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IV&V Facility 1 Using Fractal Analysis to Monitor and Model Software Aging Mark Shereshevsky, Bojan Cukic, Jonathan Crowell, Vijai Gandikota West Virginia University (WVU UI: Fractal Study of Resource Dynamics in Real Time Operating Systems)

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IV&V Facility 2 Overview Introduction and motivation Fractality of resource utilization measures in operating systems Modeling software aging Experimental results Summary

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IV&V Facility 3 Introduction “Software aging" phenomenon implies that the state of the software system degrades with time. The degradation manifests itself in performance decline (excessive paging and swapping activity etc.), possibly leading to crash/hang failures or both. Degradation is caused, in particular, by the exhaustion of the operating system resources, such as the number of unused memory pages, the number of disk blocks available for page swapping, etc.

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IV&V Facility 4 Earlier Studies of Resource Exhaustion Vaidyanathan and Trivedi describe the behavior of operating system recourses as a function of time. Slope (trend) depends on the workload state of the system. Workload dynamics is modeled as semi-Markov process. In many workload states the dynamics of the resources demonstrates very high variance resulting in very broad confidence intervals. The highly irregular and oscillatory behavior of the data makes most trend model insufficient.

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IV&V Facility 5 Our Research Objectives Investigate correlation between fractal properties of the resource data and the system’s workload. Develop fractal-based model of the resource exhaustion process. Apply it to real-time operating systems. Investigate possibility of using such model for predicting system outages and for preventive maintenance planning.

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IV&V Facility 6 Goal of the Study Can resource exhaustion be predicted? –Interested in monitoring approaches, suitable for NASA deep space probes. Can fractal theory help? –Does system usage dynamics display fractal behavior over time? –Analyze patterns of fractality in OS resources and establish connection with the resource exhaustion.

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IV&V Facility 7 Initial Data Collection: Memory Resources sml_mem - mem reserved for small requests lg_mem- mem reserved for large requests sml_alloc - mem allocated for small requests lg_alloc- mem allocated for large requests freemem- pages of free memory freeswap- swap space on disk First data collected from a department’s sun server, Sept. 15 - Sept 22, 2001

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IV&V Facility 8 Fractality of Memory Resources Can this be used to predict a system crash ? Can this be used to predict a system crash ?

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IV&V Facility 9 HÖlder Exponent of a Function HE characterizes the degree of local “burstiness” (fractality) of the function. The lower (closer to 0) the HE, the “wilder” the local oscillations. For a smooth function HE = 1 (or higher).

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IV&V Facility 10 Plots of Data With Hölder Exponent realMemoryFree data from SUN server (high workload); Hölder exponents for the data sets.

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IV&V Facility 11 Hölder Exponent Hystogram: An Example The histogram of Hölder exponent for realMemoryFree (high workload).

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IV&V Facility 12 Recent Data Collection Windows 2000 system stress tool used. 2 computers networked together, –One barraged the other with workload. The stress load was increased until a crash occurred.

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IV&V Facility 13 Selecting Parameters for Monitoring Over a hundred OS parameters monitored. We selected the three which: –Do not have smooth or locally constant behavior; –Do not represent “per-unit-of-time” quantity (such as system_calls_per_sec ); –Do not have very high (over 0.9) mutual correlations. Selected parameters (resources): –Available_bytes; –Pool_paged-allocs; –System_cache_resident_bytes. We combine the parameters into a 3-dimensional “resource vector” and monitor its fractal dynamics.

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IV&V Facility 14 Recent Experiments: Some Plots Available Bytes, Pool Paged Allocs, Sys Cache Resident Bytes, and Multi-dimensional Hölder exponent

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IV&V Facility 15 Observations and Hypotheses As the stress increases, HÖlder exponent decreases (fractality increases). The decrease of HÖlder exponent may be viewed as quantitative measure of resource exhaustion. Fractality tends to change in jumps. –Most of our experiments show two noticeable drops in HÖlder exponent before crash occurs.

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IV&V Facility 16 Multidimensional Hoelder Exponents

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IV&V Facility 17 Can Crashes Be Anticipated? Conjecture: the second “fractal jump” observed during the system’s operation signals a dangerous level of resource exhaustion which may lead to crash. However, there is still enough time for graceful shutdown of system. Problems: Detection of “jumps” in noisy HE signal. What is optimal shutdown time strategy (shut it down immediately? Let the system run? For how long?).

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IV&V Facility 18 Fractal Jump Detection The problem belongs to the field of change detection methods. It amounts to detecting a sharp change (decrease) in the mean value of a noisy time series. We view the HE time series as a piecewise constant signal plus a Gaussian noise. We utilized the classical Shewhart control chart algorithm modified to fit our situation (e.g. unlike classical case, we estimate the mean of the signal in real time).

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IV&V Facility 19 Automatic Detection of “Fractal Jumps” The HE plots with pink lines indicating “fractal jumps”.

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IV&V Facility 20 Summary Is the “theory of the 2 nd fractal jump” viable? –How long does the system have to live after the 2 nd jump? –Develop a strategy for automatic preventive shut-down of the system based on the “fractal jumps” detection. Collect more and “better” data. –Allow load increases and decreases. Explore the possibility to incorporate other parameters into the analysis framework. Port the analysis into a real-time environment. –NASA simulated testbeds, ARTS II processor (ISR).

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