Presentation on theme: "25 The Conservative Tide A Conservative Movement Emerges"— Presentation transcript:
125 The Conservative Tide A Conservative Movement Emerges QUIT25C H A P T E RThe Conservative TideCHAPTER OBJECTIVEINTERACT WITH HISTORYTIME LINESECTION1A Conservative Movement EmergesSECTION2Conservative Policies Under Reagan and BushGRAPHSECTION3Social Concerns of the 1980sSECTION4Foreign Policy After the Cold WarMAPVISUAL SUMMARY
2HOME25C H A P T E RThe Conservative TideCHAPTER OBJECTIVETo understand the political and social events of the 1980s and early 1990s
325 The Conservative Tide I N T E R A C T HOME25C H A P T E RThe Conservative TideI N T E R A C TW I T H H I S T O R YIt is the autumn of You are a campaign manager for Republican presidential candidate, Ronald Reagan, former film star and past governor of California. Reagan must defeat President Jimmy Carter, who has lost support. Carter has failed to bring home the hostages in Iran and to revive the economy. Reagan, an optimist, pledges to do both. He also plans to cut taxes and cut back on government programs.What campaign slogan will you create?Examine the Issues• What qualities in your candidate will win support?• What issues are important?• How can you present Reagan as a winner?
425 The Conservative Tide The United States The World continued . . . HOME25C H A P T E RThe Conservative TideTIME LINEThe United StatesThe World1980 Ronald Reagan is elected president.1980 Zimbabwe claims independence.1981 Sandra Day O’Connor becomes the first woman appointed to the Supreme Court.1982 Great Britain and Argentina go to war over the Falkland Islands.1982 Equal Rights Amendment fails to win ratification.1984 President Reagan is reelected.1984 South African Bishop Desmond Tutu receives the Nobel Peace Prize.1985 The Soviet Union suffers a disastrous accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.1986 Iran arms deal is revealed.continued . . .
525 The Conservative Tide The United States The World HOME TIME LINE C H A P T E RThe Conservative TideTIME LINEThe United StatesThe World1987 President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev sign the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty.1988 George Bush is elected president. Reverend Jesse Jackson runs for the Democratic presidential nomination.1989 The Chinese government kills student protesters in Tiananmen Square. Germans dismantle the Berlin Wall.1991 Persian Gulf War breaks out.1991 Soviet Union breaks apart.
6A Conservative Movement Emerges S E C T I O N1A Conservative Movement EmergesHOMEKEY IDEAThe new conservatism begins with the defeat of Barry Goldwater in 1964 and triumphs with the election of Ronald Reagan in 1980.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
7A Conservative Movement Emerges S E C T I O N1A Conservative Movement EmergesHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWConservatism reached a high point with the election in 1980 of President Ronald Reagan and Vice-President George Bush.In the early 21st century, conservative views strongly influenced both major political parties.TERMS & NAMES• entitlement program• affirmative action• Ronald Reagan• reverse discrimination• conservative coalition• New Right• Moral MajorityASSESSMENT
8A Conservative Movement Emerges S E C T I O N1A Conservative Movement EmergesHOMEASSESSMENT1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List eight conservative issues.End affirmative actionReduce the size of the federal governmentReduce entitlement programsEnd busingConservative IssuesStop the regulation of gunsPrayer in schoolDefeat the ERAEliminate legal abortionscontinued . . .
9A Conservative Movement Emerges S E C T I O N1A Conservative Movement EmergesHOMEASSESSMENT2. How did the leaders of the conservative movement of the 1980s want to change government? Think About:• the difference between the conservative view of government and the liberal view• the groups that made up the conservative coalition• conservatives’ attitudes toward existing government programsANSWERConservatives wanted to reduce the size of federal government; lower taxes; end gun control, affirmative action, and busing; increase defense spending; and promote traditional family values.continued . . .
10A Conservative Movement Emerges S E C T I O N1A Conservative Movement EmergesHOMEASSESSMENT3. What role did the Moral Majority play in the conservative movement of the 1970s and early 1980s?ANSWERThe Moral Majority represented a religious revival that stressed a literal interpretation of the Bible and argued for restoration of traditional values.continued . . .
11A Conservative Movement Emerges S E C T I O N1A Conservative Movement EmergesHOMEASSESSMENT4. What personal qualities in Ronald Reagan helped him to win election as president in 1980?ANSWERReagan, known as the Great Communicator, had the ability to simplify issues and offer clear-cut answers.End of Section 1
12Conservative Policies Under Reagan and Bush S E C T I O N2Conservative Policies Under Reagan and BushGRAPHHOMEKEY IDEAPresident Reagan puts in place conservative policies that affect the nation’s budget and the federal government.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
13Conservative Policies Under Reagan and Bush S E C T I O N2GRAPHHOMEConservative Policies Under Reagan and BushOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWPresidents Reagan and Bush pursued a conservative agenda that included tax cuts, budget cuts, and increased defense spending.The conservative views of Reagan and Bush created policies and priorities that affect government spending and budgeting today.TERMS & NAMES• supply-side economics• Sandra Day O’Connor• Geraldine Ferraro• Environmental Protection Agency• Strategic Defense Initiative• deregulation• Reaganomics• George BushASSESSMENT
14Conservative Policies Under Reagan and Bush DEFINITION OF REGANOMICS GRAPHHOMES E C T I O N2Conservative Policies Under Reagan and BushASSESSMENT1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Define “Reaganomics,” and then list its short-term and long-term effects.DEFINITION OF REGANOMICSPolicy advocating tax cuts to bolster private investments, leading to increased national supply of goods and services.Short-Term EffectsFalling interest rates, decreased inflation, economic growthLong-Term EffectsIncreased national debt, budget deficit, trade imbalances, higher taxescontinued . . .
15Conservative Policies Under Reagan and Bush S E C T I O N2GRAPHHOMEConservative Policies Under Reagan and BushASSESSMENT2. Why did President Reagan and President Bush think it was important to appoint conservative justices to the Supreme Court?ANSWERThe Supreme Court decides which laws are constitutional. Both Reagan and Bush had conservative agendas and wanted the Supreme Court to support those agendas.continued . . .
16Conservative Policies Under Reagan and Bush S E C T I O N2GRAPHHOMEConservative Policies Under Reagan and BushASSESSMENT3. In your opinion was Reagan’s first term a success? Think About:• how his tax cuts impacted the rich and the poor• the economy• the federal budgetANSWERReagan’s first term was a mix of success and failure—stopped the growth of inflation but the federal deficit rose.continued . . .
17Conservative Policies Under Reagan and Bush S E C T I O N2GRAPHHOMEConservative Policies Under Reagan and BushASSESSMENT4. Read the following excerpt from Ronald Reagan’s speech at the 1992 Republican Convention.“ We mustn’t forget the very different America that existed just 12 years ago; an America with 21 percent interest rates and double-digit inflation; an America where mortgage payments doubled, paychecks plunged, and motorists sat in gas lines; an America whose leaders told us that what we really needed was another good dose of government control and higher taxes.”What picture did Reagan paint of the Carter administration?ANSWERThat high interest rates, high inflation, gas lines, and too much government marked Carter’s administration.End of Section 2
18Social Concerns of the 1980s S E C T I O N3Social Concerns of the 1980sHOMEKEY IDEASocial issues of many kinds continue to concern the nation during the conservative backlash.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
19Social Concerns of the 1980s S E C T I O N3Social Concerns of the 1980sHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWBeneath the surge of prosperity that marked the conservative era of the 1980s lay serious social problems.Issues involving health care, education, civil rights, and equal rights for women continue to challenge American society.TERMS & NAMES• L. Douglas Wilder• Lauro Cavazos• AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)• Antonia Coello Novello• pay equity• Jesse JacksonASSESSMENT
20Social Concerns of the 1980s S E C T I O N3Social Concerns of the 1980sHOMEASSESSMENT1. List several of the social problems of the Reagan and Bush years and how the government responded to them.Social ProblemsGovernment ResponseAbortionSupreme Court restrictionsDrug use“Just say No!” campaignEducationAmerica 2000 education initiativeWomen’s rightsDay care budget cuts; pay equity in some statesEqual rights for minoritiesSupreme Court reversal of affirmative-action decisioncontinued . . .
21Social Concerns of the 1980s S E C T I O N3Social Concerns of the 1980sHOMEASSESSMENT2. How might improvements in the educational system help solve other social problems? Think About:• the impact education might have on health-related problems• the impact that education might have on urban problems• the impact that education might have on unemploymentANSWEREducation might help discourage unsafe sex and drug use. Education would lead to future job opportunities and lower unemployment rates.continued . . .
22Social Concerns of the 1980s S E C T I O N3Social Concerns of the 1980sHOMEASSESSMENT3. Compare the political gains and losses experienced by various groups during the Reagan and Bush administrations.ANSWERMore jobs and political opportunities for women and minorities; Native Americans gained support for gambling casinos on their native lands; Asian Americans were the second fastest-growing minority population; several states outlawed anti-gay discrimination.continued . . .
23Social Concerns of the 1980s S E C T I O N3Social Concerns of the 1980sHOMEASSESSMENT4. Why might a widening gap between the richest and poorest citizens of a country be a cause for concern about that country’s future?ANSWERA widening economic gap could lead to a permanently divided society.End of Section 3
24Foreign Policy After the Cold War S E C T I O N4Foreign Policy After the Cold WarMAPHOMEKEY IDEAMajor changes throughout the world have a great impact on the direction of U.S. foreign policy.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
25Foreign Policy After the Cold War S E C T I O N4Foreign Policy After the Cold WarMAPHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe end of the Cold War, marked by the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, led to a redirection of many U.S. goals and policies.After the Cold War, the United States provided and continues to provide substantial economic support to the new capitalistic and democratic nations.TERMS & NAMES• INF Treaty• Tiananmen Square• Sandinistas• Operation Desert Storm• Mikhail Gorbachev• glasnost• Contras• perestroikaASSESSMENT
26Foreign Policy After the Cold War S E C T I O N4Foreign Policy After the Cold WarMAPHOMEASSESSMENT1. Explain U.S. foreign policy in Europe, in Central America and the Caribbean, and in the Middle East.U.S. Foreign PolicyEuropeINF Treaty; START II Pact; Cold War endsCentral America and CaribbeanCut aid to Sandinistas; send aid to Contras; invasion of GrenadaMiddle EastIran-Contra affair; Operation Desert Stormcontinued . . .
27Foreign Policy After the Cold War S E C T I O N4Foreign Policy After the Cold WarMAPHOMEASSESSMENT2. What factors caused the end of the Cold War?Think About:• events in the Soviet Union• events in Germany and Eastern Europe• how U.S. leaders responded to those eventsANSWERCollapse of Soviet economy, Gorbachev’s reforms in the Soviet Union, unification of East and West Germanycontinued . . .
28Foreign Policy After the Cold War S E C T I O N4Foreign Policy After the Cold WarMAPHOMEASSESSMENT3. What factors do you think determined whether or not the United States intervened militarily in other nations?ANSWERThe United States intervened when essential United States interests and assets—American lives, democracy, oil—were at stake.continued . . .
29Foreign Policy After the Cold War S E C T I O N4Foreign Policy After the Cold WarMAPHOMEASSESSMENT4. Is it possible for an authoritarian government to make economic reforms without also making political reforms?ANSWERPOSSIBLE RESPONSES:Yes: China, for exampleNo: Soviet Union, for exampleEnd of Section 4