., Rock Brain represents inflexible thinking). Intended for upper elementary age children diagnosed with Asperger’s, but the techniques and ideas appear to have wider application. Executive Functions Interventions

314 314 Computer-based technologies are beginning to show promise as techniques for improving students’ capacities for executive functions use. Key Concept

315 315 Computer-based cognitive training programs such as CogMed and neurofeedback programs are being closely studied to determine the extent to which they can be used to improve self-regulation in settings other than the “computer lab.” Executive Functions Interventions

316 316 Meditation is one of the most effective ways to increase access to and use of executive functions. Key Concept

317 317 Mindfulness-based CBT improves Self- Awareness and Self-Analysis capacities through the incorporation of meditative techniques along with teaching strategies for regulating perceptions, feelings, thoughts and actions, making it more likely that learned CBT strategies will be cued when needed. Executive Functions Interventions

318 318 Use of Meditation, especially witnessing meditation techniques. Improving all forms of self-control, especially Self-Awareness, through “quieting of the mind.” Executive Functions Interventions

319 319

320 320 Fostering development of internal and external control mechanisms through “strengthening of the will”; Improving or Developing “Magnetic Center” therapeutic techniques such as Roberto Assagioli’s Psychosynthesis. Executive Functions Interventions

321 321 Mindfulness-based Physical Exercise Programs such as Yoga and Thai Chi are likely to have generalized effects on a number of self-regulation executive functions. Executive Functions Interventions

322 322 Because so many executive functions problems are related to maturational delays, time is an effective intervention in itself. Key Concept

323 323 Time - Natural maturational processes affect executive functions at all levels; time-related expectations for EF development often need to be adjusted (e.g., recall the 30% developmental delay often found with individuals with ADHD) Executive Functions Interventions

324 324 Some medications help students with severe ADHD gain greater access to some specific executive functions. Key Concept

325 325 Pharmacological - Medications help increase executive functions use in conditions such as ADHD, mood disorders, and OCD. In most cases, the medication does not directly enhance EFs but rather reduces the disrupting effect of less than optimal function of other neural circuitry. Executive Functions Interventions

326 326 Executive Skills coaching is a growing area. When done well, it can be used to implement all four strategies for improving executive functions. Key Concept

327 327 Engage the Services of a Cognitive Coach (i.e., Rent-a-Lobe) Make extensive use of an external executive function substitutes where appropriate, e.g., ADHD and Life Coaches. Executive Functions Interventions

328 328 Encourage Symbiotic Relationships and Support Networks. Enter into relationships where there is a mutual interdependence that enables reduction of the effect of EF deficiencies. Executive Functions Interventions

329 329 Teachers can implement specific techniques to reduce the likelihood of executive functions difficulties affecting assessment of academic production. Key Concept

330 330 Alternately, teachers can take on the challenge of teaching students how to adjust to increased demands for the use of executive functions in assessment situations. Key Concept

331 1) Offer bonus points for handing in homework and assignments on time instead of taking points away 2) Point out minor errors and offer students a chance to correct them before assigning a grade Strategies for Improving Assessment Methods

332 3) Offer feedback and opportunities to revise writing assignments before grading them 4) Offer students choices for ways to demonstrate content knowledge Strategies for Improving Assessment Methods

333 5) Offer credit for all efforts to correct work; offer opportunities to retake failed tests 6) Deduct no more than 5-10% of total points for minor detail errors Strategies for Improving Assessment Methods

334 7) Offer multiple ways to participate in classroom activities, not just oral expression 8) Use pop quizzes only as a diagnostic tool rather than a graded performance measure Strategies for Improving Assessment Methods

335 9) Offer response choices (word banks) for open-ended question formats 10) Provide guidelines and progress checks for long- term projects Strategies for Improving Assessment Methods

336 11) Avoid placing constraints on response modes as much as possible 12) Teach note-taking, memory strategies, and study skills when necessary Strategies for Improving Assessment Methods


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