Presentation on theme: "Andrew F. Ian N. Holton H. Grace K."— Presentation transcript:
1 Andrew F. Ian N. Holton H. Grace K. Unit 1Andrew F. Ian N. Holton H. Grace K.
2 The Work Andrew – Questions 1-8 of the study guide Ian – 9-15 Holton – 16-22Grace – 23-29
3 Computer History The very first computers were humans We invented better computers because humans make mistakesThe products of this advancement were the first, mechanical computers; used gears, beads, wheels, drive shafts, and other moving parts for calculations
4 The ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator & Calculator This was generally regarded as the very 1st Electronic Computer.Had to be programmed using jumper cables and switches
5 The GenerationsGen.1- used vacuum tubes, were massive, expensive and unreliable.Gen.2- The first transistors were made, replacing the vacuum tubes, which made computers smaller and more reliable.Gen.3- Integrated circuits became a thing, making computers even smaller, faster, and for the first time, cheaper.
6 Generation 4 The modern era of technology Computers now have Monolithic integrated circuits and microprocessors.The computer has become affordable enough to be very common and efficient in day to day use.Now, people actually have PC’s in their homes for casual use.
7 InnovationsThe Altair 8800 was considered the first PC, although assembly was required.Steve Jobbs created the Apple I which was the first PC to have a single circuit board.Microsoft started up when they were hired to write software for IBM’s new PC.The transistor was the main key to most of our modern technology.
8 What is a computer and what does it do? A computer is an electronic device for storing and processing data mostly in binary form in the instructions given to it in a variable program.A computer can do allot of things like playing games, composing and hearing music, and communicating.
9 What is good and bad about computers? Some good things about computers are that there easy communication, providing different information, source of entertainment, finding latest news and buying products online.Some bad things include are addiction to social media, criminal activities and hackers who can destroy your computer system.
10 How does it know what to do? Computers know what to do using Binary Data
11 What are four parts of the Information Processing Cycle? InputProcessingStorageOutput
12 What is the difference between data and information? Data is arranged into numbers, blocks and charts and information is data that has been fully processed.
13 List and describe the input, processing/memory, output, and storage devices. Input- KeyboardProcessing/memory- RAMOutput- PrinterStorage- Hard Drive
14 What is the difference between hardware and software? Hardware is physical components that run with the computer. The mouse and keyboard are hardware.Software is the internal applications installed on your computer like Microsoft and Firefox.
15 Types of softwareThere are two types of software, system and application.System software is used for controlling and running the computer.Application software is used for tools that are programed into the computer.
16 System softwareOne of the most important examples of system software is operating systems.Every computer runs on an operating system.Some of the most well known are Mac OS x, Windows XP, and Windows 8.
17 Categories of computers Pc-performs all of the processing cycle by itself and can have any operating system.Mobile devices- smaller laptops, don’t complete the processing cycle by itself and need peripherals to do so.Consoles- devices that are used for running gaming software and have very large processors and graphics cards.Servers- the heart of the network, controls access to the hardware and software, it also provides centralized storage.Mainframes- very large and powerful, can support thousand of connected users and can store massive amounts of data, used by large companies.Supercomputers- fastest, most powerful, most expensive, used for extremely complex applications.Embedded- special purpose, usually component in large product like electronics, cars, etc.
18 The Internet The internet is used for many things. Examples: CommunicationInformation sourceE-commerceEducationGamesInformation sharing
19 World Wide Web The world wide web is the data of the internet. The WWW is used to access data from the internet.The linked files that can be accessed by the internet are what people refer to when they talk about the WWW.The WWW is what links webpages together on the internet.
20 Nerds James Gosling- invented java programming in 1994. David Rilo and Jerry Young- created yahoo.Steve Jobs- created Apple Co. in 1976.Mark Zuckerberg- co-creator of Facebook, worth 13 billion.Tim Berners-Lee- invented world wide web in 1989, currently director of W30.Janet Emerson Bashen- first African American to patent a software invention.Larry Page and Sergey Brin- founded google.Bill Gates- founded Microsoft in 1975.
21 Nerds cont.Ada Lovelace- known for her writings about Charles Babbage analytical machine.Marc Anderssen- invented NESA mosiac browser in , first graphical user-friendly browser.Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim- founded YouTube, sold to google.Grace Hopper- founded first computer bug.Gordon Moore- founded Moore’s law.
22 What does Moore’s Law state? Moore's law is based on a prediction that the density of transistors on a microchip would double every year.Also the microchip would become smaller.
23 Virtually all of the items we discussed/viewed dealt with how humans interact with computers. All technology today is based on human interaction.
24 The biggest challenge faced by many emerging technologies is linking to the human Brain. This is the main problem in achieving full human interaction with technology.Prosthetic arms, legs, eyes
25 What is ethics and how does it apply to computers? Ethics is a set of moral principles that govern the behavior of a group or individual.Therefore, computer ethics is set of moral principles that regulate the use of computers.Some common issues of computer ethics include intellectual property rights (such as copyrighted electronic content), privacy concerns, and how computers affect society.
26 How does ethical behavior compare with legal/illegal behavior? Ethical behavior is what the society deems right or wrong.Illegal behavior is what society has made laws.Even some ethical values have become laws.
27 What is a copyright? What is plagiarism? Copyright infringement is a violation of the exclusive rights of the copyright holder and may carry legal consequences. Copyright infringement can take many forms.Examples of copyright infringement may include borrowing significant portions of another's work in the creation of a new work, making and distributing unauthorized copies of a sound recording or video, without permission from the copyright holder.Plagiarism involves using another's work without attribution, as if it were one's own original work.It is considered an ethical offense and can be harmful to the person’s academic reputation and integrity.
28 Business Communication, Information, and Careers Bre SteeleSam WagesAshlie AraizaAustin
29 Microsoft Word Change Page Orientation Set line and Paragraph Spacing Click on the Page Layout tabClick on Orientation drop arrow in the Page Setup section of the toolbar and choose orientationSet line and Paragraph SpacingClick on the home tabIn the Paragraph section of the tool barClick on the line paragraph spacing icon on the far right that has arrows going up and down next to lines
30 Microsoft Word continued . . . Change Font CharacteristicsIn the Home tab, in the font section, everything that has to do with font can be changedTurn on Bullets and NumberingIn the Paragraph section of the Home tab in the top left there are icons with bullets and numbersTurn bullets/numbers on by clicking on them
31 Microsoft Word continued . . . Apply BordersTo insert a border around a paragraph, highlight the text (or just click in empty space if there is no paragraph) and click on the Page Layout TabClick on the Page Borders icon in the Page Background sectionA box will appear. Click on the Borders tab in the top left.Select the setting you want on the left and hit okApply Page BorderClick on Page Layout tab and in the page background section select the page borders icon
32 Microsoft Word continued . . . Insert ImageCopy and Paste into the document or insert from a file by clicking on the insert tab and then picture in the tool bar.To resize, click on the picture and drag any green circle on the edges or middle.To change how the picture interacts with text, click on the picture and go to the pink format tab. Select the wrap text dropdown box.Tight makes the text flow around the picture while squareIn line makes picture fall in line with the textBehind text brings the text in front of the imageIn front of text brings the picture in front of the text.
33 Microsoft Word continued . . . Insert a TableClick on the Insert tabIn the table section, hit the icon for table and choose how big your table should beFormat Text into ColumnsType textHighlight text and click on the Page Layout tabClick on the Columns icon in the Page Setup sectionChoose how many columns you want your text inTo add a line, choose the More Columns section in the Columns drop down menu. A window will pop up.Select the Line Between box
34 Microsoft Word continued . . . Insert ShapesClick on the insert tabClick on shapes and choose shapes in the illustration section of the toolbar and draw into the documentYou can change the size of the shape by dragging the blue cornersInsert Text boxClick on the textbox in the text section of the toolbarClick on the textbox you wantYou can change how the textbox looks by clicking on it and then clicking into the orange format tab
35 Microsoft Word - Margins Margins are the white space between the text and the edge of the paperThey can be adjusted by clicking on the Page Layout tab and then clicking the Margins icon in the page setup section of the toolbar
36 Microsoft Word – Grouping and Order If you have arranged objects together and you do not want them to move, you can group them.Group them byHold down Ctrl and clicking on the shapes or objectsRight click and hover over the Grouping optionClick on GroupNow the objects will be treated as one objectTo change the order of two objects or more, click on the object and then on the Format tabNow you can bring the object forward or behind another or all objects in the Arrange section of the toolbar
37 Microsoft Word – Adjust and Resize When you have an image, shape, or clipart, you can resize the image by the blue circles in the corners of the object.You can turn the object by the green circleShapes can be further manipulated by the yellow diamonds
38 Microsoft Word - Workspace TabsSummary of what you can doInsert – Pictures, textboxes, shapes, tables, word artPage Layout – Page Orientation, Margins, SpacingToolbarGives more specific details than the tabs of what you can do to manipulated the document, shapes, etc.Status BarAt the bottom of the Word windowTells the number of pages and wordsAdjust the zoomAdjust the way you see the document
39 Microsoft PowerPoint Adding a new slide of any layout Click on the home tabThen under the slide section press new slideViewing the slideshowClick into the slideshow tabThen press the start for beginning option
40 Continued Applying a design theme Applying a slide transition Click to enter the design tabfind a theme you like then apply itApplying a slide transitionClick to enter the transition tabThen apply the one you like
41 Continued Inserting a picture Resize/repositioning a picture Use either clip art or the internetonce you find one right click it an choose copyGo back to PowerPoint and right clickChoose pasteResize/repositioning a pictureClick on the picture in the PowerPointThe use the arrow in the cornerto rotate and enlarge/shrink the picture
42 Continued Applying a custom animation to an object Have a picture or text highlightedThen search for the animation you likeHave it applied to the text/pictureChanging the options for an animationCan chose when the animation startsBy using the timing tab under animations
43 Continued Inserting a hyperlink Highlight a url then copy it Then paste it into PowerPoint/wordRight click and enter it as ahyperlink then save it under a file
44 Continued Using the slide panel Copy/pasting a slide - Right clicking on anyslide then just pasting it in the panel to create a copyMoving a slide - Left click an holdan then drag the slide to where it needs to bedeleting slides - right clicking on the slidethen click on cut
45 The Different Types of PPT Animations The different types of animations are entrance, emphasis, exit, and motion paths which is when you design the path your picture or text move.
46 PPT Design Themes and Slide Transitions The design themes are what makeup the background of the slide in which your working on.A slide transition is the added effect as to how the slide appears on the screen.
47 Evaluating Web Pages Author Url/Web address Timeliness Verifiability You
48 Author • Legitimate sources usually show one or both • May have the ‘back up’ or go to the home page to find it• Is author /publisher biased/impartial, objective or subjective?Depends on:Reasons for the pageGroup/organization affiliationsother factorsMay be other ‘contributors’-can anyone update it?
49 Url/Web Address• Anybody can buy .com, .net, .org, others • 2-letter abbreviations MAY show control by a counter – but not always • Check the ‘root’ of the URL • Legitimate sites don’t hide things
50 Timeliness• Some pages are not up-to-date • Look for a date somewhere – last update date copyright, ect. • If you don’t see a date information may be useless • Also if link don’t work the probably don’t update their site very often
51 Verifiability• Use other sources to determine page’s credibility -google it -check watchdogs sites like snopes.com -try the other links: about footnotes etc.
52 You• Consider your reason for using the web page when judging a sites reliability -official reasons or informal purposes -using it or just reading it -what will you do with the information once you’ve read it • Your credibility and reputation may be at risk
53 Iva’s Used to enhance the online service Computers can be used to answered FQA’s
54 Computer Careers v. Other Jobs Computer jobs are becoming increasingly popular and harder to get. As we become a technology ran world there will be more of a need for Computer careers.
55 Resume -An outline of your skills, education, and experiences -Summary of your academic and work historyA resume contains:Your contact infoYour educationYour work experience and military serviceOrganizations you belong toSkills you haveYour hobbies and activities
56 Resume: Why You Should Have One and Why It Should Be Good Creating a resume is absolutely the most important thing to do. In order to get a job a resume is required.Good resumes are the best, why because you could have a better chance of getting the job.Good resumes make you look like a professional
57 Basic Process For Creating a Resume Gathering your information is the very first stepOrganize and ‘cull’ informationCreate the resumeProofread and spellcheckPrintfollowing these steps will help you and your resume be good
58 Recommendations For a Good Resume Length- should be at least 1 or 2 pages longPaper- should be plain or light colors, slighty heavier than normalFont- should always be standard, plain, 10-12pt.Priority- important items firstTruth- embellish, don’t lieSpace- white spaces is goodFormat- it’s up to you in the endAccuracy- you’d better be 100% accurate in spelling, grammar, and things you claimBrevity- use bullet points not full sentences and/ or paragraphsAbbrev- don’t use unless they're VERY common and widespread
59 Formatting Education and Experience On a Resume List in reverse chronological orderInclude graduation dates, even future/ planned onesInclude GPA only if it is goodBegin with action verbs when describing things you didAvoid first person ( I, me, etc.)Be specific when possibleList in reverse chronological order including start/ end month and year
60 Specific Formatting Recommendations For a Resume Whatever format you choose, use same formatting in each sectionUse consistent vertical spacing ( blank lines between sections, etc.)Use consistent alignment ( bullets, indention, etc.)Be generous with empty space when you can
61 Unit 4: Stds. 1,5,6: Network and Internet Ashlee Stegall, Alex Parker, Cory Mott, Ricardo Martinez, Jacobi Hunt
62 Networking What is a network? - A system of computer and peripherals that are linked together.Why use one?- The purpose is usually to share files, resources, and peripherals.
63 Advantages and Disadvantages - They enable people to work together, increase productivity, provide access to a wide range of services and specialized peripheral devices.Disadvantages:- Unavailable resources when network malfunctions, more vulnerable to unauthorized than stand-alone computers, more susceptible to malware than stand alone computers
64 Parts of a NetworkClients: computers that request or order information from a server.Servers: computers that work behind the scenes to provide (serve) the resources requested by the clients.Shared Peripherals: devices connected to the network, such as printers, scanners, etc.Media: Physical pieces used to transport data on the network, such as wiring, hubs, etc.Data: packets
65 LAN vs. WANWhat is a LAN?:- Local Area Network: smaller and occupies a single location, like a home, school, or office building.What is a WAN?- Wide Area Network: covers a larger area like a city, country, or multiple countries like the internet.Distinguishing LAN and WAN is difficulty today because almost everything is connected.
66 Wired Network A wired network uses cables to connect the device May use Ethernet (cat5), fiber optic, phone, and/or TV cabling.
67 Wireless NetworkData is transmitted from one device to another using radio waves.Advantage: Devices are more mobile.Disadvantage: Usually slower and have more security issues.
68 Star TopologyStar Topology: Nodes are connected to a central point (router, hub, or switch). Often used in home networks.
69 Ring TopologyRing Topology: Nodes are connected in a continuous loop, and messages are passed around the loop in the same direction. Found mostly in office building or school campuses.
70 Bus TopologyBus Topology: A common bus line (a single cable) connects all devices, and all devices goes through the bus line.
71 Mesh TopologyMesh Topology: Each node is connected to all other nodes.
73 Main topologyThe main topology used is star. Some advantages are that is it the least expensive, easy to add nodes, and node failures don’t affect the entire network.The only main disadvantage is that if the device at the center fails, then the entire network also fails.
74 Communications Protocols General Transmission ProcessDivide messages into (packets)Affix (addresses) to packetsInitiate (transmission)(regulate) flow of data
75 (TCP/IP) (Transmission control protocol/internet protocol) Developed by (initially) to connect ( different networks) together.Uses (IP) to identify the devices on the networks.
76 Internet Protocols (HTTP) (hypertext transfer protocol) How messages are (formatted) and (transmitted)Protocol used by the (www)
77 Internet Protocols(HTTPS) (hypertext transfer protocol over secure socket layer)Widely used on the World Wide Web for (security) communication such as payment transactions and corporate logonsEnsures (reasonable) protection from eavesdroppers and (virus) attacks
78 Internet Protocols (FTP) (file transfer) Protocol for exchanging and manipulating (files) over any TCP-based computer networkA FTP client may connect to a FTP server to manipulate files on that (server)
79 Network ProtocolUsually sends and receives messages in the form of (packets)Devices to identify and make (connections) with each other(formatting rules) that specify how data is packaged into messages sent and receivedMessage (acknowledgement )Data (compression)
80 Ethernet Most (widely) protocol Uses (collision ) transmission method Each node (listens) to the networkIf clear, the node will (transmit)If another node is transmitting, it will (wait) and try again when the line is clear.A (data) can occur if two transmit at the same time. If so, each node waits a random amount of time before attempting to (retransmit)
81 EncryptionTransforms or (scramble)’ a message, data file, , etc., from plain, readable text to encrypted charactersProtects transmitted data from (unauthorized) access
82 Basic Home Networks Basic Home Network Structure ISP – Internet Service ProviderModemRouterWireless PrinterMobile DeviceComputer 1
83 Types of Connections Two Types of Internet Connections: DSLBroadbandWho are the main providers of DSL?Who are the main providers of Broadband?
84 The Router Every home network has something called a router. Basically forwards data from the internet to the networkOr forwards data from the network to the internetSimilar to a network switchTwo types:Wireless RouterWired Router
85 Setting up the Network Have internet connection from ISP Plug cable from ISP into ModemPlug Ethernet cable from Modem into “WAN” port on RouterConnect devices via preferred method
86 DHCP Stands for Dynamic Host Control Protocol Gives out IP addresses to home networksCan change from day to day or even when you power off the device
87 Configuring the Router Configuring the router can be easy or difficultIf router can with a disk, the disk will take you through the steps of setting up the networkIf not, steps are a little more complicatedYou have to use the software built into the Router going through your internet browser
88 How do you test to see if you configured your router correctly? Simply open your web browser, see if your homepage comes up.
89 What are the 2 reasons that organizations use a proxy on their network? To lessen the load on the networkFor security of the network.
90 What is a firewall? Where is it normally located? A security network placed between two networks.
91 What two things does a firewall help ‘balance’? Need for protection and desire to be on the internet
92 What are spyware and adware? Who uses them and why? Are they legal? Advertising companies use them to make moneythey are completely legal.
93 How might spyware/adware get on your computer? Where do they ‘hide’? They hide as cookies and temporary internet files.
94 What can you do to prevent getting unwanted software like spyware/adware? Do not download unnecessary softwareavoid clicking pop ups and especially that mention “free stuff”
95 What is data packet. How big is a typical packet What is data packet? How big is a typical packet? What else might it be calledA chunk of an electronic file being transmitted over a network.1-1.5 kilobytesFrame, cell, block, segment.
96 Why are data packets used? Load balance- all packets don’t have to follow the same path.Problem avoidance-packets can be routed if the network has problems.
97 What is a packet header? What does it contain? Contains info about the packetSize of packetPacket numberDestination addressOriginating address
98 What is the purpose of the cyclic redundancy check What is the purpose of the cyclic redundancy check? In general, how does it work?To make sure the data is correct.Sender uses algorithm to derive a single numeric value from data.If receiver gets the same number the data is good.
99 What is a packet trailer? What is its purpose? What might it contain? Marks the end of a packet.Error checking.
100 Team Members Ashlee Stegall – Slides 1through 13 Ricardo Martinez – Slides 14 through 21Alex Parker – Slides 22 through 31Corey Mott – Slides 32 through 39Jacobi Hunt - None
101 Unit 6 – Stds 1,4,7,9: Problem Solving & Programming Nelly BoboCandie BassAnsley WilliamsDevine WilderAssigned Thursday 5/8/143rd Pd. Intro to Digital TechnologyMr. Cole
102 144. What is an algorithm? Why are they important in a computer class? An algorithm is a precise rule or set of rules specifying how to solve some problem .Why are they important in a computer class?One of the key foundations of computer science is the study of algorithms.Computers need clear, step-by-step instructions to tell them how to tell them how to do things.Three examples of algorithms are: recipes, income taxes, and driving directions.
103 145. List and describe the three parts of an algorithm. 1) input specification: which is what’s going into or needed by the process .Some examples of input specifications are:recipes (ingredients, cooking utensils)tax code (wages, interest, tax withheld)Driving (car, gas, license)Input specification for computational algorithms:Data- how much? what type?User actions- clicks, touches, keystrokesFiles coming inOther data feeds
104 3) output specification: which is what’s coming out of the process. 2) list of specific steps to be performed: which is what has to be done.Steps should be step-by-step, very specific but you can assume that the executor understands certain basic operations.3) output specification: which is what’s coming out of the process.Some examples of output specifications are:recipes (number of servings, how to serve)Tax code (tax due or tax refund, where to pay)
105 146. Describe the characteristics of a GOOD algorithm. A good algorithm should:produce the correct outputs for any set of legal inputs.execute efficiently with the fewest number of steps as possiblebe designed in such a way that others will be able to understand it and modify it to specify solutions to additional problems
106 147. List the steps in the problem solving process 147. List the steps in the problem solving process. What are they similar to?Problem solving phases:Planning and analysisDesignConstruction and implementationMonitoring and evaluationThese are similar to parts of the software development process.
107 Planning and analysis phase- Determine what you need to do. 148. What is the ‘goal’ of the Planning/Analysis phase? What do you analyze, and what techniques and tools do you use?Planning and analysis phase- Determine what you need to do.Things to analyze:Comparisons against objectives, the past, or other similar thingsChecklistsDirectives, orders, needs/wantsComments, complaints
108 Techniques and tools to use Group discussion Talk to othersBuild a consensusDiagramsVisual representation of situationCan show cause/effect, reasonsEspecially useful when trying to find the cause of a problemExample- tree diagrammain trunk or root is the symptombranches are formed by asking “why?”
109 At the phase’s end, you should have: Requirements Problem statement 149. Describe the two possible outputs of Planning/Analysis? What is this called in Software Development?At the phase’s end, you should have:RequirementsDescribes specifically what needs to be done.Problem statementBrief, clear, to the point identification of the specific problem (root cause) to be addressed, fixed, or solved, including the key rationale for why it should be solved.In software development this is called a requirements document.
110 150. What is the goal of the Design phase? Determine how you’re going to do what the requirements/problem statement says to do.The end result will be the plan for how to do, what you need, to do the algorithm.
111 Come up with alternative solutions 151. How might you come up with a lot of possible solutions? What criteria do you use to evaluate these and choose one?Steps:Come up with alternative solutionsBrainstormingAnalyze past solutionsWhat-if analysisMake sure these actually fulfill the requirements and/or problem statement, they shouldn’t just be solutions to a symptom.
112 Choose a solution Will it solve the problem? Is it practical, realistic?Will those involved buy into it?Are the resources available?Is it consistent with individual and/or company morals, ethics, beliefs, direction?
113 152. Describe the final output of Design phase 152. Describe the final output of Design phase. What is this called in Software Development?Develop the detailed action planThis is essentially an algorithm.It should contain the tasks to be done, resources needed, and schedule.In software development this is called a detailed design document.
114 153. What do you do in the Construction/Implementation phase? Complete the task listed in the action planIn software development, these are separate phases when you actually build, test, and install your programs, web pages
115 154. What do you do in the Monitoring/Evaluation phase 154. What do you do in the Monitoring/Evaluation phase? What might happen if your solution fails?Analyze the result of the solution and see if it meets what was required.If not, you most likely need to start over or at least go back to the design phase.
116 155. Why use visual development tools? Visual development tools are the ‘bridge’ between algorithms and computer programsThey help organize your algorithm into a more ‘computer-ready’ form
117 Flowcharts use shapes to represent different types of actions 156. What is a flowchart? What do the rectangle, diamond, round-end rectangle, and arrow lines mean?Flowcharts is a graphical linear representations of a process or algorithmFlowcharts use shapes to represent different types of actionsInputsProcessingDecisionsOutputsRectangles show a task or processDiamonds show a decision or choiceRound-end rectangles are terminators for the start and end.Arrows are used to show the processing flow from one step to another.
118 Pseudo code use words and phrasing that are similar to programming 157. What is pseudocode? What are the rules for pseudocode? List and describe the keywords it uses.Pseudo code use words and phrasing that are similar to programmingShort, quick phases to describe tasksSort of halfway between English and a program languageUses certain keywords for common actionsEx:READ name, hoursWORKED, pay RATEGrossPAY=HOURSworked*payRATEWRITEname, grossPAY
119 Rules for Pseudocode Write only one statement/task per line Capitalize all letters in keywordsIndent and multi-line structures (like Ifs and WHILEs)
120 List and describe the keywords it uses. READ- pull data in READ name, payRATE- Pulls in name and rate of payWRITE- pushes data outWRITE name, netPAY- puts name and net pay on output device, such as a printerIF/THEN/ELSE/ENDIF- conditionally do tasksWHILE/ENDWHILE- does tasks as long as a condition is trueWHILE …………………………ENDWHILE
121 158. What is a storyboard? What are they usually? Shows interaction between user and applicationUsually simple sketches of what the user sees (screen, webpage, etc.)Often doesn’t have a lot of detailCan illustrate the user experience better than other tools
122 159. How do flowcharts, pseudocode, and storyboards compare (advantages/disadvantages)? ComparisonFlowchartsThe first widely-used toolLinear, sequential, very visualPseudocodeNewer, text-based, more English-likeNot easy to follow, less visualStoryboardsshows user interaction betterdoesn’t show a lot of detail
123 Which is better?Depends on many thingsPersonal preferencesExpectation of othersNature of task/processYou can use more than one.
124 160. What is a computer program? A list of instructions for the computer to followMust be specificMust conform to the programming language vocabulary, rules, etc.Must be correct in both syntax (are the rules, punctuation) and semantics (the sensibility of it; it has to make sense)
125 161. What are the characteristics of a computer programming language? The only language a computer understands is machine code- essentially binary codesThis is extremely difficult for humans to read and useHumans need something easier to use, so human readable programming languages were developedA programming language is a vocabulary and a set of rules for telling a computer how to perform certain tasksIt includes unique keywords that the language understandsIt requires a certain syntax- format, order, punctuation, and spellingMust be converted to a machine code by compiling or interpreting
126 The only language a computer understands is ‘machine codes’ 162. What’s the difference between ‘machine code’ and ‘human readable’ programming languages? What has to happen to ‘human readable’ code before the computer can use it?The only language a computer understands is ‘machine codes’Humans need something easier to use so ‘human readable’ programming languages were developedMust be converted to machine code by compiling or interpretingCompiling – converting it all at once before anything is executedRuns fasterHarder to find and fixInterpreting – converting each line just before its executedRuns slowerEasier to debug
127 163. What’s the difference between a numeric and a string data type? There are 2 main data types- numbers and stringsComputers and languages store and use numeric data and character data differentlyNumeric data is stored as a number or numeric symbolsCharacter data is stored as a stringDifferent languages may label and store these a little differently, but the concepts are similar
128 NumberContains only numbers and other numeric symbols (such as a decimal point or sign)Programs can do math with themMay have sub-types such as integer, long smallint, decimal, packed decimal, etc.Each may be stored and processed differently or allow only certain types of numbersStringsThey can contain any character- letters, numbers, symbolsPrograms can’t do math with them, but can manipulate themSplit them, combine them, append to each otherThey are usually enclosed in double quotes to tell the computer that they’re characters, not numbers
129 164. What is a variable? How do you use one? A computer has a memory and can remember stuff. To get a computer to remember stuff, you use variables.A variable is a name you specify for a location in the computer’s memory where it can store a piece of information. It’s an area of memory given an unique nameIt is used by programs to hold dataMany languages are picky about what you can name a variable – no spaces or special characters, can’t start with a number, etc.In many languages, data is put into them in a variable assignment using an = sign
130 Varname= the value to be put into it Others may use a kind of ‘set’ stmtSet the varname to value to be put into itWhen assigning values the = sign does not mean equals- it means assign or put intoThe value can be a number, string, or calculation that may include variables, such as:Counter= counter+1Set incr to 3Set counter up by incr
131 165. What is the definition of ‘bug’ in computer programming? Little mistakes or problems in the code are called bugs.
132 166. What is object-oriented programming 166. What is object-oriented programming? What are the objects in Scratch called?Object-orientedUses objects that have functions associated with themAlso has some procedural partsFound in newer languages like JavaScratch projects are made up of objects called sprites.
133 167. In programming, what is a ‘loop’ 167. In programming, what is a ‘loop’? What blocks create loops in Scratch?In a program, running a set of commands multiple times is called a loop.Some of the control blocks can do just that. In the Control category there are ‘forever’ and ‘repeat 10’ blocks.The ‘forever’ block will run the blocks inside it over and over until you click on it again to stop. This is known as an endless loop.The ‘repeat 10’ block will run them the number of times specified in the input box.Notice that they’re shaped kind of like a ‘C’. This allows you to put other blocks inside the ‘C’, and it will expand to hold them as you insert the blocks.A loop is a while and ends in endwhile
134 168. Why might you need to capture user input in a computer program 168. Why might you need to capture user input in a computer program? How did we do this with Scratch?To be useful, programs often need to capture data that the user enters using keyboard, mouse, etc.This allows the user to interact with the program while it’s running.Programming languages have many ways to do this.Scratch allows you to capture keyboard and mouse inputs using blocks in the Sensing category.
135 The ‘ask…’ block will ask the user to enter something, then it will capture it in a predefined variable.In the input box, you enter the question to ask the user, then when the user enters something, it’s captured in a variable called ‘answer’.You can then do things with that value.The answer variable will contain the value until your program uses the ‘ask…’ block again.
136 169. When do the tasks inside an ‘If’ get run 169. When do the tasks inside an ‘If’ get run? When do the tasks inside the two parts of an ‘If/Else’ get run?IF/THEN/ELSE/ENDIF- conditionally do tasksSometimes a program has to make a choice and only do something if a condition is true or false. This is usually done with an ‘If’ statement.Sometimes a program might want to do certain tasks if a condition is true, but do other tasks if the condition is false. You could do this with an ‘If/Else’ structure.Like the plain ‘If’, you put a condition in the area at the top. In the top part of the ‘E’, you then put blocks that should run if the condition is true,.Then in the bottom you put blocks that should run if the condition is false.
137 170. Why might a program need to use a conditional loop instead of a loop that runs a certain number of times? What block did we use to do this in Scratch?Programs often need to run a set of commands multiple times until a condition changes.The program may not know ahead of time how many times it will loop. To do this, Scratch uses the ‘repeat until’ block.It’s similar to the other repeat, except instead of a # of times, it has a condition like an if block. The blocks inside the ‘repeat until’ will run until the condition becomes true.