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Andrew F. Ian N. Holton H. Grace K.

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1 Andrew F. Ian N. Holton H. Grace K.
Unit 1 Andrew F. Ian N. Holton H. Grace K.

2 The Work Andrew – Questions 1-8 of the study guide Ian – 9-15
Holton – 16-22 Grace – 23-29

3 Computer History The very first computers were humans
We invented better computers because humans make mistakes The products of this advancement were the first, mechanical computers; used gears, beads, wheels, drive shafts, and other moving parts for calculations

4 The ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator & Calculator
This was generally regarded as the very 1st Electronic Computer. Had to be programmed using jumper cables and switches

5 The Generations Gen.1- used vacuum tubes, were massive, expensive and unreliable. Gen.2- The first transistors were made, replacing the vacuum tubes, which made computers smaller and more reliable. Gen.3- Integrated circuits became a thing, making computers even smaller, faster, and for the first time, cheaper.

6 Generation 4 The modern era of technology
Computers now have Monolithic integrated circuits and microprocessors. The computer has become affordable enough to be very common and efficient in day to day use. Now, people actually have PC’s in their homes for casual use.

7 Innovations The Altair 8800 was considered the first PC, although assembly was required. Steve Jobbs created the Apple I which was the first PC to have a single circuit board. Microsoft started up when they were hired to write software for IBM’s new PC. The transistor was the main key to most of our modern technology.

8 What is a computer and what does it do?
A computer is an electronic device for storing and processing data mostly in binary form in the instructions given to it in a variable program. A computer can do allot of things like playing games, composing and hearing music, and communicating.

9 What is good and bad about computers?
Some good things about computers are that there easy communication, providing different information, source of entertainment, finding latest news and buying products online. Some bad things include are addiction to social media, criminal activities and hackers who can destroy your computer system.

10 How does it know what to do?
Computers know what to do using Binary Data

11 What are four parts of the Information Processing Cycle?
Input Processing Storage Output

12 What is the difference between data and information?
Data is arranged into numbers, blocks and charts and information is data that has been fully processed.

13 List and describe the input, processing/memory, output, and storage devices.
Input- Keyboard Processing/memory- RAM Output- Printer Storage- Hard Drive

14 What is the difference between hardware and software?
Hardware is physical components that run with the computer. The mouse and keyboard are hardware. Software is the internal applications installed on your computer like Microsoft and Firefox.

15 Types of software There are two types of software, system and application. System software is used for controlling and running the computer. Application software is used for tools that are programed into the computer.

16 System software One of the most important examples of system software is operating systems. Every computer runs on an operating system. Some of the most well known are Mac OS x, Windows XP, and Windows 8.

17 Categories of computers
Pc-performs all of the processing cycle by itself and can have any operating system. Mobile devices- smaller laptops, don’t complete the processing cycle by itself and need peripherals to do so. Consoles- devices that are used for running gaming software and have very large processors and graphics cards. Servers- the heart of the network, controls access to the hardware and software, it also provides centralized storage. Mainframes- very large and powerful, can support thousand of connected users and can store massive amounts of data, used by large companies. Supercomputers- fastest, most powerful, most expensive, used for extremely complex applications. Embedded- special purpose, usually component in large product like electronics, cars, etc.

18 The Internet The internet is used for many things. Examples:
Communication Information source E-commerce Education Games Information sharing

19 World Wide Web The world wide web is the data of the internet.
The WWW is used to access data from the internet. The linked files that can be accessed by the internet are what people refer to when they talk about the WWW. The WWW is what links webpages together on the internet.

20 Nerds James Gosling- invented java programming in 1994.
David Rilo and Jerry Young- created yahoo. Steve Jobs- created Apple Co. in 1976. Mark Zuckerberg- co-creator of Facebook, worth 13 billion. Tim Berners-Lee- invented world wide web in 1989, currently director of W30. Janet Emerson Bashen- first African American to patent a software invention. Larry Page and Sergey Brin- founded google. Bill Gates- founded Microsoft in 1975.

21 Nerds cont. Ada Lovelace- known for her writings about Charles Babbage analytical machine. Marc Anderssen- invented NESA mosiac browser in , first graphical user-friendly browser. Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim- founded YouTube, sold to google. Grace Hopper- founded first computer bug. Gordon Moore- founded Moore’s law.

22 What does Moore’s Law state?
Moore's law is based on a prediction that the density of transistors on a microchip would double every year. Also the microchip would become smaller.

23 Virtually all of the items we discussed/viewed dealt with how humans interact with computers.
All technology today is based on human interaction.

24 The biggest challenge faced by many emerging technologies is linking to the human Brain.
This is the main problem in achieving full human interaction with technology. Prosthetic arms, legs, eyes

25 What is ethics and how does it apply to computers?
Ethics is a set of moral principles that govern the behavior of a group or individual. Therefore, computer ethics is set of moral principles that regulate the use of computers. Some common issues of computer ethics include intellectual property rights (such as copyrighted electronic content), privacy concerns, and how computers affect society.

26 How does ethical behavior compare with legal/illegal behavior?
Ethical behavior is what the society deems right or wrong. Illegal behavior is what society has made laws. Even some ethical values have become laws.

27 What is a copyright? What is plagiarism?
Copyright infringement is a violation of the exclusive rights of the copyright holder and may carry legal consequences. Copyright infringement can take many forms. Examples of copyright infringement may include borrowing significant portions of another's work in the creation of a new work, making and distributing unauthorized copies of a sound recording or video, without permission from the copyright holder. Plagiarism involves using another's work without attribution, as if it were one's own original work. It is considered an ethical offense and can be harmful to the person’s academic reputation and integrity.

28 Business Communication, Information, and Careers
Bre Steele Sam Wages Ashlie Araiza Austin

29 Microsoft Word Change Page Orientation Set line and Paragraph Spacing
Click on the Page Layout tab Click on Orientation drop arrow in the Page Setup section of the toolbar and choose orientation Set line and Paragraph Spacing Click on the home tab In the Paragraph section of the tool bar Click on the line paragraph spacing icon on the far right that has arrows going up and down next to lines

30 Microsoft Word continued . . .
Change Font Characteristics In the Home tab, in the font section, everything that has to do with font can be changed Turn on Bullets and Numbering In the Paragraph section of the Home tab in the top left there are icons with bullets and numbers Turn bullets/numbers on by clicking on them

31 Microsoft Word continued . . .
Apply Borders To insert a border around a paragraph, highlight the text (or just click in empty space if there is no paragraph) and click on the Page Layout Tab Click on the Page Borders icon in the Page Background section A box will appear. Click on the Borders tab in the top left. Select the setting you want on the left and hit ok Apply Page Border Click on Page Layout tab and in the page background section select the page borders icon

32 Microsoft Word continued . . .
Insert Image Copy and Paste into the document or insert from a file by clicking on the insert tab and then picture in the tool bar. To resize, click on the picture and drag any green circle on the edges or middle. To change how the picture interacts with text, click on the picture and go to the pink format tab. Select the wrap text dropdown box. Tight makes the text flow around the picture while square In line makes picture fall in line with the text Behind text brings the text in front of the image In front of text brings the picture in front of the text.

33 Microsoft Word continued . . .
Insert a Table Click on the Insert tab In the table section, hit the icon for table and choose how big your table should be Format Text into Columns Type text Highlight text and click on the Page Layout tab Click on the Columns icon in the Page Setup section Choose how many columns you want your text in To add a line, choose the More Columns section in the Columns drop down menu. A window will pop up. Select the Line Between box

34 Microsoft Word continued . . .
Insert Shapes Click on the insert tab Click on shapes and choose shapes in the illustration section of the toolbar and draw into the document You can change the size of the shape by dragging the blue corners Insert Text box Click on the textbox in the text section of the toolbar Click on the textbox you want You can change how the textbox looks by clicking on it and then clicking into the orange format tab

35 Microsoft Word - Margins
Margins are the white space between the text and the edge of the paper They can be adjusted by clicking on the Page Layout tab and then clicking the Margins icon in the page setup section of the toolbar

36 Microsoft Word – Grouping and Order
If you have arranged objects together and you do not want them to move, you can group them. Group them by Hold down Ctrl and clicking on the shapes or objects Right click and hover over the Grouping option Click on Group Now the objects will be treated as one object To change the order of two objects or more, click on the object and then on the Format tab Now you can bring the object forward or behind another or all objects in the Arrange section of the toolbar

37 Microsoft Word – Adjust and Resize
When you have an image, shape, or clipart, you can resize the image by the blue circles in the corners of the object. You can turn the object by the green circle Shapes can be further manipulated by the yellow diamonds

38 Microsoft Word - Workspace
Tabs Summary of what you can do Insert – Pictures, textboxes, shapes, tables, word art Page Layout – Page Orientation, Margins, Spacing Toolbar Gives more specific details than the tabs of what you can do to manipulated the document, shapes, etc. Status Bar At the bottom of the Word window Tells the number of pages and words Adjust the zoom Adjust the way you see the document

39 Microsoft PowerPoint Adding a new slide of any layout
Click on the home tab Then under the slide section press new slide Viewing the slideshow Click into the slideshow tab Then press the start for beginning option

40 Continued Applying a design theme Applying a slide transition
Click to enter the design tab find a theme you like then apply it Applying a slide transition Click to enter the transition tab Then apply the one you like

41 Continued Inserting a picture Resize/repositioning a picture
Use either clip art or the internet once you find one right click it an choose copy Go back to PowerPoint and right click Choose paste Resize/repositioning a picture Click on the picture in the PowerPoint The use the arrow in the corner to rotate and enlarge/shrink the picture

42 Continued Applying a custom animation to an object
Have a picture or text highlighted Then search for the animation you like Have it applied to the text/picture Changing the options for an animation Can chose when the animation starts By using the timing tab under animations

43 Continued Inserting a hyperlink Highlight a url then copy it
Then paste it into PowerPoint/word Right click and enter it as a hyperlink then save it under a file

44 Continued Using the slide panel
Copy/pasting a slide - Right clicking on any slide then just pasting it in the panel to create a copy Moving a slide - Left click an hold an then drag the slide to where it needs to be deleting slides - right clicking on the slide then click on cut

45 The Different Types of PPT Animations
The different types of animations are entrance, emphasis, exit, and motion paths which is when you design the path your picture or text move.

46 PPT Design Themes and Slide Transitions
The design themes are what makeup the background of the slide in which your working on. A slide transition is the added effect as to how the slide appears on the screen.

47 Evaluating Web Pages Author Url/Web address Timeliness Verifiability

48 Author • Legitimate sources usually show one or both
• May have the ‘back up’ or go to the home page to find it • Is author /publisher biased/impartial, objective or subjective? Depends on: Reasons for the page Group/organization affiliations other factors May be other ‘contributors’ -can anyone update it?

49 Url/Web Address • Anybody can buy .com, .net, .org, others • 2-letter abbreviations MAY show control by a counter – but not always • Check the ‘root’ of the URL • Legitimate sites don’t hide things

50 Timeliness • Some pages are not up-to-date • Look for a date somewhere – last update date copyright, ect. • If you don’t see a date information may be useless • Also if link don’t work the probably don’t update their site very often

51 Verifiability • Use other sources to determine page’s credibility -google it -check watchdogs sites like -try the other links: about footnotes etc.

52 You • Consider your reason for using the web page when judging a sites reliability -official reasons or informal purposes -using it or just reading it -what will you do with the information once you’ve read it • Your credibility and reputation may be at risk

53 Iva’s Used to enhance the online service
Computers can be used to answered FQA’s

54 Computer Careers v. Other Jobs
Computer jobs are becoming increasingly popular and harder to get. As we become a technology ran world there will be more of a need for Computer careers.

55 Resume -An outline of your skills, education, and experiences
-Summary of your academic and work history A resume contains: Your contact info Your education Your work experience and military service Organizations you belong to Skills you have Your hobbies and activities

56 Resume: Why You Should Have One and Why It Should Be Good
Creating a resume is absolutely the most important thing to do. In order to get a job a resume is required. Good resumes are the best, why because you could have a better chance of getting the job. Good resumes make you look like a professional

57 Basic Process For Creating a Resume
Gathering your information is the very first step Organize and ‘cull’ information Create the resume Proofread and spellcheck Print following these steps will help you and your resume be good

58 Recommendations For a Good Resume
Length- should be at least 1 or 2 pages long Paper- should be plain or light colors, slighty heavier than normal Font- should always be standard, plain, 10-12pt. Priority- important items first Truth- embellish, don’t lie Space- white spaces is good Format- it’s up to you in the end Accuracy- you’d better be 100% accurate in spelling, grammar, and things you claim Brevity- use bullet points not full sentences and/ or paragraphs Abbrev- don’t use unless they're VERY common and widespread

59 Formatting Education and Experience On a Resume
List in reverse chronological order Include graduation dates, even future/ planned ones Include GPA only if it is good Begin with action verbs when describing things you did Avoid first person ( I, me, etc.) Be specific when possible List in reverse chronological order including start/ end month and year

60 Specific Formatting Recommendations For a Resume
Whatever format you choose, use same formatting in each section Use consistent vertical spacing ( blank lines between sections, etc.) Use consistent alignment ( bullets, indention, etc.) Be generous with empty space when you can

61 Unit 4: Stds. 1,5,6: Network and Internet
Ashlee Stegall, Alex Parker, Cory Mott, Ricardo Martinez, Jacobi Hunt

62 Networking What is a network?
- A system of computer and peripherals that are linked together. Why use one? - The purpose is usually to share files, resources, and peripherals.

63 Advantages and Disadvantages
- They enable people to work together, increase productivity, provide access to a wide range of services and specialized peripheral devices. Disadvantages: - Unavailable resources when network malfunctions, more vulnerable to unauthorized than stand-alone computers, more susceptible to malware than stand alone computers

64 Parts of a Network Clients: computers that request or order information from a server. Servers: computers that work behind the scenes to provide (serve) the resources requested by the clients. Shared Peripherals: devices connected to the network, such as printers, scanners, etc. Media: Physical pieces used to transport data on the network, such as wiring, hubs, etc. Data: packets

65 LAN vs. WAN What is a LAN?: - Local Area Network: smaller and occupies a single location, like a home, school, or office building. What is a WAN? - Wide Area Network: covers a larger area like a city, country, or multiple countries like the internet. Distinguishing LAN and WAN is difficulty today because almost everything is connected.

66 Wired Network A wired network uses cables to connect the device
May use Ethernet (cat5), fiber optic, phone, and/or TV cabling.

67 Wireless Network Data is transmitted from one device to another using radio waves. Advantage: Devices are more mobile. Disadvantage: Usually slower and have more security issues.

68 Star Topology Star Topology: Nodes are connected to a central point (router, hub, or switch). Often used in home networks.

69 Ring Topology Ring Topology: Nodes are connected in a continuous loop, and messages are passed around the loop in the same direction. Found mostly in office building or school campuses.

70 Bus Topology Bus Topology: A common bus line (a single cable) connects all devices, and all devices goes through the bus line.

71 Mesh Topology Mesh Topology: Each node is connected to all other nodes.

72 4 Considerations Money Impact of failures Future growth
Required flexibility

73 Main topology The main topology used is star. Some advantages are that is it the least expensive, easy to add nodes, and node failures don’t affect the entire network. The only main disadvantage is that if the device at the center fails, then the entire network also fails.

74 Communications Protocols
General Transmission Process Divide messages into (packets) Affix (addresses) to packets Initiate (transmission) (regulate) flow of data

75 (TCP/IP) (Transmission control protocol/internet protocol)
Developed by (initially) to connect ( different networks) together. Uses (IP) to identify the devices on the networks.

76 Internet Protocols (HTTP) (hypertext transfer protocol)
How messages are (formatted) and (transmitted) Protocol used by the (www)

77 Internet Protocols (HTTPS) (hypertext transfer protocol over secure socket layer) Widely used on the World Wide Web for (security) communication such as payment transactions and corporate logons Ensures (reasonable) protection from eavesdroppers and (virus) attacks

78 Internet Protocols (FTP) (file transfer)
Protocol for exchanging and manipulating (files) over any TCP-based computer network A FTP client may connect to a FTP server to manipulate files on that (server)

79 Network Protocol Usually sends and receives messages in the form of (packets) Devices to identify and make (connections) with each other (formatting rules) that specify how data is packaged into messages sent and received Message (acknowledgement ) Data (compression)

80 Ethernet Most (widely) protocol Uses (collision ) transmission method
Each node (listens) to the network If clear, the node will (transmit) If another node is transmitting, it will (wait) and try again when the line is clear. A (data) can occur if two transmit at the same time. If so, each node waits a random amount of time before attempting to (retransmit)

81 Encryption Transforms or (scramble)’ a message, data file, , etc., from plain, readable text to encrypted characters Protects transmitted data from (unauthorized) access

82 Basic Home Networks Basic Home Network Structure
ISP – Internet Service Provider Modem Router Wireless Printer Mobile Device Computer 1

83 Types of Connections Two Types of Internet Connections:
DSL Broadband Who are the main providers of DSL? Who are the main providers of Broadband?

84 The Router Every home network has something called a router.
Basically forwards data from the internet to the network Or forwards data from the network to the internet Similar to a network switch Two types: Wireless Router Wired Router

85 Setting up the Network Have internet connection from ISP
Plug cable from ISP into Modem Plug Ethernet cable from Modem into “WAN” port on Router Connect devices via preferred method

86 DHCP Stands for Dynamic Host Control Protocol
Gives out IP addresses to home networks Can change from day to day or even when you power off the device

87 Configuring the Router
Configuring the router can be easy or difficult If router can with a disk, the disk will take you through the steps of setting up the network If not, steps are a little more complicated You have to use the software built into the Router going through your internet browser

88 How do you test to see if you configured your router correctly?
Simply open your web browser, see if your homepage comes up.

89 What are the 2 reasons that organizations use a proxy on their network?
To lessen the load on the network For security of the network.

90 What is a firewall? Where is it normally located?
A security network placed between two networks.

91 What two things does a firewall help ‘balance’?
Need for protection and desire to be on the internet

92 What are spyware and adware? Who uses them and why? Are they legal?
Advertising companies use them to make money they are completely legal.

93 How might spyware/adware get on your computer? Where do they ‘hide’?
They hide as cookies and temporary internet files.

94 What can you do to prevent getting unwanted software like spyware/adware?
Do not download unnecessary software avoid clicking pop ups and especially that mention “free stuff”

95 What is data packet. How big is a typical packet
What is data packet? How big is a typical packet? What else might it be called A chunk of an electronic file being transmitted over a network. 1-1.5 kilobytes Frame, cell, block, segment.

96 Why are data packets used?
Load balance- all packets don’t have to follow the same path. Problem avoidance-packets can be routed if the network has problems.

97 What is a packet header? What does it contain?
Contains info about the packet Size of packet Packet number Destination address Originating address

98 What is the purpose of the cyclic redundancy check
What is the purpose of the cyclic redundancy check? In general, how does it work? To make sure the data is correct. Sender uses algorithm to derive a single numeric value from data. If receiver gets the same number the data is good.

99 What is a packet trailer? What is its purpose? What might it contain?
Marks the end of a packet. Error checking.

100 Team Members Ashlee Stegall – Slides 1through 13
Ricardo Martinez – Slides 14 through 21 Alex Parker – Slides 22 through 31 Corey Mott – Slides 32 through 39 Jacobi Hunt - None

101 Unit 6 – Stds 1,4,7,9: Problem Solving & Programming
Nelly Bobo Candie Bass Ansley Williams Devine Wilder Assigned Thursday 5/8/14 3rd Pd. Intro to Digital Technology Mr. Cole

102 144. What is an algorithm? Why are they important in a computer class?
An algorithm is a precise rule or set of rules specifying how to solve some problem . Why are they important in a computer class? One of the key foundations of computer science is the study of algorithms. Computers need clear, step-by-step instructions to tell them how to tell them how to do things. Three examples of algorithms are: recipes, income taxes, and driving directions.

103 145. List and describe the three parts of an algorithm.
1) input specification: which is what’s going into or needed by the process . Some examples of input specifications are: recipes (ingredients, cooking utensils) tax code (wages, interest, tax withheld) Driving (car, gas, license) Input specification for computational algorithms: Data- how much? what type? User actions- clicks, touches, keystrokes Files coming in Other data feeds

104 3) output specification: which is what’s coming out of the process.
2) list of specific steps to be performed: which is what has to be done. Steps should be step-by-step, very specific but you can assume that the executor understands certain basic operations. 3) output specification: which is what’s coming out of the process. Some examples of output specifications are: recipes (number of servings, how to serve) Tax code (tax due or tax refund, where to pay)

105 146. Describe the characteristics of a GOOD algorithm.
A good algorithm should: produce the correct outputs for any set of legal inputs. execute efficiently with the fewest number of steps as possible be designed in such a way that others will be able to understand it and modify it to specify solutions to additional problems

106 147. List the steps in the problem solving process
147. List the steps in the problem solving process. What are they similar to? Problem solving phases: Planning and analysis Design Construction and implementation Monitoring and evaluation These are similar to parts of the software development process.

107 Planning and analysis phase- Determine what you need to do.
148. What is the ‘goal’ of the Planning/Analysis phase? What do you analyze, and what techniques and tools do you use? Planning and analysis phase- Determine what you need to do. Things to analyze: Comparisons against objectives, the past, or other similar things Checklists Directives, orders, needs/wants Comments, complaints

108 Techniques and tools to use Group discussion
Talk to others Build a consensus Diagrams Visual representation of situation Can show cause/effect, reasons Especially useful when trying to find the cause of a problem Example- tree diagram main trunk or root is the symptom branches are formed by asking “why?”

109 At the phase’s end, you should have: Requirements Problem statement
149. Describe the two possible outputs of Planning/Analysis? What is this called in Software Development? At the phase’s end, you should have: Requirements Describes specifically what needs to be done. Problem statement Brief, clear, to the point identification of the specific problem (root cause) to be addressed, fixed, or solved, including the key rationale for why it should be solved. In software development this is called a requirements document.

110 150. What is the goal of the Design phase?
Determine how you’re going to do what the requirements/problem statement says to do. The end result will be the plan for how to do, what you need, to do the algorithm.

111 Come up with alternative solutions
151. How might you come up with a lot of possible solutions? What criteria do you use to evaluate these and choose one? Steps: Come up with alternative solutions Brainstorming Analyze past solutions What-if analysis Make sure these actually fulfill the requirements and/or problem statement, they shouldn’t just be solutions to a symptom.

112 Choose a solution Will it solve the problem?
Is it practical, realistic? Will those involved buy into it? Are the resources available? Is it consistent with individual and/or company morals, ethics, beliefs, direction?

113 152. Describe the final output of Design phase
152. Describe the final output of Design phase. What is this called in Software Development? Develop the detailed action plan This is essentially an algorithm. It should contain the tasks to be done, resources needed, and schedule. In software development this is called a detailed design document.

114 153. What do you do in the Construction/Implementation phase?
Complete the task listed in the action plan In software development, these are separate phases when you actually build, test, and install your programs, web pages

115 154. What do you do in the Monitoring/Evaluation phase
154. What do you do in the Monitoring/Evaluation phase? What might happen if your solution fails? Analyze the result of the solution and see if it meets what was required. If not, you most likely need to start over or at least go back to the design phase.

116 155. Why use visual development tools?
Visual development tools are the ‘bridge’ between algorithms and computer programs They help organize your algorithm into a more ‘computer-ready’ form

117 Flowcharts use shapes to represent different types of actions
156. What is a flowchart? What do the rectangle, diamond, round-end rectangle, and arrow lines mean? Flowcharts is a graphical linear representations of a process or algorithm Flowcharts use shapes to represent different types of actions Inputs Processing Decisions Outputs Rectangles show a task or process Diamonds show a decision or choice Round-end rectangles are terminators for the start and end. Arrows are used to show the processing flow from one step to another.

118 Pseudo code use words and phrasing that are similar to programming
157. What is pseudocode? What are the rules for pseudocode? List and describe the keywords it uses. Pseudo code use words and phrasing that are similar to programming Short, quick phases to describe tasks Sort of halfway between English and a program language Uses certain keywords for common actions Ex: READ name, hoursWORKED, pay RATE GrossPAY=HOURSworked*payRATE WRITEname, grossPAY

119 Rules for Pseudocode Write only one statement/task per line
Capitalize all letters in keywords Indent and multi-line structures (like Ifs and WHILEs)

120 List and describe the keywords it uses. READ- pull data in
READ name, payRATE- Pulls in name and rate of pay WRITE- pushes data out WRITE name, netPAY- puts name and net pay on output device, such as a printer IF/THEN/ELSE/ENDIF- conditionally do tasks WHILE/ENDWHILE- does tasks as long as a condition is true WHILE …………… …………… ENDWHILE

121 158. What is a storyboard? What are they usually?
Shows interaction between user and application Usually simple sketches of what the user sees (screen, webpage, etc.) Often doesn’t have a lot of detail Can illustrate the user experience better than other tools

122 159. How do flowcharts, pseudocode, and storyboards compare (advantages/disadvantages)?
Comparison Flowcharts The first widely-used tool Linear, sequential, very visual Pseudocode Newer, text-based, more English-like Not easy to follow, less visual Storyboards shows user interaction better doesn’t show a lot of detail

123 Which is better? Depends on many things Personal preferences Expectation of others Nature of task/process You can use more than one.

124 160. What is a computer program?
A list of instructions for the computer to follow Must be specific Must conform to the programming language vocabulary, rules, etc. Must be correct in both syntax (are the rules, punctuation) and semantics (the sensibility of it; it has to make sense)

125 161. What are the characteristics of a computer programming language?
The only language a computer understands is machine code- essentially binary codes This is extremely difficult for humans to read and use Humans need something easier to use, so human readable programming languages were developed A programming language is a vocabulary and a set of rules for telling a computer how to perform certain tasks It includes unique keywords that the language understands It requires a certain syntax- format, order, punctuation, and spelling Must be converted to a machine code by compiling or interpreting

126 The only language a computer understands is ‘machine codes’
162. What’s the difference between ‘machine code’ and ‘human readable’ programming languages? What has to happen to ‘human readable’ code before the computer can use it? The only language a computer understands is ‘machine codes’ Humans need something easier to use so ‘human readable’ programming languages were developed Must be converted to machine code by compiling or interpreting Compiling – converting it all at once before anything is executed Runs faster Harder to find and fix Interpreting – converting each line just before its executed Runs slower Easier to debug

127 163. What’s the difference between a numeric and a string data type?
There are 2 main data types- numbers and strings Computers and languages store and use numeric data and character data differently Numeric data is stored as a number or numeric symbols Character data is stored as a string Different languages may label and store these a little differently, but the concepts are similar

128 Number Contains only numbers and other numeric symbols (such as a decimal point or sign) Programs can do math with them May have sub-types such as integer, long smallint, decimal, packed decimal, etc. Each may be stored and processed differently or allow only certain types of numbers Strings They can contain any character- letters, numbers, symbols Programs can’t do math with them, but can manipulate them Split them, combine them, append to each other They are usually enclosed in double quotes to tell the computer that they’re characters, not numbers

129 164. What is a variable? How do you use one?
A computer has a memory and can remember stuff. To get a computer to remember stuff, you use variables. A variable is a name you specify for a location in the computer’s memory where it can store a piece of information. It’s an area of memory given an unique name It is used by programs to hold data Many languages are picky about what you can name a variable – no spaces or special characters, can’t start with a number, etc. In many languages, data is put into them in a variable assignment using an = sign

130 Varname= the value to be put into it
Others may use a kind of ‘set’ stmt Set the varname to value to be put into it When assigning values the = sign does not mean equals- it means assign or put into The value can be a number, string, or calculation that may include variables, such as: Counter= counter+1 Set incr to 3 Set counter up by incr

131 165. What is the definition of ‘bug’ in computer programming?
Little mistakes or problems in the code are called bugs.

132 166. What is object-oriented programming
166. What is object-oriented programming? What are the objects in Scratch called? Object-oriented Uses objects that have functions associated with them Also has some procedural parts Found in newer languages like Java Scratch projects are made up of objects called sprites.

133 167. In programming, what is a ‘loop’
167. In programming, what is a ‘loop’? What blocks create loops in Scratch? In a program, running a set of commands multiple times is called a loop. Some of the control blocks can do just that. In the Control category there are ‘forever’ and ‘repeat 10’ blocks. The ‘forever’ block will run the blocks inside it over and over until you click on it again to stop. This is known as an endless loop. The ‘repeat 10’ block will run them the number of times specified in the input box. Notice that they’re shaped kind of like a ‘C’. This allows you to put other blocks inside the ‘C’, and it will expand to hold them as you insert the blocks. A loop is a while and ends in endwhile

134 168. Why might you need to capture user input in a computer program
168. Why might you need to capture user input in a computer program? How did we do this with Scratch? To be useful, programs often need to capture data that the user enters using keyboard, mouse, etc. This allows the user to interact with the program while it’s running. Programming languages have many ways to do this. Scratch allows you to capture keyboard and mouse inputs using blocks in the Sensing category.

135 The ‘ask…’ block will ask the user to enter something, then it will capture it in a predefined variable. In the input box, you enter the question to ask the user, then when the user enters something, it’s captured in a variable called ‘answer’. You can then do things with that value. The answer variable will contain the value until your program uses the ‘ask…’ block again.

136 169. When do the tasks inside an ‘If’ get run
169. When do the tasks inside an ‘If’ get run? When do the tasks inside the two parts of an ‘If/Else’ get run? IF/THEN/ELSE/ENDIF- conditionally do tasks Sometimes a program has to make a choice and only do something if a condition is true or false. This is usually done with an ‘If’ statement. Sometimes a program might want to do certain tasks if a condition is true, but do other tasks if the condition is false. You could do this with an ‘If/Else’ structure. Like the plain ‘If’, you put a condition in the area at the top. In the top part of the ‘E’, you then put blocks that should run if the condition is true,. Then in the bottom you put blocks that should run if the condition is false.

137 170. Why might a program need to use a conditional loop instead of a loop that runs a certain number of times? What block did we use to do this in Scratch? Programs often need to run a set of commands multiple times until a condition changes. The program may not know ahead of time how many times it will loop. To do this, Scratch uses the ‘repeat until’ block. It’s similar to the other repeat, except instead of a # of times, it has a condition like an if block. The blocks inside the ‘repeat until’ will run until the condition becomes true.

138 Index Nelly Bobo: 144-152 (9) Candie Bass: 153- 159 (7)
Ansley Williams: (5) Devine Wilder: (6) *(27/4=6.75)


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