Presentation on theme: "Alternative Instructional Strategies: Part I General Intro on Active Learning and Motivation and Creative Thinking Dr. Curtis J. Bonk Associate Professor,"— Presentation transcript:
Alternative Instructional Strategies: Part I General Intro on Active Learning and Motivation and Creative Thinking Dr. Curtis J. Bonk Associate Professor, Indiana University http://php.indiana.edu/~cjbonk, firstname.lastname@example.org
Why is Class Important For Students: –Variety, variety, variety –Address preferences –Provide challenges and supports –Allows some autonomy –Better prepared for changing times For Instructors: –Get to know students better –More reflection on teaching –More confidence
My Intentions: Who Targeted Update teaching methods and philosophies Build collaborative teams Provide labels for what already do Create long-range goals Design usable curricula Foster interaction and collaboration Stop being giant yellow highlighters
Test Question #1 When will active learning meet active teaching?
Charles I. Gragg (1940: Because Wisdom Can’t be Told) “A student of business with tact Absorbed many answers he lacked. But acquiring a job, He said with a sob, How does one fit answer to fact?”
Traditional Teachers Supposed sage, manager, conveyer King of the mountain Sets the agenda Learner is a sponge Passive learning & discrete knowledge Objectively assess, competitive Text- or teacher-centered Transmission model Lack interconnections & inert Squash student ideas
“It's an embarrassment that we can tell people almost anything about education except how well students are learning.” Patrick M. Callan, National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education
What Really Matters in College: Student Engagement “The research is unequivocal: students who are actively involved in both academic and out-of-class activities gain more from the college experience than those who are not so involved.” Ernest T. Pascarella & Patrick T. Terenzini, How College Affects Students
Evidence of Student Engagement (Kuh, 2003) To what extent are students engaged in effective educational practices? How can we obtain and best use such information?
National Survey of Student Engagement (pronounced “nessie”) Community College Survey of Student Engagement (pronounced “sessie”) College student surveys that assess the extent to which students engage in educational practices associated with high levels of learning and development (Kuh, 2003)
Benchmarks of Effective Educational Practice (Kuh, in press)
Level of Academic Challenge Challenging intellectual and creative work is central to student learning and collegiate quality. Colleges and universities promote high levels of student achievement by emphasizing the importance of academic effort and setting high expectations for student performance (Kuh, 2003).
Level of Academic Challenge (Kuh, 2003) Sample of 10 questions: Number of assigned textbooks, books, or book-length packs of course readings Number of written papers or reports of 20 pages or more Coursework emphasizes: Analyzing the basic elements of an idea, experience or theory Coursework emphasizes: Synthesizing and organizing ideas, information, or experiences Coursework emphasizes: Making judgments about the value of information, arguments, or methods
Active and Collaborative Learning (Kuh, 2003) Students learn more when they are intensely involved in their education and are asked to think about and apply what they are learning in different settings. Collaborating with others in solving problems or mastering difficult material prepares students to deal with the messy, unscripted problems they will encounter daily during and after college.
Active and Collaborative Learning (Kuh, 2003) 7 questions: Asked questions in class or contributed to class discussions Made a class presentation Worked with other students on projects during class Worked with classmates outside of class to prepare class assignments Tutored or taught other students Participated in a community-based project as part of a regular course Discussed ideas from your reading or classes with others outside of class (students, family members, co-workers, etc.)
Are senior transfer students generally more or less engaged compared with native students? Less engaged (Kuh, 2003)
What We’re Learning About Student Engagement From NSSE George Kuh (in press). Change Indiana University Bloomington
What We’re Learning About Student Engagement From NSSE George Kuh (in press). Change Indiana University Bloomington
Active & Collaborative Learning Samford University makes extensive use of problem-based learning (PBL) strategies to induce students to work together to examine complex problems.
Active & Collaborative Learning Eckerd College developed Autumn Term, a month during which classes meet from 9 AM to noon, five days a week. Group projects and discussion-oriented pedagogies are coupled with a community service project.
Student-Faculty Interaction Elon University added an extra hour of class meeting time for experiential learning. This allows students and faculty to dig deeper and promotes more frequent student-faculty contact.
Students are too often… Not very interested in ideas Not respectful of others ideas Not well organized Wanting learning to seem easy Emotionally moody and sleepy Preoccupied with previous class or hour Expecting entertainment Unable to concentrate for too long Isolated or alienated
Learning Metaphors Teacher or text-centered to Student or thinking skill-centered to Student generated or problem-centered Transmission to Construction or Design to Discovery or Transformation Boring to Active to Love of Learning Sponge to Growing Tree to Pilgrim on a Journey
Smart Schools (Perkins, 1992) Causes of educational shortfall –Trivial pursuit model –Ability counts most theory –Missing, inert, naïve, ritual knowledge –Poor thinking, rely on knowledge telling, cannot make inferences and solve problems Educational Goals –Retention, understanding, and active use of knowledge
Consultative Teachers Co-learner, mentor, tour guide, facilitator Student and problem-centered Learner is a growing tree and on a journey Knowledge is constructed and intertwined Many resources (including texts & teachers) Authentic, collaborative, real-world tasks Subjective, continual, less formal assess Display student ideas--proud and motivated Build CT, CR, CL skills
Active Learning Principles: 1. Authentic/Raw Data 2. Student Autonomy/Inquiry 3. Relevant/Meaningful/Interests 4. Link to Prior Knowledge 5. Choice and Challenge 6. Teacher as Facilitator and Co-Learner 7. Social Interaction and Dialogue 8. Problem-Based & Student Gen Learning 9. Multiple Viewpoints/Perspectives 10. Collab, Negotiation, & Reflection
7 Fundamental Principles of Learning (Kahn, 1993) 1.Learning is social 2.Knowledge is integrated into life of community 3.Learning is an act of membership 4.Knowing in engagement in practice 5.Engagement & empowerment are linked 6.Failure to learn results from exclusion from practice 7.We have a society of lifelong learners
Resources in a Learning Environment: Teachers Peers Curriculum/Textbooks Technology/Tools Experts/Community Assessment/Testing Self Reflection Parents
Sociocultural Ideas Shared Space and Intersubjectivity Social Dialogue on Authentic Problems Mentoring and Teleapprenticeships Scaffolding and Electronic Assistance Group Processing and Reflection Collaboration and Negotiation in ZPD Choice and Challenge Community of Learning with Experts and Peers Portfolio Assessment and Feedback Assisted Learning (e.g., task structuring)
Connections New Theories Situated Learning -- asserts that learning is most effective in authentic, or real world, contexts with problems that allow students to generate their own solution paths (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989). Constructivism --concerned with learner's actual act of creating meaning (Brooks, 1990). The constructivist argues that the child's mind actively constructs relationships and ideas; hence, meaning is derived from negotiating, generating, and linking concepts within a community of peers (Harel & Papert, 1991).
Teacher Self-Assessment for active learning. (Bonk, 1995) In my classes... ___ 1.students have a say in class activities and tests. ___ 2.I help students to explore, build, and connect their ideas. ___ 3.students share their ideas and views with each other and me. ___ 4.students can relate new terms and concepts to events in their lives ___ 5.students work in small groups or teams when solving problems. ___ 6.students use computers to help them organize and try out their ideas. ___ 7.I give hints and clues for solving problems but do not give away the answers.
Teacher Self-Assessment for active learning. (Bonk, 1995) In my classes... ___ 8.I relate new information or problems to what students have already learned. ___ 9.students prepare answers with a partner or team b/4 sharing ideas with the class. ___ 10.I ask questions that have more than one answer. ___ 11.students take sides and debate issues and viewpoints. ___ 12.students develop ideas from a variety of library and electronic resources. ___ 13.students bring in information that extends across subject areas or links topics. ___ 14.students suggest possible problems and tasks. ___ 15.I provide diagrams or pictures of main ideas to make confusing info clearer.
SCALCO (Bonk & Wisher, 2000) The online forum offered multiple perspectives. I received useful mentoring and feedback from others. I liked collaborating with others online. I had a voice within the discussion forum. I could count on others to reply to my needs.
Four Key Hats of Instructors: –Technical—do students have basics? Does their equipment work? Passwords work? –Managerial—Do students understand the assignments and course structure? –Pedagogical—How are students interacting, summarizing, debating, thinking? –Social—What is the general tone? Is there a human side to this course? Joking allowed? –Other: firefighter, convener, weaver, tutor, conductor, host, mediator, filter, editor, facilitator, negotiator, e-police, concierge, marketer, assistant, etc.
Online Learning Boring? From Forrester, Michelle Delio (2000), Wired News. (Interviewed 40 training managers and knowledge officers)
Motivation Research Highlights (Brophy) 1. Supportive, appropriate challenge, meaningful, moderation/optimal. 2. Teach goal setting and self-reinforcement. 3. Offer rewards for good/improved performance. 4. Novelty, variety, choice, adaptable to interests. 5. Gamelike, fun, fantasy, curiosity, suspense, active. 6. Higher levels, divergence, dissonance, interact with peers. 7. Allow to create finished products. 8. Provide immediate feedback, advance organizers. 9. Show intensity, enthusiasm, interest, minimize anxiety. 10. Make content personal, concrete, familiar.
Classroom Motivation Tips (Alexander, class notes, Pintrinch & Schunk, 1996; Reeve, 1996; Stipek, 1998): 1. Include positive before negative comments. 2. Wish students “good effort” not “good luck”. 3. Give flexibility in assignments and due dates. 4. Communicate respect via tasks select and control. 5. Design interactive and interesting activities. 6. Use coop learning, debates, group discussions. 7. Minimize social comparisons and public evaluations. 8. Use relevant, authentic learning tasks.
More Classroom Motivation Tips (Alexander, class notes, Pintrinch & Schunk, 1996; Reeve, 1996; Stipek, 1998): 9. Use optimal difficulty and novelty. 10. Use challenge, curiosity, control, and fantasy. 11. Give challenging but achievable tasks. 12. Create short term/proximal goals & vary goals. 13. Give students diff ways to demo what they know. 14. Encourage students to give and get help. 15. Attrib failure to low effort or ineffective strategy. (Attrib success to effort or competence) 16. Give poor performing student the role of expert.
150 To Motivate Your Lover (Raffini, 1996) 1.Ice Breakers (a. treasured objects—do you have a treasured object, why is it impt? B. who is like me?) 2.Goal Cards, Goal Notebooks, Expectations (BS ST and LT objectives and ideas on how to achieve) 3.Floating A, Escape Clauses, Volunteer Assignments (to be used on any assignment within a day) 4.Self Report Cards, Self Evaluation (make set of tests available on the Web)
150 To Motivate Your Lover (Raffini, 1996) 5.Discussion Questions, Issues, Problems (perhaps answer questions of another team; talking chips) 6.Team Competitions, Challenges, Puzzles 7.Success contracts and calendars (Guarantee an A or B if fulfill contract provisions) 8.Positive Statements, Self Reinforcements (Bury the “I can’ts”; save “I cans”; say “I think I can”)
150 To Motivate Your Lover (Raffini, 1996) 9.Celebrations, Praises, Acknowledgements, Thank Yous, Put-Ups (multicultural days, trips, class awards, helpers, end of term events) 10.Class Community Building (designated class Web Site or Class Forum, Portal, Digitized Web class photo, photo album, class project, teeshirts, field trips)
150 To Motivate Your Lover (Raffini, 1996) 11.Democratic Voting, Student Interest Surveys, Class Opinion Polls 12.Random Acts of Kindness, Service Learning/Teaching, Volunteerism 13.Change Roles or Status (Random roles, assume expert roles, switch roles for a day)
1. (Ice Breaker) Self-Disclosure Introductions... Round I: Self-disclosure introductions –Who are you –Job –Interests –Hobbies
2. Self-Disclosure Introductions... Round II. Self-disclosure introductions... a.Treasured Objects--Take out two items out of your wallet and describe how they best represent you (e.g., family pictures, credit cards, rabbits' feet) and share. b.Describe themselves (e.g., "I am a tightwad," "I am superstitious") c. State name with an adjective starting with 1st letter of 1st name (e.g., Marvelous Mary.
2. Self-Disclosure Introductions... Round II. Self-disclosure introductions... d. Now intro self & also by a nickname current, past, or potential nickname. e. Brainstorm a list of questions you would like to ask the others...(e.g., My person I most admire is? The best book I ever read?) F. Middle name game (state what middle name is and how you got it).
3. Expectations Charts What do you expect from this workshop, what are your goals, what could you contribute? a. Write short and long terms goals down on goal cards that can be referenced later on. b. Write 4-5 expectations for this workshop/retreat c. Expectations Flip Chart: share of 1-2 of these...
4. Treasure Hunt (Index Cards) a. Favorite Sports/hobbies/past times (upper left) b. Birthplace and Favorite cities to visit (upper right) c. Current Job and Classes Taught (lower left) d. 2 comments, things, or traits about yourself (e.g., team player, personable, talkative, opinionated, hate Purdue, like movies, move a lot, hate sports) (lower right) e. Teaching strategies you are proud of (in the middle)
4. Treasure Hunts After completing card with interests, where born, would like to live, strengths, job role, hobbies, etc. and find a match (find one thing in common and one thing different with everyone)
5. Accomplishment Hunt a. Turn in 2-3 accomplishments (e.g., past summer, during college, during life); b. Workshop leader lists 1-2 of those for each student on a sheet without names. c. Participants have to ask "Is this you?" If yes, get a signature.
6. Issues and Discussion Questions a. Make a list of issues people would like to discuss. b. Perhaps everyone brings 2-3 questions or issues to the meeting. c. Partner off and create a list and then collect question cards, and, d. Then distribute and your group must answer questions of the other groups.
7. Team Brainteasers IQ tests Scrambled cities Crossword puzzles Competitions Dilemmas or Situations Unscrambled sayings.
8. Coat of Arms--fill in. #1: a recent Peak Performance; #2: something very few people know; #3: draw a symbol of how you spend your free time; #4: fill in something you are really good at; #5: write in something that epitomizes your personal motto.
9. It’ll Never Fly Wilbur a. Introduce a new idea or concept or plan. b. Everyone writes 4-5 problems they see in it. c. Divide into groups of 3-4 and discuss concerns. d. Each group writes down 3 roadblocks on a 3 X 5 card. e. Facilitator redistributes so each group gets a different card. f. Subgroups think creatively of how to solve those problems and share with group.
10. Demographic Groupings Birthday Grouping—Nonverbally line up by date of the year born and partner off with person closest to you and then do… Auto Grouping—Group by location one’s vehicle was manufactured (US, Asia, Europe) and then divide into truck and car people, color of vehicle, etc. High School Sweethearts—Group by location where they graduated from high school (Midwest, South, East, West, Asia, Europe, etc.)
11. Talking String state what hope to gain from retreat (or discuss some other issue) as wrap string around finger; next ones state names of previous people and then state their reasons.
12. Disclosure Interviews Divide into small groups of about six people and then hand out prepared list of 5 questions in increasing order of disclosure for participants to ask each other and then have someone stand and their group must describe him or her.
13. Psychic Massage (a closer activity) a. Divide in teams of 3-5. b. In alphabetical order of first names have someone turn his or back to the group c. Team members must make positive, uplifting statements about that person behind his or her back but loud enough for others to hear them. d. One minute per person.
14. Positive Strokes a. 2-3 times during the session, each person fills out a 3 x 5 card about other participants. b. They must complete sentences like: “the thing I like best about (name) is” and “the biggest improvement I saw in (name) is.” c. At the end of the day, the folded cards are passed out and read aloud and then given to the named person.
15. Community Building Create common t-shirts, take photo of group, have online interest groups, etc., and perhaps put up on the Web. Put announcement of retreat on Web or newsletter.
16. Communication/Learning Visuals Draw one or more of the following: –Gun, –cannon, –noose, –high fives, –thumbs up, –watch, –toilet, –smiley face, –etc.
16. Personalizing (e.g., asking “how” and “what” questions) Ask how feel, what has happened, how might such and such help in the workforce, ask “what-if” things were different at work, and what’s next??? How might they do things differently???
18. Have you ever questions: Performed the Heimlich maneuver Tried on a straight jacket Laid down inside a casket, Drunk more than 25 imported beers during your life, Ditched a blind date (or any date), Been a Boy Scout or Girl Scout Shaved your head, Flown a plane, Sky dived, bungee jumped, or whitewater rafted a dangerous river, Been in a play, Milked a goat or a cow, Done back-to-back all-nighters, Completed a marathon, Made an obscene gesture at someone when driving your car, Cheated on your income tax, Run a toll booth, Been above the Arctic circle or below the Antarctic Circle.
What is an idea city? Where want to live? What makes it cool? Culture, parks, night spots, scenery, outdoor recreation, music scene, all-night cafes, extreme sports, outdoor recreation Lots of job opportunities Diversity within the community
What is an idea city? Where want to live? What makes it cool? Convenience for amenities Fun; high energy—bike lanes, ultimate frisbee, climbing walls, urban parks, bistros and cafes not chains
The Creative Class Values creativity, value tolerance, promote individuality, embrace diversity and differences, open to immigration, and merit Are active & participate, not watch sports Want: relax dress codes, use flexible schedules, and new work rules
The Creative Class Engage in work to create meaningful new forms (scientists, engineers, professors, poets, novelists, actors, entertainers, architects, analysts, think-tank researchers, artists, editors, cultural figures)
Pedagogical Strategies: A. Creative Thinking 1. Brainstorm, Reverse BS: Top Ten Lists 2. Simulations, Creativity License Cards, Six Hats 3. Wet Inking, Freewriting, or Diaries 4. Role Plays & Assigning Thinking Roles 5. Forced Wrap Arounds 6. Semantic Webbing or Mapping 7. Idea-Spurring Questions, Think Sheets 8. Metaphors, What Ifs, Analogies 9. Checkerboarding, Attribute Listing 10. Exploration and Web Link Suggestions
Activities—Creativity Tasks 1.Metaphorical Thinking 2.New Perspectives 3.Webbing 4.Just Suppose 5.Creativity Awareness 6.Creative Dramatics 7.Creative Writing and Story Telling 8.Wet Ink or Freewriting 9.Brainstorming 10.Reverse Brainstorming
1. Metaphorical thinking how is my school like: –a prison, a beehive, an orchestra, ghetto, –expedition, garden, family, herd, artist's palette, –machine, military camp, Olympic games, hospital, theater, etc.
1. Metaphorical thinking, Analogies, … 1. Creativity is like ____. 2. Being Creative is like ____. 3. Creativity is to ___ as...
1. Synectics Combining 2 dissimilar ideas. The joining together of unrelated elements (William J. J. Gordon). One brings strange concepts into familiar areas. Putting yourself in a situation. Thinking of how others might solve the problem.
2. Breaking Mental Set and Shifting Perspectives The process of creation frequently involves a dramatic and usually instantaneous change in perception. Sometimes we all need a whack in the side of the head! Have students assume roles of other people, cultures, economies, genders, etc.
2. Breaking Mental Set and Shifting Perspectives Word games; Which one is different; Nine dot problem; Flying Pig; Concealed colors. Analogies, Synectics, Breaking Set, Imagery, Aesthetics, etc.
3. Webbing Directions: write the topic in the center and link closely related ideas or questions in the first ring of ideas. As new ideas are suggested, they are connected by a line to the related item or items.
3. Webbing Webbing can be used to determine: (1)all the possible directions and activities a student or class can explore as a result of interest in a specific topic or subject (2)all that is presently known, and (3)knowledge interrelationships. This technique expands awareness for relating, integrating, and organizing brainstormed ideas.
3. Webbing a. Part I: What is creativity, critical thinking, cooperative learning? b. Part II: What is active learning (i.e., students:) (discover, drawn upon, break free from, use, take ownership, talk, write, relate)
4. Just Suppose or What If Imagine a situation or scenario and reflect on the consequences. “Just suppose you have six weeks of paid professional development each summer for workshops or classes like this, what would teaching be like? What would learning be like?”
5. Creativity Awareness: Creativity Scales Self-awareness of creative traits is important in promoting creativity. Rate yourself for creativity. What is creativity here? How did you do?
5. Creativity Awareness: Creativity Models von Oech's Explorer Artist Judge Warrior
7. Creative Writing or Story Telling Tell a Tall Tale: One person starts a story and everyone adds something to it. You might throw a ball to the person who is to add to it or the instructor might decide or the next person could just jump in. Could be done via e- mail. Forced Wrap Arounds: One person tells a story and it is repeated until it gets through a group or classroom (teaches generative and constructive psychology principles) Object Obituary: Write a fictional obituary for some object that you own or were close to.
8. Wet Ink or Freewriting Writing without reflecting or lifting your pen for a set period of time. Just imagine: imagine you have created a highly active teaching situation...What do you see? Can students wonder, question, speculate, take risks, active listening, respect for ideas, withhold judgment, seek justification??? How is creativity fostered here? Describe environment. Physically, mentally, emotionally, etc...
9. Brainstorming Generating ideas to solve a particular problem, issue, situation, or concern. Here more is better and the wilder the better. The hitchhiking or piggybacking as well as combination of ideas is encouraged. However, there is no evaluation of ideas allowed. For example, How can we increase the use of active learning ideas in college settings?
10. Reverse Brainstorming Generating ideas to solve the reverse of a particular problem, issue, situation, or concern. Once again, more is better and the wilder the better. The hitchhiking or piggybacking as well as combination of ideas is encouraged. However, there is no evaluation of ideas allowed. For example, How can we decrease the use of active learning ideas in college settings?
11. Attribute Listing, Modification, and Transformation a. Attribute Webbing/Listing: "XYZ" shapes, colors, sizes, purpose, numbering. b. Attribute Modification: "XYZ"--after listing attributes, think of ways to improve each. c. Alternative Uses: Uses for "XYZ" for this class or for teaching in general. (find the second best or third best suggestion)
11. Attribute Listing, Modification, and Transformation d. Attribute Transferring: "XYZ"--transfer ideas from one context to the next. (with idea spurring questions: What else is this like? What have others done? What else is this like? What could we copy? What has worked before?) (What can we borrow from a carnival, funeral parlor, track meet, wild west)
12. Idea Spurring Questions how can we: –MAXimize, –MAGnify, –arrangeRE, –combine-adapt, –subtutesti, –EEEXXXAAGGGERRRRATTEE
13. Future Problem Solving Pose futuristic problem. Have students solve in teams. Present to class.
14. Checkerboarding (done in Lone Ranger series) Analyze problems with 2 key variables or components. Write features of one item down the horizontal column (plots). Write features of another item down the vertical (characters). Randomly check off items and a new create story.
15. Morphological Synthesis Write features of one item down the horizontal column. Write features of another item down the vertical. Look at intersection for new item or concept.