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A True Classic By Harper Lee

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1 A True Classic By Harper Lee
To Kill A Mockingbird A True Classic By Harper Lee

2 Harper Lee and Her Novel

3 Family of Harper Lee Born: April 28, 1926 in Monroeville, Alabama…real name Nelle Harper Lee Parents: Amasa (father) Frances Cunningham Finch (mother) Father: lawyer and served in the Alabama Legislature

4 Siblings of Harper Lee Youngest of four children
Sister: Alice was a lawyer and practiced with her father Sister: Louise married Hank Conner and had two children Brother: Edwin Coleman married Sara Anne McCall and had two children

5 Education of Harper Lee
Youngest of four children…educated at Monroeville public schools Attended Huntingdon College Studied law at the University of Alabama Studied one year at Oxford University

6 Employment of Harper Lee
Worked as a reservation clerk with Eastern Air Lines and British Overseas Airline Company in 1950’s Gave up job to focus on her writing Divided her time between NYC and Monroeville

7 Friends Growing Up Growing up loved to write
Truman Capote was her neighbor Born Sept. 30, 1924 Died Aug. 25, 1984 Wrote Breakfast at Tiffany’s (1955) and In Cold Blood (1966) Spent summers in Monroeville

8 Writing the Novel Compiled the story
Submitted it for publishing to J.B. Lippincott Company Urged to rewrite because too much like a group of short stories rather than a novel Worked with an editor for two and a half years to rewrite Resubmitted in 1960

9 The Novel’s Reception Published July 1960
Placed on best seller list for 85 weeks straight Printed in ten languages Became book of the month Became a Reader’s Digest condensed book Paperback of the year in 1962 Won the Pulitzer Prize

10 To the Big Screen Made into a movie
Gregory Peck won the Academy Award for his role as Atticus Finch Mary Badham Wilt played Scout Nominated for Best Supporting Actress at age ten, but lost to Patty Duke

11 Movie Cast Dill: John Menga Miss Maudie: Rosemary Murphy
Mrs. Dubose: Ruth White Tom Robinson: Brock Peters Calpurnia: Estelle Evans Mayella: Colin Wilcox Paxton Bob Ewell: James Anderson Aunt Stephanie: Alice Ghostley Boo: Robert Duvall Nathan: Richard Hale Jem: Philip Alford

12 Novel’s Background The novel is based on the following:
National events Specific people Personal experience

13 National Events Scottsboro Trial Alleged gang rape of two white girls
Nine black teenagers accused Southern freight train from Chattanooga to Memphis March 25, 1931 April 9, 1931…nine were sentenced to death Mistrial for the ninth because of his youth Executions suspended because of appeals November 7, 1932 US Supreme Court ordered new trials because they had not had adequate legal representation

14 Maycomb is Like Monroeville
Truman Capote was Dill Atticus was based on Harper’s dad Calpurnia was similar to Hattie Belle Clausell the negro woman who helped Harper Lee’s mom The Radley family was similar to the Boleware family who lived on the same street at Harper’s family…their son got into trouble with the law and was kept inside under the father’s watch… very similar to Boo Stores in the book are like those in Monroeville…the courthouse was at the center of the town square in both places

15 Monroeville Today Monroeville, the county seat of Monroe County, was named, like the county, for U. S. President James Monroe. The land was originally held by Creek Indians. Total size of the county is 1,019 square miles, the ninth largest of-Alabama's counties.

16 In and Around Monroeville Today

17 Concepts from the Novel Legal Aspects
Prosecution: The state of Alabama (Mr. Gilmer) Defense: Tom Robinson (Defendant) Atticus Finch (lawyer) Judge: Mr. Taylor Jury: all white men who are farmers and uneducated Court: old worn down inside and outside mighty Greek columns…opposites Witness: testifies to what he/she saw Summation: closing remarks Evidence: eye witness account…no doctor Bench: where the judge sits

18 Flowers of the South Holly Collards Camellias Azaleas Cotton
Chinaberries Dewberries Pecan tree Cannas Mimosa Kudzu Hickory nuts Scuppernongs Wisteria Geraniums Gardenias Johnson grass Camellias Scuppernongs Chinaberries

19 Foods of the South Collards Hickory nuts Fried chicken Scuppernongs
Lemonade Pound cake Lane cake Ice cream Ham Summer vegetables Peach pickles Ambrosia Biscuits and butter Cornbread Pork and beans Fried pork chops Coca cola Sardines Crackers Nehi cola Potato salad Pickled pigs’ knuckles Charlotte Dewberry tarts Cookies Divinity Angel food cake Biscuits and gravy Butterbeans

20 Culture of the 1930’s People Art Education
Amelia Earhart…1st woman to fly solo across Atlantic Jessie Owens…African American athlete...4 gold medals in track and field 1936…Olympics Berlin Art Mt. Rushmore completed by Gutzon Borglum Jason Pollock artist Empire State Building, Chrysler Building, Rockefeller Center Education School terms shortened because depression led to short money supply-taxes Dick and Jane books

21 Culture Continued… Fashion and Fads Literature Music
Hobby…stamp collecting Monopoly…20, 000 sets sold in a week in 1935 Lou Gehrig and Joe DiMaggio Zipper used in clothes Literature Writers F. Scott Fitzgerald Hemingway Steinbeck Wilder Music Duke Ellington Benny Goodman Glenn Miller 1931 Star Spangled Banner

22 Culture Continued… Radio Science/Technology Theater and Film
80% people owned one by 1939 Jack Benny Show…Lone Ranger…soap operas…The Shadow Science/Technology NY World’s Fair 1939 World of Tomorrow Einstein immigrated to US in 1933 professor at Princeton Better refrigeration Nylon made 1938 photocopying started Theater and Film Hollywood flourished Clark Gable…Bette Davis…Shirley Temple Gone with the Wind

23 Culture Continued… Dick and Jane Reader:
Popular basal reader Written by Zerna Sharp Relied on sight reading and repetition....ignored phonics Stories about family life 1965 integration of school....characters changed Main original characters Jane Dick Spot Mom Dad

24 Characters Atticus Finch
Ideal view of justice Understands true worth of people whether black or white Doesn’t allow prejudice to get in the way Teaches his children well Wants his kids to be compassionate and understanding of all people His sister doesn’t agree with all his beliefs Central figure…his name is a term that refers to greatness and it implies learning, culture, and heroism Source of strength and help Has a sense of integrity

25 Characters Scout Finch
Jean Louise Narrator Innocent young child…6 to 9 years old Open-minded Learns the complexities of life Gains understanding Nickname because she is the scout of Maycomb Tomboy Idolizes her father A bit bossy Smart…quick thinking

26 Characters Jem Finch Jeremy Older brother Grows up…changes the most
10 years old to 13 Acts similar to Atticus

27 Characters Calpurnia Black cook and housekeeper for the Finch family
Link between the black and white worlds Raises the Finch children…disciplines them Learned to read and write from old law books

28 Characters Dill Harris
Real name Charles Baker Harris From Meridian, Mississippi Play companion of Jem and Scout Comes to Maycomb each summer to his aunt’s house, Miss Rachel Has no father and is unwanted by his mother…lonely Looks like a misfit Has a talent for telling tales from books and movies Enthralled by the Radley house and family

29 Characters Boo Radley Neighbor to the Finch family
Has not been outside in many years…stories surround him…stabbing father with scissors Symbol of kindness and bravery Phantom….hence his name He seems to be the town freak but has a greater sense of values Foils Bob Ewell’s plan of attack Kids learn that he is very different than they imagine

30 Characters Miss Maudie
Kids favorite neighbor Supports Atticus and what he does Widow in her forties Serves as a role model for Scout Makes cakes House burns Well respected

31 Characters Aunt Alexandra
Atticus’s younger sister Is at odds with Atticus and his beliefs Is preoccupied with family and the reputation Comes to help turn Scout into a lady

32 Characters Miss. Stephanie Crawford
Prejudice Town gossip Spreads rumors about Boo Radley

33 Characters Mrs. Dubose Old neighbor Kids think that she is mean
Taunts and frightens the kids Struggles at the end to free herself of the morphine addiction

34 Characters Bob Ewell Poor farmer Makes no attempt to live with dignity
Often abuses his 8 children Unemployed drunk Dependent on town charity Lives in squalor next to the town dump Angry man

35 Characters Mayella Ewell
Bob Ewell’s 19 year old daughter Has no friends Lonely Kind but not smart

36 Characters Tom Robinson
African American who is wrongfully accused of raping Mayella Strong, handsome and in his twenties Has a wife Helen and 3 kids Described as clean living Works for Link Deas Hand crippled from cotton gin accident

37 Miss. Caroline Fisher Teacher Twenty-one Looks like a peppermint
Bright auburn hair From North Alabama

38 The Cunningham's Walter goes to school with Scout
The crash hit them the hardest Country folk Farmers Paid for thigs with what they had…hickory nuts

39 Setting Imaginary district of Maycomb County Southern Alabama
Summer of 1933 to Halloween 1935 Grips of the Depression Rural area…farms…crops meager Poor Progress is slow

40 The Radley House Old Run down Rain rotted shingles Mysterious
Family….Mr. and Mrs. And Nathan and Arthur Two live oaks stood at the end of the property

41 Downtown Maycomb Tyndall’s Hardware Ok Café Maycomb Tribune Hotel
Maycomb Jail Mayco Drug Store Sinkfield Tavern Maycomb Bank VJ Elmore Store Post Office Court House

42 Other Places Around Maycomb
Barker’s Eddy…off Meridian Highway…about a mile from town Fish pool Town Dump Ewell House Negro Settlement Tom Robinson’s house First Purchase African ME Church

43 Other Residents of Maycomb
Cecil Jacobs Mr. Avery Mrs. Merriweather Mrs. Crenshaw Miss Tutti and Frutti Judge Taylor Heck Tate Mr. Underwood Mr. Gilmer Dr. Reynolds Dolphus Raymond Link Deas Caroline Fisher Reverend Sykes Zeebo Rachel Haverford Helen Robinson Lula Walter Cunningham Sr. Walter Cunningham, Jr. Mr. Harry Johnson

44 Point of View Scout Finch is the narrator…the reader sees the story through a child’s eyes She uses adult language Perceptive, independent child 1st person

45 Themes Prejudice White and black community is separate
Most white people believe they are superior to the blacks Prejudice leads to hypocrisy Characters who want change and tolerance are seen as odd Sexism is a form of prejudice…Scout is admonished for not being a lady

46 Themes Understanding Atticus teaches Jem and Scout to be tolerant of others Seeing life from a different perspective…walking in someone else's shoes Children learn to accept behavior of others…Mrs. Dubose and Boo Radley

47 Themes Loss of Innocence
Scout in the beginning is innocent and by the end of the novel has matured…bilundgsroman Scout outgrows childish ways Jem grows up as well Trial of Tom and especially the outcome teaches Scout and Jem about the harsh realities of life

48 Themes Courage Jem shows courage by touching the house
Atticus shoots the rabid dog Scout learns not to fight with her fists…instead uses her mind…moral courage Atticus takes on the case Mrs. Dubose overcomes addiction and faces death on her own terms Boo comes out of the house

49 Themes Justice and Law Atticus has faith in the justice system
Court outside description vs. inside Judge Taylor does his best to give Tom a fair trial Heck Tate does not decide to pursue Bob Ewell’s death shows his belief in natural justice/ “let the dead bury the dead”

50 Symbols Fire at Miss Maudie’s house burns out of control just as racism does in Maycomb The rabid dog needs to be shot down in one shot just as racism does, and Atticus must do it Boo’s name …ghost Boo and Tom are the mockingbird…symbol of innocence Jail symbolizes anything that is out of date

51 Style Form…many episodes are interwoven together
Book begins and ends with the description of Jem’s broken arm Two stories/parts …Boo and the mystery to get him out of the house and the trial Simple sentence structure and diction Dialect…characteristic speech of the region Irony…contrast between reality and what appears to be real Foreshadowing…clue to events to come Humor…lends a light touch

52 Life in Maycomb Exhibits values and attitudes of the deep South
Social status depends on family background Religion is important School system and lessons not received as important

53 General Plotline Introduction…characters and town are presented
Rising….fascination with the Radley family and the trial Climax…verdict Falling…Tom’s escape and result Conclusion…what happens to Bob Ewell and the kids Plot Diagram

54 Is the novel outdated? You Decide…
Pro Con

55 Harper Lee Years Later For years Harper has lived in Monroeville and New York City On May 7, 2006 Lee wrote about her love of books in a letter to Oprah which was published in the Oprah magazine, O, on July 2006 On November 5, 2007 she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom … Gregory Peck's wife attended the ceremony… Bush called Lee's book a gift to the world Harper leads a private life with emphasis on church and community work


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