Presentation on theme: "Päivi Atjonen, Professor Sanna Mäkinen, Researcher"— Presentation transcript:
1Towards Inter- and Multiprofessional Cooperation in Counselling at Comprehensive Schools Päivi Atjonen, ProfessorSanna Mäkinen, ResearcherJyri Manninen, ProfessorUniversity of JoensuuFaculty of Education
2Empirical Research Context Our empirical focus is on the national project ”Development of guidance and counselling 2008–2010” coordinated by the National Board of Education148 participating schools, municipalities and regional networks from all over Finland
4Inter/Multiprofessional Collaboration Main idea (Leathard 2003):Traditional cooperation: additive effects = 10 Multiprofessional cooperation: multiplicative effects 2x2x2x2x2 = 32A good definition:”The term ’interprofessional collaboration’ is the key term that refers to interaction between the professionals involved, albeit from different backrounds, but who have the same joint goals in working together.” (Leathard 2003)
5Multi/Interprofessional Cooperation Elements of ”working together” – both a process and a concept (D´Amour et al. 2005) aresharingpartnershipinterdependencepower
6Interprofessional & Multiprofessional Collaboration & Cooperation 1. Inter/Multimulti, manybetween, inter, trans2. Professionalprofession, occu-pationprofessionalexpertiseeducationappreciationidentity3. Collaboration, cooperation:Dynamic and actively developing processTranforming and trans-formative processStructure for common activitiesProcess of working toget-her, consists of concrete issues such as decision-making, negotiations and compro-misesIncludes shared planning and implementation + cooperative activitiesOpportunities to transcend professional boundaries vs. competition
7Development of Inter/Multiprofessional Collaboration Levels of “working together” (Leathart 2003; Hall 2005):No direct cooperation between membersFormal and occasional cooperationRegular communication, consulting and exchange of informationEstablished and transferable modes of cooperation which are not only person-based but are attached to the structured levelCommitment to the multidisciplinary working which is included in the daily policy of planning, implementation and development
10Final Part of the Previous Table Cooperation:Informal, no goals are defined jointly, no planning toget-her, information is shared when need-edCoordination:Some planning is required and more communication, thus, a closed work-ing relationship is developedCollaboration:Working together, having shared commitments and goals, developed in partnership. Lea-dership, resources, risk, control and results are shared. More accomplished than could have been individually.
11Multi/Interprofessional Cooperation/Collaboration Our interpretation 1Cooperation and coordination rather than collaboration better describe ongoing activities in the projects which we are investigatingOur interpretation 2Interprofessional cooperation: teachers, special teachers, student/study counsellors, school welfare officers, principals (= only professionals working inside the educational institution)Multiprofessional cooperation: social workers, youth workers, counsellors in employment offices, physicians, policemen, priests (= also profes-sionals working outside the school sector)
12Research QuestionsHow is interprofessional cooperation perceived by persons responsible for the development of counselling at grades 6–9 of the comprehensive school?How is multiprofessional cooperation perceived by persons responsible for the development of counselling at grades 6–9 of the comprehensive school?Are there differences in the inter- and multiprofessional cooperation perceived by the selected subgroups of the respondents?
14Research ContextGuidance and counselling in the Finnish educational systemStudent counsellor in the comprehensive school (lower level, grades 1–6)Study counsellor in the comprehensive school (upper level, grades 7–9)The National Core Curriculum for Basic Education:to support pupils’ growth and development so that they are able to advance their study abilities and social maturity, and to develop knowledge and skills necessary from the standpoint of life-planning pupils reach decisions on studying, training, day-to-day life, and careers on the basis of their own abilities and interests
15Research ContextVarious national development projects initiated by the Ministry of Education and the National Board of Education (NBE)Examples (years 2000–):Evaluation of Educational Guidance and CounsellingChancesDevelopment of School CounsellingFlexible Basic EducationParticipationSuccessful Lessons
16Research ContextOur research focus is on the latest & most current national project “Development of guidance and counselling 2008–2010”148 participating schools, municipalities and regional networks from all over FinlandObjectives (stated by the NBE) are to develop……local curriculum for counselling…cooperation with the local employment market & business community…cooperation between agencies which try to prevent social exclusion and promote the well-being of youth… cooperation between school and home…to establish counselling activities as a permanent part of regional or institution-based work
17Gathering of DataBaseline measurement in September-Octo-ber 2008 – main data for this presentation:respondents: 442 teachers, study counsellors and a few other professionals associated with guidance & counselling in grades 6–9 (Sept-Oct 2008)eQuestionnaire: see the next slide
18Gathering of DataBaseline measurement – main parts of the questionnaire our focus today is indicated in brown!Background information (8 structured items, 4 open-ended questions)Development work (4 structured items, 1 open-ended question)Current situation in guidance & counselling (2 structured items, 1 open-ended question)Assessment of existing counselling services (30 structured items, 6-point assessment scale)Expectations concerning the newly established project (4 open-ended questions)
19Gathering of Data Data Analysis Other related data: 148 project proposals put forward by schools and regional organisations in application for money from the Ministry of Education (Spring 2008)83 revised project proposals (Oct 2008)112 self-evaluation reports of projects concerning networked counselling services (Oct-Dec 2008)Both quantitative and qualitative analysisComparisions of subgroups: see next slideData Analysis
20Data Analysis: Compared Subgroups (1) female ♀ male ♂(2) big cities small municipalities(3) member of steering group no member(4) developer at the grass-root level not at the grass-root level(5) developer at a schoolat the regional level
23Interprofessional Cooperation Group comparisons: == =♀ = ♂ >Cooperation within school> = higher mean (statistically significant) = means are equalNo statistically significant differences betweenmembers and non-members of the local steering group,participants or non-participants on the grass-root level development of counselling, andthose who were involved in the development work either on the organisational or on the regional level.Statistically significant differences so thatF emales had done more cooperation with guardians/ parents than males, andboth cooperation inside of the schools and with guardians/ parents were seen to be better in the big cities than in small municipalities.
24Interprofessional Cooperation Findings from other sets of data:Development proposals (f = 148) and their revised versions (f = 85):development (Topic 4) and models (Topic 11) for cooperation between the school and home were rarely mentionedSelf-evaluation documents (f = 112) of networked counselling services:cooperation was described as being based on the efforts of study counsellors and principalsshared responsibilities existed between special education teachers and school-based groups of student welfare services efforts were not always very systematic
25Interprofessional Cooperation Findings from other sets of data: Development proposals (f = 148) and their revised versions (f = 85) + self-evaluation documents (f = 112) of networked counselling services:The main challenge is to put a holistic model of counselling into practice according to the idea “It is the task of all teachers to guide pupils…” (NBE 2004)
30Multiprofessional Cooperation Group comparisons: == =♀ = ♂ => = higher mean (statistically significant) = means are equalNo statistically significant differences betweenmales and females,big cities and small municipalities,members and non-members of the local steering group,participants or non-participants on the grass-root level development of counselling, andthose who were involved in the development work either on the organisational or on the regional level.
31Multiprofessional Cooperation Factors which may make the project’s workdifficult (based on eQuestionnaire)Problems of cooperation (29 % of 843 statements categorised from the open-ended question)cooperative culture is missing, different practises in different administrative sectors, lack of enthusiasm for genuine cooperation, problems in contacts with the employment market & business communityExpectations concerning the project’s future(based on eQuestionnaire)Improvement in cooperation (16 % of 597 state-ments categorised from the open-ended question)cross-administrative cooperation, connections between schools, and the employment market & business community, cooperation between home and school
32Multiprofessional Cooperation Findings from other sets of data: Development proposals (f = 148) and their revised versions (f = 85) + self-evaluation documents (f = 112) of networked counselling services:some evidence was found on efforts to develop networks, exchange information and coordinate local guidance servicesimproving cooperation was among the most often mentioned objectives of the newly-established projects
33Multiprofessional Cooperation Findings from other sets of data:Development proposals (f = 148) and their revised versions (f = 85):Topic 2: Networking between different parties (shared use of resources, support for pupils with special needs, rehabilitation, guidance at transitions along the students’ learning paths)Topic 3: Locating regional counselling resources and internal organisation (finding and establishing the good counselling practices which already exist, improving communication systems between different parties, launching new resource centres)Topic 6: Cooperation with employment market and business communities (increasing pupils’ and teachers’ knowledge of work life, cooperation with local entrepreneurs)Topic 9: Development of counselling models external to schools (care for drop-outs, cooperation with youth work & workshops)
34Multiprofessional Cooperation Findings from other sets of data, continues:Self-evaluation documents (f = 112) of networked counselling services:projects aim at evaluating counselling activities as a part of educational, social and employment policy (activities, indicators, participants, processes)although some projects used statistics and surveys others did not have any systematic tools for evaluation
36Inter- and Multiprofessional Cooperation CoordinationCollaborationInter-professional++++++Multi-professionalState of current development projects: + satisfactory moderate goodThere was confirmation of our work hypothesis “Cooperation and coordination better describe ongoing activities of these projects”.Leathart’s level 3 has been reached but the variation is broad.
37Inter- and Multiprofessional Cooperation Challengesinterprofessional cooperation and coordination – according to the holistic model of counselling – works quite well but still needs special attention in the futuregenuine multiprofessional co-operation still has various obstacles: attitudes, acting parties’ varied educational background, different language and routines, lack of time to get to know each othershared expertise + multiprofessional cooperation = a challenging combination
38ReferencesD´Amour, D., Ferrada-Videla, M., San Martin Rodriguez, L.& Beaulieu, D. 2005, The conceptual basis for interprofessional collaboration: Core concepts and theoretical frameworks. Journal of Interprofessional Care 19 (S1), 116–131.Hall, P Interprofessional teamwork: Professional cultures as barriers. Journal of Interprofessional Care 19 (S1), 188–196.Leathard, A Interprofessional collaboration. From Policy to Practice in Health and Social Care. New York: Routledge.Winer, M. & Kay, R Collaboration handbook: Creating, sustaining and enjoying the journey. Minnesota: Amherst H. Wilder Foundation.
39Contact InformationPäivi AtjonenProfessorAddress:University of JoensuuFaculty of EducationP.O. Box 111FIN FinlandSanna Mäkinen,ResearcherJyri Manninen
40PublicationsMäkinen, S. 2008a. Kohti entistä ehompaa oppilaanohjausta. Vuosia 2008–2010 koskevien oppilaanohjauksen kehittämissuunnitelmien analyysi. (30 s.)Mäkinen, S. 2008b. Oppilaanohjauksen kehittäminen Ennakko-tuloksia lähtötilannekyselyn avointen vastausten analyysista. (6 s.)Mäkinen, S. 2008c. Tuumasta toimeen. Oppilaanohjauksen tarkennettujen kehittämissuunnitelmien analyysi. (19 s.)Atjonen, P Onko ohjaus ohjauksessa? Verkostomaisesti tuotettujen pal-velujen mallin soveltaminen oppilaanohjauksen itsearviointiin. (21 s. + 3l l.)Atjonen, P., Mäkinen, S., Manninen, J. & Vanhalakka-Ruoho, M Menossa ja mukana. Arviointia oppilaanohjauksen kehittämisen tilasta syksyllä (42 s. + 5 l.)