4Seated from left: Ma (Caroline), Pa (Charles),Mary Standing from left: Carrie, Laura, Grace
5About the author: born in Pepin, Wisconsin. She was the Laura Ingalls Wilder( ):born in Pepin, Wisconsin. She was thesecond of four daughters. Wilder'searly life was spent constantly movingfrom place to place. Her father calledhimself a pioneer man and dreamed ofgoing west to explore and settle onunknown territory.
6About the author:They traveled through thick woods, over barren prairies,through the swollen Mississippi, and over icy waters all in theircovered wagon. They moved from Missouri, to Kansas, toWisconsin, to Minnesota, to Iowa and finally settled in De Smet,South Dakota, where her father claimed a homestead.
7About the author: Laura and her three sisters grew up in De Smet. Wilder, however, never could quite seethis place as home. The many moves in herearly childhood made Laura come to theconclusion that the only way to know thatshe was truly home was to have her familyaround her. Following in her father's dreams,Wilder called herself a pioneer girl and madeher home where her family took her.
8About the author: Wilder did not begin writing her first book, Little House in theBig Woods, until 1931 and it wasreleased the following year. Theinstant success of the book led tothe Little House series, whichbecame popular with young readers.Wilder took great care with eachbook to make sure that the pointof view was consistently from thatof a child.
9About the author: In 1954 the American Library Association established the LauraIngalls Wilder Award in her honor andWilder was the first recipient. Theaward is now given every five years tothe author who has made a substantialcontribution to children's literature. Aweekly television series, Little Houseon the Prairie, which was based looselyon Wilder's books, began in 1974 andran for many seasons.
10Her writing Laura's daughter Rose grew up listening to her mother's stories of those pioneer days. Sheurged her mother to write them down so thatother children could enjoy them as well. So in the1930s and 40s, Laura recorded her memories ofthose days of long ago in a children's seriesknown as the Little House books which includes
11Her writingLittle House in the Big Woods (1932) Farmer Boy (1933) Little House on the Prairie (1935) On the Banks of Plum Creek (1937) By the Shores of Silver Lake (1939) The Long Winter (1940) Little Town on the Prairie (1941) Those Happy Golden Years (1943)
12Cultural background notes 1. Westward Movement in America Westward movement in America carried settlers across America, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. The westward movement began in the early 1600's with European settlements along the Atlantic Coast of North America. It continued until the late 1800's. By that time, the western frontiers of the United States had been conquered. (pioneer)
13Cultural background notes 2. Results of Westward Movement(1) Patterns of migration.(2) The frontier influence.
14Study the text In the Big Woods the snow was beginning to thaw. Bits of itdropped from the branches ofthe trees and made little holesin the softening snowbanksbelow. At noon all the big iciclesalong the eaves of the littlehouse quivered and sparkled inthe sunshine, and drops ofwater hung trembling at theirtips.大森林中的雪已经开始融化了。雪块从树枝上掉了下来，落在下面松软的雪堆上，形成了一个个小洞。中午时分，小屋屋檐下所有的大冰柱在阳光下颤动闪烁。 在冰柱尖儿上，一颗颗小水珠摇摇欲坠。
15When Laura walked behind Ma on the path to the barn,the little bits of candle-lightfrom the lantern leaped allaround her on the snow. Thenight was not yet quite dark.The woods were dark, butthere was a gray light on thesnowy path, and in the skythere were a few faint stars.The stars did not look aswarm and bright as the littlelights that came from thelantern.劳拉跟在妈妈身后向牲口棚走去。一路上，灯笼里透出点点烛光，在她四周的雪地上跳跃。夜还不是太深, 森林里已经暗下来。铺满白雪的小路隐隐泛着灰色的光，夜空中悬挂着几颗暗淡的星星。看上去，这既可星星还不如灯笼的微光那么温暖明亮。
16Pa said he must go to town to trade the furs of the wild animals he had been trapping all winter. The word trade is often used as a noun. But here trade is a verb, means to buy and sell goods. There are many such conversions in English.--- He watered the wine before drinking it.(water, verb,掺水) ---The earth orbits the sun. ( 绕…轨道而行) --- Point this pencil for me, please. (削尖) --- Oil the machine before you operate it. (上油) --- She journeys to Europe once a year onbusiness. (去…旅行)
17Ma was worried, but Pa said that by starting before sun-up and walking very fast all day he could get home again before dark.Sun-up is an American expression for sunrise. Note that sometimes American English (AmE) and British English (BrE) have different words for the same thing.
18电影院 cinema movie theatre 铁路 railway railroad 裤子 trousers pants British English American English商店 shop store汽油 petrol gas电影院 cinema movie theatre铁路 railway railroad裤子 trousers pants公寓 flat apartment出租汽车 taxi cab出纳员 cashier teller
19British English American English 分数 marks grades人行道 pavement sidewalk秋天 autumn fall电梯 elevator lift橡皮 rubber eraser药房 the chemist's the drug store理发店 hairdresser's beauty parlor糖果 sweets candies
20The woods were dark, but there was a gray light on the snowy path, and in the sky there were a few faint stars.Wood/singular----woods/plural In English, some nouns will carry on new meanings when they are used in their plural forms. See more examples: