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1 Central Nervous System. 2 Main parts of the CNS: 1, BRAIN_________________ _________________________ 2, SPINAL CORD _________________________________________.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Central Nervous System. 2 Main parts of the CNS: 1, BRAIN_________________ _________________________ 2, SPINAL CORD _________________________________________."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Central Nervous System

2 2 Main parts of the CNS: 1, BRAIN_________________ _________________________ 2, SPINAL CORD _________________________________________ _________________________________________ CNS=Central Nervous System

3 3 1. The Brain Cerebrum Cerebellum Brain Stem

4 4 Protection for the Brain

5 5 What happened to Phineas Gage? 1)How did Phineas Gage change after the accident? __________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ 2)How did Phineas Gage’s accident change scientists’ understanding of the brain? _____________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________

6 6 A. Cerebrum Made up of 2 hemispheres, each controlling one half of the bodyMade up of 2 hemispheres, each controlling one half of the body The left hemisphere controls the right side of the body, ___________________________________The left hemisphere controls the right side of the body, ___________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, ___________________________________ The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, ___________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________

7 7

8 8 White Matter and Gray Matter The cerebrum is composed of: –________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

9 9 A. The Cerebrum Also known as the cerebral cortex, is divided into four lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal –Each lobe has its own particular responsibilities: Frontal: ____________________________ ___________________________________ Parietal: ___________________________ ___________________________________ Occipital: __________________________ Temporal: _________________________

10 10 The Cerebrum

11 11 Probe the Brain Beginning in the 1940s, Canadian brain surgeon Wilder Penfield mapped the brain's motor cortex -- the area that controls the movement of your body's muscles. He did this by applying mild electric currents to the exposed brains of patients while they were in surgery. Ex. “Smell of burnt toast = area of brain that is overactive = Ceisure. Brain Probing Activity Motor Homunculus This cartoon character has features drawn according to how much brain space they take up.

12 12

13 13 B. Cerebellum (“small brain”) Coordinates –______________

14 14 B. Cerebellum ____________________________________ ____________________________________ Communicates with the other parts of the brain ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________

15 15 C. Brain Stem Transmits information from the brain to spinal cord and vice versa. Coordinates –_____________ –____________________ –_____________________

16 16 2.The Spinal Cord

17 17 2. Spinal Cord ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ________________________ Protected by the vertebrae. Function: 1)___________________________________ ___________________________________ 2) ____________________________________ _______________________________________

18 18 2. Spinal Cord

19 19

20 20 Damage to the C.N.S. Concussion: _______________________________ ___________________________________________ __________________________________________ Paralysis: _________________________________ Cerebral palsy: ________________________________ __________________________________________ Epilepsy: __________________________________ ____________________________________________ Multiple sclerosis: ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________

21 21 PBS clip: From Zzzz’s to A’s. ws/teenbrain/view/ ws/teenbrain/view/ 1. How many hours of sleep to you need to get in order to be fully alert? 2. What is the name of your Biological Timing System and how does it change during the teenage years? 3. What analogy does the announcer use for a teen that is trying to function with not enough sleep? 4. What are three daily life functions that sleep affects your ability to do? 5. What is REM sleep and what happens during this time? 6. What is the best predictor of whether or not you will succeed at school? 7. What were the results of the study of the relationship between learning and sleep in teens Charlie and Nicole?

22 22 Review Questions - CNS 1)What are the main parts of the central nervous system? 2) What is the brain? 3) What are the 3 major structures of the brain? 4) What are the 4 different layers of protection of the brain? 5) What functions are controlled by the left cerebral hemisphere?

23 23 Review Questions - CNS 6) What functions are controlled by the right cerebral hemisphere? 7) What did the study of Phineas Gage teach us about the brain? 8) What are the different lobes of the cerebral cortex and what are their functions? 9) What is the difference between white matter and grey matter? 10) Who is Wilder Penfield and how did he contribute to our understanding of the brain?

24 24 Review Questions - CNS 11) What is the function of the cerebellum? 12) What parts of your body does the cerebellum communicate with? 13) What is the function of the brainstem? 14) What is the function of the spinal cord? 15) What protects the spinal cord? 16) What is a consequence of damage to the spinal cord? 17) What 3 things can you do to improve the power of you brain?

25 25 Review Questions – CNS 1)What are the main parts of the central nervous system? Brain, spinal cord 2) What is the brain? The brain is the main organ of the CNS. It is composed of nearly 100 billion nerve cells which are folded together in order to fit inside the cranium. 3) What are the 3 major structures of the brain? cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem

26 26 4) What are the 4 different layers of protection of the brain? 1- cerebrospinal fluid 2 – Meninges 3 – the skull 4 – skin of the scalp 5) What functions are controlled by the left cerebral hemisphere? The left hemisphere controls logical thinking, mathematical thinking, language,

27 27 6) What functions are controlled by the right cerebral hemisphere? The right hemisphere controls artistic expression, creativity and spatial understanding. 7) What did the study of Phineas Gage teach us about the brain? The brain is not only responsible for language and movement but it is also responsible for determining one’s emotions and personality 8) What are the different lobes of the cerebral cortex and what are their functions? – Frontal: movement, thinking, problem-solving – Parietal: touch, pain and pressure information – Occipital: visual information – Temporal: auditory information

28 28 The Cerebrum

29 29 9) What is the difference between white matter and grey matter? Grey matter is a collection of neuronal cell bodies, including dendrites. It is the region of the cerebrum where synapses are made. White matter refers to the collection of axons of those neurons. It is where nerve fibers are located. 10) Who is Wilder Penfield and how did he contribute to our understanding of the brain? Wilder Penfield was a Canadian brain surgeon who created of map of the motor cortex (which regions of the brain control which body parts).

30 Interactive Sites Neuron Transmission Interactive:


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