Presentation on theme: "Cognitive Processes—Mental Activity Rise of the field Theory Role of the brain –“We understand the brain the way we do because of our brain; are we then."— Presentation transcript:
Cognitive Processes—Mental Activity Rise of the field Theory Role of the brain –“We understand the brain the way we do because of our brain; are we then limited in conceptualizing what a brain could be?” Methods Present and future
How do we know the mind? Early-early –Memory: impressions on wax –Mind/body distinction Later –Scientific introspection; problem: mental image vs. mental activity Even later –Behaviorism: observable events –S R connections Today –Cognitivism: inferences based on observations –Cognitive neuroscience: brain as substrata for mind
Important Caveats for Inferences Experimental (procedural) control –Controlling confounding variables (alternative plausible explanations) –Cause-and-effect conclusions
An Example: Infants’ Long-term Memory Carolyn Rovee-Collier Fact: Infantile amnesia Question: Can pre-linguistic babies remember events for days, weeks, even months? Problem: babies can’t tell us what they remember! How to test? Watch how they kick…
Baseline and Retention Tests
Duration of Retention
How does this study illustrate knowledge of the mind based on inferencing? The IV? The DV? Procedural control?
Early Studies of the Brain Correlations between observable behavior and findings at autopsy –e.g., Paul Broca’s study of Tan Effects of—and during— surgery on behavior –e.g., Wilder Penfield’s “poke-’n-probe experiments”
Earliest modern-age “imaging” methods EEG
“Newest” Methods for Relating Brain and Behavior Compare according to: invasiveness, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, cost, and purpose –MEG (magnetoencephalography) –fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) –PET (positron emission tomography) –ERP (event-related potential)
Longitudinal development study of the brain of a child at various ages. Child was engaged in same activity at each scan. PET Scan
fMRI— working memory
The Information Processing Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) Computer metaphor Original focus: Stages and stores –Characteristics Capacity Duration Encoding format
Model of Thought: Information processing PROCESS…Filter: attention PROCESS…Pattern recognition PROCESS…Selection: attention
Characteristics of Memory Stores Sensory Memory Short-term Memory Long-term Memory CapacityLarge: original form Small: 7+2Unlimited DurationBrief: 250 msec Brief: sec Potentially a lifetime Encoding format As in the sensory experience Acoustic, semantic, visual
Read the following aloud…….
Top-down Processing e.g., context, bias
The Information Processing Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) Computer metaphor Original focus: Stages and stores –Characteristics Capacity Duration Encoding format Recent focus: on processes, as well –Characteristics Type of encoding (control processes) Retrieval (cues; context) Forgetting Interactions Working memory….
Model of Thought: Information processing PROCESS…Filter: attention PROCESS…Pattern recognition PROCESS…Selection: attention Working Memory Working Memory (Baddeley) Added
Summary of Current Status Cognitive science Cognitive neuroscience –fMRI –Neural networks, PDP, connectionism, computer simulations Artificial intelligence
A simple neural network
Alan Turing “Can machines think?”
Turing’s Test (1950) C SourcesInterfaceInterrogator BA The Interrogator (A), a human, can communicate with sources B and C One source is said to be human (& has never met A) and the other is a machine. A must decide which source is human and which is the machine
Turing’s Test (1950) C SourcesInterfaceInterrogator BA Notes 1.Can observe the intellectual behavior only 2.Machine can give wrong answers Due to unintentional errors As a ploy by the programmer As a joke by the machine to tease A
Conclusions about Turing’s Test (1950) If A can distinguish with a significance of only 50% which is the machine AND This continues to hold no matter what people are involved then the machine can be said to simulate human intelligence.
ArtificiaI Intelligence Sodarace Is this AI? Robots make a clean sweep. swissinfo SRI (October 1, 2002). "Robots which dust, wipe, clean and scrub are being put through their paces this week at the first international cleaning robot competition in Lausanne. The event is one of the highlights of a week-long international conference on intelligent robots."Robots make a clean sweep