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Lectures13. Expressive - Diegetic Pragmatic – Pleasure, learning Mimetic - Retelling/recreating worlds Poetic – aesthetic object, art for art sake.

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Presentation on theme: "Lectures13. Expressive - Diegetic Pragmatic – Pleasure, learning Mimetic - Retelling/recreating worlds Poetic – aesthetic object, art for art sake."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lectures13

2 Expressive - Diegetic Pragmatic – Pleasure, learning Mimetic - Retelling/recreating worlds Poetic – aesthetic object, art for art sake

3 defamiliarization storytelling, retelling nurturing emotions pure academic/practical reasons

4 Interpretation/Reading tries to understand what a text means in terms of its content and ideas (polyvalence) Analysis tries to describe and explain how a text creates meaning by its structure and composition (type, structure, language)

5  Analysis coded, classified, indexed (Internal) - Interpretation polyvalent, multiple (External) Hermeneutics – the art of interpretation A whole is connected to its parts

6  Ballad: Poetic form with a strong meter suitable for singing. Generally a story is told.  Epic: Poetic form, semi-lyrical, which tell a story (usually of conquest, victory, and triumph).  Comedy: Regular Drama; Tragedy: Tragic End  Ode: Poetic form with a sense of praise (eulogy) and wonder.  Fable: Human drama transported into non-human world (animals, etc.). There is a moral lesson to be learned from it.  Fairytale: Human drama transported into non-human world where there is a fantasy to be fulfilled.  Parable: a full story told in a short amount of space.  Sonnet: Poetic form (14 lines) with a problem and resolution at the end.  Short Story: an Impression, image, mood conveyed without fully developed characters or plot. High level of narrator intervention.

7  Renaissance and Reformation Literature:1510-1600 Features Theology, philosophy, science. Example: Christopher Marlowe‘s The Jew of Malta (1563)  Revolution and Restoration Literature:1600-1690 Features: after Interregnum, praising monarchy. Example: Edmund Spencer's Faerie Queene (1590-96)  Eighteenth-Century Literature: 1700-1780 Features: Enlightenment, Reason, exploration. Example: Daniel Dafoe‘s Robinson Crusoe (1719)  Literature of the Romantic Period:1780-1830 Features: Return to nature, supernatural, aesthetics, sublime. Example: William Wordsworth‘s The Prelude (1798-1850) Sanders, Andrew (1996): The Short Oxford History of English Literature. Oxford: Oxford UP.

8  High Victorian Literature:1830-1880 Features: fate, luck, struggles of life. Example: Charles Dickens‘ Great Expectations (1861)  Late Victorian and Edwardian Literature: 1880-1920 Features: struggle, hardship, poverty. Example: Joseph Conrad‘s Heart of Darkness (1889)  Literature of Modernism and its Alternatives:1920-1945 Features: individuality, human struggles, women‘s struggle. Example: D.H. Lawrence‘s Sons and Lovers (1913)  Post-War and Post-Modern Literature 1945-1995 Features: Loss of meaning, failures of reason and rationality. Example: Joseph Heller‘s Catch 22(1961) Sanders, Andrew (1996): The Short Oxford History of English Literature. Oxford: Oxford UP

9 (Foregrounding Principles) Lexical Rhythmic Visual (speech situation) (meter and thyme) (stanzas) (Rhetorical Figures) PhonoMorph.Snyt. Sem. Pragma Imagery (Metaphor, Simile, Synecdoche, Synasthesia, Metonymy)

10  Diction – Slection of words, style, vocabulary  Lyric persona, spekar, or poet himself Tenor: The person, object or idea (“my love”) Vehicle: Object of comparison (“red, red rose) Rhetorical Figures  Metaphor (My love is a red red rose, Robert Burns)  Similie (My love is like a red red rose)  Symbols/Symbolism (equates emotion, feeling)

11 Implicit and Explicit “That’s my last Dutchess Painted on the Wall Looking as if she were alive” “ The apparation of these faces in the crowd Petals on a wet, black bough.“

12  Lyric Thou “I remember you as you were in the last autumn. You were the grey beret and the still heart. In your eyes the flames of the twilight fought on. And the leaves fell in the water of your soul.” Enounced – “what of poem” Enunciation – “how of poem”(speech situation) “I remember you as were in the Garden of John Doe’s The wind wailed past as you crossed the 14 th Street”

13 Alliteration: succession of same sound or same consonant group Wild Wild West, Sea Shells Sell, Back Bench Boys Consonance: (pause in alliteration; intervening vowel) Gobbets of Blubber; Son of a Gun Assonance (congruence or close repetition of vowel sounds) Blind eyes, hind sight

14 iambaá[ To bè], [or nòt] [to bè], [that ìs] [the quèstion] (Shakespeare, "Hamlet") trocheeáaTìger! tìger! bùrning brìght (William Blake, "The Tiger") dactyláaaJùst for a hàndful of sìlver he lèft us (Robert Browning, "The Lost Leader") anapestaaáThe Ass`yrian came dòwn like a wòlf on the fòld (Lord Byron, "The Deconstruction of Sennacherib")

15 Types of Rhetorical Figures 1. phonological : alliteration, assonance, consonance, onomatopoeia ("He claps the crag with crooked hands“: Tennyson, "The Eagle") 2. morphological : changing meaning at the level of words, e.g. word repetition: "Help! I need somebody/ Help! Not just anybody/ Help! You know I need someone" (Beatles) 3. syntactic figures: changing meaning at the level of sentences e.g. parallelism "Lufthansa – the more you fly"; "Beauty is truth, truth is Beauty" (Keats, "Ode to a Grecian Urn") 4. semantic at the level of meaning, e.g. metaphors, tropes ("O heavy lightness! serious vanity!" (Romeo and Juliet) 5. pragmatic at the level of language use (rhetorical manipulation): "Hast not a Jew eyes? Hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions?" (The Merchant of Venice)

16 Anaphora – Repetition of first verse or clause I remember you as you were I remember you as are Epiphora – Repetition at the end of verse or clause You came to the end of the world Yet you didn’t know it was the end of the world Epanalepsis– Repetition in close succession Is it a lie, is it a truth of the lie Why do you cry, why do you make me cry Anadiplosis an-uh-di-ploh-sis – tail repetition I didn’t know I made you cry cry, I say, for I am thirsty for your tears Polyptoton I couldn’t cry when you cried I lied before I knew it was a lie Figure etymologica (Repetition of Root) hit the hitman Play like a player Synonymy I disliked the soup she declined it too

17 Chiasmus kahy-az-muhs ((reversal of structure in successive clauses) With wealth your state/ your mind with arts improve (Donne, The Canonization) Asyndeton (succession of words or phrases) Peel it, rip it, shout, yell, say something! Polysyndeton (conjoining words or clauses) Day gone by which hover and watchover what I see and I drink and think Inversion (reversal of normal word order) Strange fits of Passion Have I known (Wordsworth) Hysteron proteron (reversal of logical succession of events) I and all the others that will love you if they love you Ellipsis (omission of words phrases verbs) Lufthansa – the more you fly Aposiopesis apo-saio-pesis (abrupt interrpution) I will say it – well, why the hell should I say Zeugma zugma (multiple application of verb) I quit cigarettes and my love He kicked the bucket and habit

18 Semantic figures work at the level of words and meanings Euphemism To be under the weather (ill) passed away (dead) Gone far away (heaven) in the silent land (death) Pleonasms (redundancy) Could you repeat that again (rather than could you say that again) Oxymoron (contradictory, unseeming terms combined) What a good terrorist are you! I am feeling awfully good! Paradoxon Believe me, I am a compulsive liar Antithesis (opposite meanings balanced) Love is so short, forgetting is so long To err is human, to forgive is divine Simile (direct comparison) I drive like a maniac Metaphor (indirect comparison with similar meanings) You are a machine Big problems are cold water showers, you have to get out as quickly as you get in

19 Rhetorical questions (answers itself) You say we are of different faiths. Would you believe in my God if I meet you in the same heaven? Apostrophe (breaking the speech and directing to a person or idea) Has madness taken you! Milton! would thou were here! Oh, Death, be not proud! Irony (opposite meaning outcome of what is intended) For Brutus is an honourable man So are they all, all honourable men Water, water, every where, And all the boards did shrink ; Water, water, every where, Nor any drop to drink

20  External at the level of author and recipient, production and audience  Internal/Intertextual at the level of characters, text. characters move between the roles of the addresser and addressee Key Components of Internal Communication Dialogue Monologue Soliloquy Aside (there is no narrator in drama)

21 - Between the Characters and Stage H istorical Author/ Recipient (reader and theatre apparatus) (addresser) - Between the Cast and the Audience T heatre apparatus and audience (addresser) Epic Theatre. Stage Manager. Inside the Action. Outside the Action Shaffer’s Amadeus (clip). Wilder’s Our Town Verbal. Non Verbal. Alienation Effect

22 ‘Dramatic introduction’ (phatic) (Waiting for Godot) ‘Exposition’ (referential- drama text, context) (clip – The Tempest) Isolated/Initial (separate from the action proper) (examples Brecht’s Caucasian Chalk Circle) Integrated (part of the action proper) (clip Richard III) Analytical Drama – genre – Analysis of exposition is present throughout

23 Monological Aside - Richard III (one person) Dialogical Aside - The Tempest (a group) Aside ad spectators - addressing audience Irony Congruent and Discrepant Awareness

24 Dramatis Personae  Correspondences and contrast  Pairing: husband-wife, father-son, lover-beloved, master-servant  Character and confidant/e  Protagonist and antagonist ▪ Comedy; corresponding motive ▪ Tragedy; contrasting motive Function: one character serves as another’s foil in terms of similarities and differences

25  How many characters are present on stage at a given point of time.  Perspective : Its own reality mediated through  a) level of knowledge; b) psychological deposition; c) ideological disposition Closed and Open

26  Static or dynamic character  Individual and Type  Flat or round character  Transparent or opaque character

27 Figural and Authorial  Explicit characterization ▪ Presenting a character directly ▪ Authorial: in stage directions, telling names ▪ Character’s own description of him-/herself ▪ Comments by other characters (before, during, after entry; “gossip”)  Implicit characterization ▪ Presenting a character via similarities and contrasts to other characters ▪ Through the character’s way of speaking and acting ▪ (Every explicit characterization is also implicit)

28 Story– Chronological order of events Plot – Various elements of story put together in a logical order (casual dependence of elements) “The King died and then the Queen died is the story The King died and then the Queen died of grief is a plot”

29 Kernel – central to plot (forbidding, forbidding) Satellites – embellish the plot sequence, omission does not disrupt logical sequence (tip-cat, everything, town)

30 1) First-person – ‘experiencing I’; ‘witnessing I’ Limitations: does not know much about the other characters’ motifs and intentions, must always offer logical explanation “Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life, or whether that station will be held by anybody else, these pages must show. To begin my life with the beginning of my life, I record that I was born (as I have been informed and believe) on a Friday, at twelve o‘clock at night. It was remarked that the clock began to strike, and I began to cry, simultaneously.”

31 2) Authorial – figurally inserted, outside of the world of characters; concrete, tangible, self- identified immediately. Interjections, moral commentaries, flash forward, secondary texts. “[...] I shall not look on myself as accountable to any court of critical jurisdiction whatever; for as I am, in reality, the founder of a new province of writing, so I am at liberty to make what laws I please therein.” ( Fielding II, 1) Advantages: omniscience and omnipresence; spatial, temporal and psychological privileges See p. 112 for an example.

32 3) Figural – a) the narrator recedes from the story making it difficult to tell who is the diction proper; b) a reflector, primarily a third person, replaces the narrator, telling events observed closely from a first person perspective See p. 114 for an example. Story telling frame vs. viewing frame First person, authorial vs. figural Addressing by clear speaker vs. absent present speaker (example p. 115).

33 Narrator gives linguistic account of the world: “The street lights were getting dim against the thunderbolt of the storm. The poles were shaking. Garbage, plastic bags, empty coke-cans swept along the muddy streams as the wind wailed past his feet. Was there an umbrella and a raincoat in the car? How far is the car park from here? David wasn’t sure. But he headed towards the neon sign hoping for the best.” Focalizer is the psychological centre: “[…] what a variety of smells interwoven in subtlest combination thrilled his nostrils; strong smells of earth, sweet smells of flowers; nameless smells of leaf and bramble; sour smells as they crossed the road; pungent smells as they entered bean-fields.” – Virginia Woolf Flush

34 Homodiegetic/Heterodiegetic (where is the narrator positioned?) Homodiegetic: first-person narrator/part of the narrative “Above all. I have a score to settle. I forget nothing. Forgive no one.” Joshi, Last Labyrinth Autodiegetic: Same example as above, if narrator is the main character of the story. Heterodiegetic: not part of the story/not a character “Above all. She had a score to settle. She needed the money at any cost. If only her husband had the faintest idea of all the ruses she contrived to kill him. The poor chap had no idea that she bought a life insurance policy on his name for two million dollars.”

35 Communication level (who is the narrator addressing) Extradiegetic - Intradiegetic Extra: “Jay was a gentle man by all accounts. He was thirty five and a Millionaire.” (narrator is not addressing anyone specific in the narrative, but a fictive reader) Intra: “ Well what use if he is a Millionaire, but lead the life of a miser”, exclaimed Rita. “And he doesn’t even know how to count properly, and he is thirty five”, Roya chuckled. (Narrator is communicating the story/narration through the characters- narrators)

36  Overt – explicit level/individualized “Ray’s heart raced at the thought. She remembered from the crime mysteries she watched on TV; Arsenic poison had no smell and no taste. There is no way he would smell it or taste even when he is sober. But what if they find the traces in the postmortem?” Covert – implicit/anonymous “There were two pharmacy shops in the neighborhood. And then there is Ebay. But it would take two weeks to arrive. Arsenic is cheap to buy. Even rat poison to could be distilled if you had access to a lab. Gun shops are abound. Noose is the easiest. Takes no time to make one.”

37 Cognitive aspects of narration, such as feelings, emotions, cognitive perceptions only individuals can know from close observation and experience. External Focalization (narrative level) “Darkness divulges no secrets. One can grope because one cannot see. Then a candle flickered. Some distant smell of burning wood. Chirping noise of birds can be a sign that water is nearby. One may not be able to see in the dark, but one can smell!” Internal Focalization (story/action level) “[…] what a variety of smells interwoven in subtlest combination thrilled his nostrils; strong smells of earth, sweet smells of flowers; nameless smells of leaf and bramble; sour smells as they crossed the road; pungent smells as they entered bean-fields.“ Woolf, Flush

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