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Lesson 4 The Nightingale and the Rose. Contents I. Warm-upWarm-up II. Background InformationBackground Information III. Language Study IV. Text Appreciation.

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Presentation on theme: "Lesson 4 The Nightingale and the Rose. Contents I. Warm-upWarm-up II. Background InformationBackground Information III. Language Study IV. Text Appreciation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lesson 4 The Nightingale and the Rose

2 Contents I. Warm-upWarm-up II. Background InformationBackground Information III. Language Study IV. Text Appreciation

3 I. warm-up Take a Love Quiz

4 You are walking to your love's house. There are two roads to get there. One is a straight path which takes you there quickly, but is very plain and boring. The other is curvy & full of wonderful sights on the way, but takes quite a while to reach your love's house. WHICH PATH DO YOU CHOOSE? Short or Long? 1

5 On the way, you see two rose bushes. One is full of white roses; the other is full of red roses. You decide to pick twenty roses for your love. (You could pick all of the same color or half & half or whatever combination that suits your taste.) WHAT COLOR COMBO DO YOU CHOOSE? 2

6 You finally get to your love's house. You ring the bell and a family member answers the door. You can ask the family member to get your love, or you may get him/her yourself. WHAT DO YOU DO? Ask or Get Yourself? 3

7 Now, You go up to your love's room. No one is there. You could leave the roses by the windowsill or on the bed. WHERE DO YOU PUT THE ROSES? Window or Bed? 4

8 Later it's time for bed. You and your love go to sleep in separate rooms (we're very politically correct, here). You wake up in the morning and go to your love's room to check up on him/her. You enter the room: IS HE/SHE AWAKE OR SLEEPING? 5

9 It's time to go home now and you start to head back. You can take either road home now. The plain and boring one that gets you home faster or the curvy and sight-filled road that you can just take your time with. WHICH ROAD DO YOU CHOOSE? Short or Long? 6

10 1. The road represents your attitude towards falling in love. If you chose the short one, you fall in love quickly and easily. If you chose the long one, you take your time and do not fall in love that easily. Now analyze your answers:

11 2. The number of red roses represents how much you expect to give in a relationship. The number of white roses represents how much you expect in a relationship. So, if a person chose all red with one white rose, he/she gives 90% in the relationship, but expects to receive only 10% back.

12 3. This question shows your attitude in handling relationship problems. If you asked the family member to get your love, then you are the type who wants to avoid problems. If you went to get your love yourself, then you are pretty direct and solve the problem right away.

13 4. The placement of the roses indicates how often you would like to see your love. Putting the roses on the bed means, you want to see them a lot. If you placed the roses by the window this means you don't mind seeing each other once in a while.

14 5. Finding your love asleep: You accept your love the way they are. Finding them awake means you expect them to change for you.

15 6. The short and long roads now represent how long you could stay in love. If you chose the short one, you fall out of love easily. If you chose the long one, you tend to stay in love for a long, long time.

16 Oscar Wilde "I was a man who stood in symbolic relations to the art and culture of my age... The gods had given me almost everything. I had genius, a distinguished name, high social position, brilliancy, intellectual daring; I made art a philosophy, and philosophy an art: I altered the minds of men and the colour of things: there was nothing I said or did that did not make people wonder..."

17 "I treated Art as the supreme reality, and life as a mere mode of fiction: I awoke the imagination of my century so that it created myth and legend around me: I summed up all systems in a phrase, and all existence in an epigram.The poet’s height is several inches over six feet. His hair is of dark brown color, and falls down upon his shoulders. When he laughs his lips part widely and show a shining row of upper teeth, which are superlatively white. "

18 Do You Know? 3. Do You Know? What comes to your mind when you first read the title? Did you enjoy fairy tales as a child? Why or why not? What characteristics of fairy tales did you find appealing? Do you believe in perfect love? Why or why not?

19 Fairy Tales —fairies play a part —supernatural or magical elements —children’s stories —veiled comments on life

20 Characteristics: 1) personification of birds, insects, animals and trees 2) vivid, simple narration—typical of the oral tradition of fairy tales 3) repetitive pattern

21 II. Background information 1. Author 2.Art for Art’s Sake

22 Author 1. Author Oscar Wilde, the son of the late Sir William Wilde, an eminent Irish surgeon. His mother was a graceful writer, both in prose and verse. He had a brilliant career at Oxford, where he won the Newdigate Prize for English verse for a poem on Ravenna.

23 Even before he left the University in 1878 Wilde had become known as one of the most affected of the professors of the aesthetic craze, and for several years it was as the typical aesthete that he kept himself before the notice of the public.

24 A novel of his, “The Picture of Dorian Gray”, attracted much attention, and his sayings passed from mouth to mouth as those of one of the professed wits of the age. When he became a dramatist his plays had all the characteristics of his conversations. His first piece, Lady Windermere's Fan, was produced in A Woman of No Importance followed in 1893.

25 An Ideal Husband and The Importance of Being Earnest were both running at the time of his disappearance from English life. The revelations of the criminal trial in 1895 naturally made them impossible for some years. Recently, however, one of them was revived, though not at a West End theater.

26 a man of far greater originality and power of mind than many of the apostles of aestheticism undoubted talents in many directions as a typical aesthete that he kept himself before the notice of the public a poet of graceful diction a playwright of skill and subtle humor a dramatist whose plays had all the characteristics of his conversations

27 After his release in 1897, Wilde published “The Ballad of Reading Gaol”, a poem of considerable but unequal power. He also appeared in print as a critic of our prison system, against the results of which he entered a passionate protest. For the last three years he has lived abroad. It is stated on the authority of the Dublin Evening Mail that he was recently received into the Roman Catholic Church.

28 In the summer of 1891, Oscar met Lord Alfred “Bosie” Douglas, the third son of the Marquis of Queensberry. Bosie was well acquainted with Oscar's novel, Dorian Gray and was an undergraduate at Oxford. They soon became lovers and were inseparable until Wilde's arrest three years later. In April 1895, Oscar sued Bosie's father for libel on the charge of homosexuality. Oscar withdrew his case but was himself arrested and convicted of gross indecency and sentenced to two years of hard labor.

29 January 1893, Babbacombe Cliff My Own Boy, Your sonnet is quite lovely, and it is a marvel that those red- roseleaf lips of yours should be made no less for the madness of music and song than for the madness of kissing. Your slim gilt soul walks between passion and poetry. I know Hyacinthus, whom Apollo loved so madly, was you in Greek days. Why are you alone in London, and when do you go to Salisbury? Do go there to cool your hands in the grey twilight of Gothic things, and come here whenever you like. It is a lovely place and lacks only you; but go to Salisbury first. Always, with undying love, Yours, OSCAR

30 Savoy Hotel, London Dearest of all Boys, Your letter was delightful, red and yellow wine to me; but I am sad and out of sorts. Bosie, you must not make scenes with me. They kill me, they wreck the loveliness of life. I cannot see you, so Greek and gracious, distorted with passion. I cannot listen to your curved lips saying hideous things to me. I would sooner be blackmailed by every rent-boy in London than to have you bitter, unjust, hating. You are the divine thing I want, the thing of grace and beauty; but I don't know how to do it. Shall I come to Salisbury? My bill here is 49 pounds for a week. I have also got a new sitting-room over the Thames. Why are you not here, my dear, my wonderful boy? I fear I must leave; no money, no credit, and a heart of lead. Your own, OSCAR

31 Bobby, Bosie has insisted on dropping here for sandwiches. He is quite like a narcissus—so white and gold. I will either come Wednesday or Thursday night to your rooms. Send me a line. Bosie is so tired; he lies like a hyacinth on the sofa, and I worship him. Yours, OSCAR

32 Art for Art’s Sake 2. Art for Art’s Sake associated with the aesthetic doctrine that art is self- sufficient and need serve no moral or political purpose The only purpose of the artist is art, not religion, or science, or interest. He who paints or writes only for financial return or to propagandize political and economic interests can only arouse feeling of disgust.

33 III. Language study 1. Word Study 2.Phrases and Expressions 3.Word Building 4.Grammar

34 1. Word Study Word list: 1. fling 2. bloom 3. ebb 4. linger 5. pluck 6. frown 7. ungrateful

35 1. Word Study 1. fling v. a. to throw violently, with force b. to move violently or quickly c. to devote to Examples: Don’t fling your clothes on the floor. She flung herself down on the sofa. He flung himself into the task.

36 1. Word Study 2. bloom vi. to produce flowers; to yield flowers; to come into flower or be in flower blossom vi. a. (of a seed, plant, esp. a tree or plant) to produce or yield flowers; to bloom b. to develop Examples: The roses are blooming. The apple trees are blossoming. Their friendship blossomed when they found out how many interests they shared.

37 1. Word Study 3. ebb vi. a. to fall back from the flood stage b. to fall away or back; to decline or recede Examples: The tide will begin to ebb at 4 o’clock. The danger of conflict is not ebbing there. The tide is on the ebb. The financial resources have reached its lowest ebb.

38 1. Word Study 4. linger v. a. to be slow in leaving, esp. out of reluctance b. to proceed slowly c. to persist d. to pass (time) in a leisurely or aimless manner Examples: The children lingered at the zoo until closing time. linger over one’s work ( 磨洋工 ) Winter lingers. We lingered away the whole summer at the beach.

39 1. Word Study 5. pluck v. to remove or detach by grasping and pulling abruptly with the fingers; to pick Examples: pluck a flower pluck feathers from a chicken pluck a rabbit from the hat

40 1. Word Study 6. frown v. a. to wrinkle the brows to show you are annoyed or worried b. to regard sth. with disapproval or distaste Examples: The teacher frowned at the class of noisy children but it had no effect. frown on the use of so much salt in the food

41 1. Word Study 7. ungrateful v. a. not feeling or exhibiting gratitude, thanks, or appreciation b. not agreeable or pleasant Examples: “I will not perform the ungrateful task of comparing cases of failure.” an ungrateful son

42 2. Phrases and Expressions List: 1. something of a(n) 2.see phrases 3.go phrases

43 2. Phrases and Expressions 1. something of a(n) to some extent Example: Our professor is something of an eccentric. Compare: something like: similar to but not exactly like He sounds something like his father when he speaks on the phone.

44 2. Phrases and Expressions 2. see phrases see about doing to attend to; make arrangements for; to deal with see sth. out to last until the end of Examples: It is time for me to see about cooking the dinner. Will our supplies see the winter out? It was such a bad play we couldn’t see out the performance and we left early.

45 2. Phrases and Expressions see through sb./sth. a. to understand the true character or nature of b. to provide unstinting support, cooperation, or management in good times and bad Examples: We saw through his superficial charm. We'll see you through until you finish your college education. I saw the project through and then resigned.

46 2. Phrases and Expressions see to sth. to attend to; to take care of Example: If I see to getting the car out, will you see to closing the windows?

47 2. Phrases and Expressions 3. go phrases go about sth.: to perform to do go about one’s business Don’t go about the job that way. go by sth.: to use the information or advice you get from a person, a book, a set of rules, etc. go by the rules

48 2. Phrases and Expressions go into: to enter a profession or state of life go into business go through sth.: a. to examine carefully b. to experience go through the students' papers The country has gone through too many wars.

49 3. Word Building List: 1.Noun+Noun 2.Prefix—out 3.Root—press

50 3. Word Building Moonlight Sunshine 阳光 sunshade 遮阳伞, 帽遮开销, 支出 Lifeblood 活力的源泉 lifeboat 救生艇 Earphone 耳机 sunflower 向日葵 Lifecycle 生命周期 bookshelf 书架 Network 网络 fisherman 渔夫 Housework 家务 busybody 爱管闲事的人

51 3. Word Building outright Outrage 愤怒,侮辱 outbreak 爆发,发作 Outburst 爆发,突发 outspoken 坦率直言的 Outskirts 市郊 outcome 结果 Outflow 流出 outstanding 杰出的 Outlaw 歹徒 outlet 出口,出路

52 3. Word Building compress 压缩,摘要叙述 Depress 使沮丧,使萧条 Oppress 压迫,压抑 Suppress 镇压,抑制 Repress 压制 pressing 紧迫的 pressure 压力 unpressed 未压缩的 downpress 压迫 overpress 过大压力

53 4. Word Building root—press v. to exert steady weight or force against Examples: impress (= press into) express (= press out)

54 4. Grammar Give me a red rose, and I will sing you my sweetest song. (Para. 14) Press closer, or the Day will come before the rose is finished. (Para. 37)

55 4. Grammar Inversion … yet for want of a red rose is my life made wretched. (Para. 3) … Crimson was the girdle of petals, and crimson as ruby was the heart. (Para. 42)

56 4. Grammar She passed through the grove like a shadow and like a shadow she sailed across the garden. (Para. 13) And on the topmost spray of the rose—tree there blossomed a marvelous rose… (Para. 36) Night after night have I sung of him... (Para. 4) Here at last is a true lover. (Para. 4)

57 4. Grammar My roses are yellow, it answered, as yellow as the hair of the mermaiden, and yellower than the daffodil that blossoms in the meadow. (Para. 19)

58 IV. Text Appreciation Text Analysis 1. Theme 2. Structure 3. Further Discussion Writing Devices 1. Genre and Symbols 2. Figurative Speeches a. Personification b. Simile & Metaphor c. Climax & Anticlimax 3. Syntactic Devices

59 Theme The nightingale is the true lover, if there is one. She, at least, is Romance, and the student and the girl are, like most of us, unworthy of Romance. Nightingale sacrifices its own life for pure love’s sake. A true love needs wholehearted devotion and passion.

60 Structure Part 1 (Paras ): Nightingale struck by “the mystery of love” Part 2 (Paras ): Nightingale looking for a red rose to facilitate the love Part 3 (Paras ): Nightingale sacrificing her life for a red rose Part 4 (Paras ): Student discarding the red rose

61 Question: What genre can this story be categorized into? Optimism Pessimism Fairy tales conclude Fairy tales conclude with the with the cliché typical cliché typical of most fairy of most fairy tales, tales, ‘They all lived happily ever ‘They all lived happily after,’ implying better living ever after,’ implying circumstances for all. better living circumstances for all.

62 Question: What are the symbolic meanings of “Red rose”, Lizard”, “Butterfly” and "Nightingale”? red rose—true love, which needs constant nourishment of passions of the lovers. It can be divided into three stages: love in the heart of a boy and a girl; love in the soul of a man and a maid; and love that is perfected by Death, that does not die in the tomb. Lizard—cynic, a person who sees little or no good in anything and who has no belief in human progress; person who shows this by sneering and being contemptuous

63 Nightingale—a truthful, devoted pursuer of love, who dares to sacrifice his own precious life

64 Question: What’s Oscar Wilde’s belief on love and art? “Some said my life was a lie but I always knew it to be the truth; for like the truth was rarely pure and never simple.” Paradoxical contradictory well-turned phrase Wildean dichotomy

65 “I had genius, a distinguished name, high social position, brilliancy, intellectual daring; I made art a philosophy, and philosophy an art: I altered the minds of men and the colour of things: there was nothing I said or did that did not make people wonder... I treated Art as the supreme reality, and life as a mere mode of fiction: I awoke the imagination of my century so that it created myth and legend around me: I summed up all systems in a phrase, and all existence in an epigram.”

66 Optimism Pessimism “Better to have loved and lost, One should always be in love. That is than to have never loved at all.“ the reason one should never marry. —St. Augustine —Oscar Wilde "There is no remedy for love but To love oneself is the beginning of a to love more." life-long romance. —Thoreau —Oscar Wilde "To love and win is the best thing. A man can be happy with any long To love and lose, the next best.“ as he does not love her. —William M. Thackeray —Oscar Wilde "As the ocean is never full of water, Young men want to be faithful and so is the heart never full of love." are not; old men want to be aithless —Anonymous and cannot. —Oscar Wilde

67 Pessimism About the Future “Yes: I am a dreamer. For a dreamer is one who can only find his way by moonlight, and his punishment is that he sees the dawn before the rest of the world.”

68 Question: What do you think is the Wildean attitude toward love, romance, art and philosophy? Content (Three stages of love) Form (The beauty of language)

69 For reference: Form Content The nightingale is the true lover, if there is one. She, at least, is Romance, and the Student and the girl are, like most of us, unworthy of Romance. So, at least, it seems to me, but I like to fancy that there may be many meanings in the tale, for in writing it I did not start with an idea and clothe it in form, but began with a form and strove to make it beautiful enough to have many secrets and many answers. (Wilde’s comments in a letter to one of his friends)

70 1. Text Analysis “Death is a great price to pay for a red rose…” “It is more precious than emeralds, and dearer than fine opals. Pearls and pomegranates cannot buy it, nor is it set forth in the market-place. It may not be purchased of the merchants, …”

71 head vs. heart The Student’s one-sided preference for word knowledge over emotions is clear from the moment he first sees the rose. “It is so beautiful,” he says, “that I am sure it has a long Latin name.” The Student, the young woman, and their society are all one-sided psychically. They have devalued the “capacity to love”, here symbolized by both the Nightingale and the rose.

72 head vs. heart The relationship of head and heart is a central concern of Wilde's fairy tales. Promising to provide the red rose "out of music by moonlight" and to "stain it with my own heart’s blood," the Nightingale asks of the Student only that he "will be a true lover, for Love is wiser than Philosophy, though she is wise, and mightier than Power, though he is mighty." But the Student cannot understand what the Nightingale says, "for he only knew the things that are written down in books.” He has too much "head" knowledge and almost no "heart" knowledge.

73 Question: What are the types of sentences mainly found in this story?  simple  short  long  complex

74 Question: The story is written in... concrete style (mostly nouns and few adjectives) flowery style (very descriptive with adjectives)

75 Further Discussion About the Text Why is it so important for the student to have a red rose? Why is the Nightingale so determined to get the student a red rose? Why is a rose so hard to get? Why is the Nightingale so persistent in shedding its blood for the student? Is love better than life as is believed by the Nightingale? Do you believe in true love? Why or why not? Comment on Wilde’s attitude to Love, Romance.

76 2. Writing Devices Genre and Symbols Fairy tales are full of imagery and symbols. Find imagery and symbols in this text. jewels (gems, precious stones): emeralds, opal, ruby, sapphire, diamond, jade plants: daisy, rose, oak-tree, daffodil animals: nightingale, lizard, butterfly subjects: philosophy, metaphysics, logic stringed instruments: harp, violin

77 Personification “She has form, that cannot be denied but has she got feeling? I am afraid not. In fact, she is like most artists; she is all style without any sincerity. She would not sacrifice herself for others.” he said to himself, as he walked away through the grove. (Para. 34)

78 Simile & Metaphor Simile: … her voice was like water bubbling from a silver jar. … as white as the foam of the sea… Metaphor: … and redder than the fans of coral … and the cold crystal moon

79 Climax & Anticlimax So the Nightingale pressed closer against the thorn, and the thorn touched her heart, and a fierce pang of pain shot through her. Bitter, bitter was the pain, and wilder and wilder grew her song, for she sung of the Love that is perfected by Death, of the Love that dies not in the tomb.

80 Climax & Anticlimax And the marvelous rose became crimson. Crimson was the girdle of pedals, and crimson as ruby was the heart. But the Nightingale’s voice grew fainter and a film came over her eyes. Fainter and fainter grew her song, and she felt choking in her throat. And at noon the Student opened his window and looked out. … “What a wonderful piece of luck!” he cried… he leaned down and plucked it.

81 Syntactic Devices Style or manner of expression choice of words grammatical structures length of sentences

82 Diction Then she gave one last burst of music. The Moon heard it, and she forgot the dawn, and lingered on in the sky. The Red Rose heard it, and trembled all over with ecstasy, and opened its petals in the cold morning air.

83 So she spread her brown wings for flight, and soared into the air. She swept over the garden like a shadow, and like a shadow she sailed through the grove.

84 So the Nightingale pressed closer against the thorn, and the thorn touched her heart, and a fierce pang of pain shot through her. Bitter, bitter was the pain, and wilder and wilder grew her song, for she sung of the Love that is perfected by Death, of the Love that dies not in the tomb. And the marvelous rose became crimson. Crimson was the girdle of pedals, and crimson as ruby was the heart. But the Nightingale’s voice grew fainter and a film came over her eyes. Fainter and fainter grew her song, and she felt choking in her throat.

85 Syntactical Structures Inversion … and louder and louder grew her song… Rhetorical Question What is a heart of a bird compared to the heart of a man? Repetition And a delicate flush of pink came into leaves of the rose, like the flush in the face of the bridegroom where he kisses the lips of the bride

86 Repetition She swept over the garden like a shadow, and like a shadow she sailed through the grove. Bitter, bitter was the pain, and wilder and wilder grew her song. And the marvelous rose became crimson. Crimson was the girdle of pedals, and crimson as ruby was the heart. But the Nightingale’s voice grew fainter… Fainter and fainter grew her song…

87 The End!


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