Presentation on theme: "Switzerland: Team IV Darian Sargent, Frank Jones, Joshua Pavlik, Chase Wilder, Jarrett Etheredge, Desi Hart, Phillip Mesch, David Gonzalez, Lindsey Garrett,"— Presentation transcript:
Switzerland: Team IV Darian Sargent, Frank Jones, Joshua Pavlik, Chase Wilder, Jarrett Etheredge, Desi Hart, Phillip Mesch, David Gonzalez, Lindsey Garrett, Mikey Via
What to Expect Chapter 5 “Crossing Cultures” Four Issues Paradox’s of culture-based ethical systems Paradox’s specific to long-term visitors Three stage and Four stage Model Reverse culture shock 11 Paradox’s total
Crossing Cultures Culture Shock “Natural response that an individual manifests when attempting to react to and control the many new stimuli, perceptions, and feelings a visitor experiences.” Who suffers more? Expatriate or their significant other
Culture Based Ethics: Relativism Relative Standards One situation differs with another Collectivistic cultures Divergence among cultures Universalism Universal Standards Ethical standards that apply to all Individualistic cultures
Paradox 5.1 Are ethical norms and standards universal or relative to the situation? Ethics (Ethos) “Character and sentiment of the community” Ethical Behavior “Degree to which individuals conform to norms and standards”
5.1 Globalization Individualism and universal standards Donaldson (1989) 10 Fundamental Rights Countermovement Russia and Columbia Unilateral contract termination Corruption
5.1 Ethical Algorithm Difference solely economic conditions Conflict of home vs. host culture Successful business in host culture Doesn’t violate fundamental international right
5.1 Integrative Social Contracts Theory Hyper-norms- fundamental universal norms Human rights Basic prescriptions of major religions High-order norms to Low-order norms High used to judge low
5.1 Cultures History Influence universal or relative standards Switzerland French Revolution China Mao
Paradox 5.2 Are there universal ethics across generic cultures, or do ethics vary by generic culture?
1. HC- horizontal collectivism: low degree of power distance and a high degree of collectivism Community-sharing cultures 2. VC- vertical collectivism: high degree of power distance and collectivism Authority-ranking cultures 3. HI- horizontal individualism: low degree of power distance and a high degree of individualism Equality-matching cultures 4. VI- vertical individualism: high degree of both power distance and individualism Market-pricing cultures Fiske’s generic cultures:
Nominal = Community Sharing Ordinal = Authority Ranking Interval = Equality Matching Ratio = Market Pricing Relating generic cultures to statistical scales:
Community Sharing represents nominal scaling: Names only given to entities Norms for in-group members vs. out-group members In-groups treatment to out-group members
Authority- ranking is ordinal in nature: Importance of individuals Higher-status positions ex. Japan and Korea
Equality-matching is interval: Unit of measurement for individuals No true zero point Found in Scandinavian countries
Market-pricing on ratio scaling: Common unit of measurement Compares dimensions on a monetary basis e.g. pay for performance
Paradox 5.3 & 5.4 Oslands Research Four Independent areas of dimensions in which their nine paradoxes fall: Cultural Intelligence Self-Identity Mediation Cautious Optimism
5.3 Is the general stereotype of the host culture valid? It is hard to pinpoint a single stereotype on an entire culture. Example: Switzerland is seen as a very reserved and private culture. “as globalization brings us closer together, these exceptions will increase in number.”
5.4 How can the expat manager be simultaneously powerful and powerless? Powerful: have a mass amount of power due to the fact that they have their home country backing their decisions and being able to confide in them. Powerless: The locals around you have the knowledge and contacts that they need to be successful and the expatriate manager does not.
5.5 How can the expat manager be simultaneously free of home-country norms and restrained by host-country norms? Conforming to the norms and expectations of host culture. Aly example Authority ranking cultures Joyce Osland
Paradox 5.6 How can the expat manager simultaneously accept the ideal cultural values of the home culture and realize that they do not exist in the home culture or exist only in attenuated form? Culture Values Attenuated Weak or slim form
5.6 What does this really mean? This paradox represents the tension between the ideal and actual values of the home culture Representative of ideal portrayed in social media Films Television Books
5.6 Pressure to act a good ambassadors conflict Study abroad experiences Hire competence or connections? Goal accomplishment Nepotism
5.6 Playing favorites and prestigious connections Osland Survey(2006) 54.3% of the expats identified this paradox in their work and life abroad
Paradox 5.7 How can the expat manager resolve the conflict between contradictory demands of the home office and the host-culture subsidiary? Tension Home-culture vs Host-culture Infringes upon values and expectation. Ideals of fairness.
Completion of Goals Home-culture (United States) Demand of short completion time Host-culture Longer time frames, lack of resources available, and regulating laws. Demand The completion of specific task and goals. Differing cultural expectations. 51.4%
Resolution Education of Host-Culture. Expectations Values Resources available
Paradox 5.8 How can the expat manager simultaneously give up some home-country values and strengthen other home country values?
When visiting a host country.. Expats gain knowledge of the host country's values and cultural norms Out of necessity Out of interest Expats also begin to gain even more insight into their home culture that they have grown accustomed to This includes norms that are both consciously and unconsciously accepted
As a result As a result from being submersed in a different culture, many expats tend to give up some values of the home culture This could include Diet Style of Dress Ways of conducting business Social interaction
As a result In extreme cases the expat will give up the home culture entirely and completely convert to the host culture In this case they will adopt everything about the culture including religion and language
However Such an extreme case is uncommon What usually happens is that the expat will give up noncore values After giving up noncore values, the expat will then strengthen the core values
Generally speaking Expats tend to become more indentified with the home culture after being sent abroad Among expats surveyed, 60% said that they had experienced this when they went abroad
Paradox 5.9 Is it possible for the expat manager to become more cosmopolitan and more idiosyncratic simultaneously?
Definitions Cosmopolitan: belonging to the entire world; not limited to just one part of the world Idiosyncrasy: a structural or behavioral trait peculiar to an individual or group
Examples Thai food Swiss grocery stores “48.6 % of expats…. Described it as the most important paradox”
Summary Quote from textbook: “ We work to live” rather than “We live to work”
Paradox 5.10 How can the expat manager simultaneously think well of the host culture and avoid being taken advantage of? The Oslands studied four independent dimensions of which their nine paradoxes for expat managers would fall. This paradox deals with their dimension of cautious optimism
5.10 Cautious Optimism Awareness of the expat of the new host country’s culture and to what extent they get taken advantage of. Expat must have a positive regard for the host country Must be able to do this while not being taken advantage of Becoming knowledgeable about the host country’s culture is key to earning the locals respect
Examples regarding cautious optimism Having trust in the ethics of another culture Example: American in a foreign country being overcharged for a cab ride. US citizens are used to fixed, no haggle prices. Other cultures prefer to bargain prices. Cab drivers could charge 5-10 times more to foreigners than what is expected in the host culture. Thinking too well of the host culture could put you at a disadvantage that you aren’t even aware of.
Examples regarding cautious optimism Most common issue facing expat managers in new cultures according to the Osland study: major bribes Example: A US company Senior executive wanting to operate in Russia. Expat assumed optimistically that like in the US, major bribing is not allowed in business transactions.
Examples regarding cautious optimism In reality: US manager witnesses Russian top officials openly accepting bribes at a formal dinner US managers are at a disadvantage with European and Asian Countries who are legally free to bribe US expats have been sentenced to long jail times for accepting bribes
Paradox 5.11 How can the expat manager be simultaneously at home anywhere in the world and fit in comfortably nowhere? The expatriate Manager Some remain as permanent residents The cosmopolitan expat Most return home
5.11 Global Firms 5-10 yrs experience outside home culture for senior or top management positions Stability and community 45.7% had difficulty
5.11 Understanding Cross-Cultural Interactions via Cultural Sensemaking Three-Stage Model Framing the Situation Employ schemas and script Making Attributions Analyze culture profile Identify communication style Engage in sophisticates stereotyping Select a Script
5.11 Four-Stage Model Indentify the degree to which process must be emphasized Framing the situation Employ Hofstede’s various dimensions of national cultures Employ cultural metaphors
5.11 Reentry Into the Home Culture Pro’s Became more cosmopolitan Improved work skills Increased knowledge Strengthened core values Con’s Reverse culture shock Return to lower position or changes authority Gave up some values
Conclusion “Crossing Cultures” Four Issues Paradox’s of culture-based ethical systems Paradox’s specific to long-term visitors Three stage and Four stage Model Reverse culture shock