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What was the period following the Civil War called? Segregation Integration Emancipation Reconstruction
What was the importance of the Reconstruction period? Congress passed laws designed to help rebuild the country and bring the southern states back into the Union.
What problems did Virginians face during Reconstruction? Millions of freed African Americans needed housing, education, clothing, food, and jobs. Virginia’s economy was in ruins. Banks were closed and money had no value. Railroads, bridges, plantations, and crops were destroyed.
What was the Freedmen’s Bureau? The Freedmen’s Bureau was a government agency that provided food, schools, and medical care for freed African Americans and others in Virginia.
What system allowed freedmen and poor white farmers to rent land by promising the landowners a share of the crops? SharecroppingSegregation Specialization
What were “Jim Crow” laws? “Jim Crow” laws were laws passed by southern states legally establishing segregation.
What is segregation? The separation of people, usually based on race or religion. Waiting Room Coloreds Whites
What is discrimination? An unfair difference in the treatment of people
What was the effect of “Jim Crow” laws on African Americans? Unfair poll taxes and voting tests were established. African Americans found it very difficult to vote or hold public office. African Americans were forced to use separate drinking fountains, restrooms, and restaurants. African-American children attended schools separate from white children.
What was the effect of “Jim Crow” laws on American Indians? American Indians were not allowed to attend public schools. High school education was not available to many Virginia Indians. “Jim Crow” Laws
What influenced growth in Virginia after Reconstruction? Virginia’s cities grew with people, businesses, industries, and factories. Railroads were a key to the expansion. They contributed to the growth of small towns into cities.
What industry contributed to the growth in Tazewell County? Coal mining
What industries continued to be important in Virginia? Tobacco farming and the manufacture of tobacco products
Why did Virginia change from an agricultural to a more industrialized society? Old systems of farming were no longer effective and crop prices were low.
What caused Virginia’s cities to grow? People moved from rural to urban areas for economic opportunities. Technological developments in transportation helped cities grow. Coal mining spurred the growth of towns and cities as people moved to find jobs.
During the twentieth century, what contributed to growth in Northern Virginia? Federal government jobs and computer technology Virginia
Which famous Virginian was a twentieth-century president who wrote a plan for world peace? Woodrow Wilson George C. Marshall
Which famous Virginian was a military leader who created an economic plan for the world? Woodrow Wilson George C. Marshall
What was the impact of George C. Marshall? George C. Marshall was a military leader who created an economic plan to ensure world peace.
How did Woodrow Wilson’s actions impact international events? Woodrow Wilson wrote a plan for world peace.
What was the impact of the Civil Rights Movement? Laws were passed that made racial discrimination illegal.
What changes occurred in Virginia as a result of the Civil Rights Movement? All public schools were ordered to desegregate. Virginia’s government established a policy of Massive Resistance, which fought to resist the integration of public schools. Virginia
What is the meaning of desegregation? Abolishment of racial segregation
What is integration? Full equality of people of all races in the use of public facilities and services
What was the outcome of the U.S. Supreme Court case in 1954 (Brown v. Board of Education)? “Separate but equal” public schools were unconstitutional.
What was Massive Resistance? Virginia’s government established a policy of Massive Resistance to resist the integration of public schools. Some schools were closed to avoid integration.
What well-known Virginian led the Massive Resistance Movement? Harry F. Byrd, Sr.
What contributions were made by Maggie L. Walker? Maggie L. Walker was the first African- American woman in the United States to establish a bank and become a bank president.
Which former governor of Virginia was known for his “Pay As You Go” policy for road improvement? L. Douglas Wilder Harry F. Byrd, Sr. A. Linwood Holton, Jr.
What major contribution was made by Oliver W. Hill? Oliver W. Hill was a lawyer and civil rights leader who worked for equal rights for African Americans. He played a key role in the Brown v. Board of Education court decision.
Which former Virginia governor promoted racial equality and appointed African Americans and women to positions in state government? L. Douglas Wilder Harry F. Byrd, Sr. A. Linwood Holton, Jr.
What contributions were made by Arthur R. Ashe, Jr.? Arthur R. Ashe, Jr. was the first African- American winner of a major men’s tennis singles championship. He was also an author and spokesperson for social change.
Who was the first African American to be elected a state governor in the United States? L. Douglas Wilder
What are the three branches of government in Virginia? Legislative Branch - General Assembly Executive Branch - Governor Judicial Branch - Court system
What is the function of the legislative branch of the Virginia government? The legislative branch makes state laws. The General Assembly is divided into two parts - the Senate and the House of Delegates.
What is the function of the executive branch of the Virginia government? The executive branch makes sure that state laws are carried out. The governor heads this branch.
What is the function of the judicial branch of the Virginia government? The judicial branch decides cases about people accused of breaking the law. It also decides whether or not a law agrees with Virginia’s constitution.
What are the major products and industries of the Coastal Plain (Tidewater) Region of Virginia? Products: seafood, peanuts Industries: shipbuilding, tourism, military bases
What are the major products and industries of the Piedmont Region of Virginia? Products: tobacco products, information technology Industries: federal and state government, farming, horse industry
What are the major products and industries of the Blue Ridge Mountain Region of Virginia? Products: apples Industries: recreation, farming
What are the major products and industries of the Valley and Ridge Region of Virginia? Products: poultry, apples, dairy, beef Industries: farming
What are the major products and industries of the Appalachian Plateau Region of Virginia? Products: coal Industries: coal mining
How have advances in transportation helped economic growth in Virginia? Virginia’s transportation system (highways, railroads, air transportation, shipping) moves raw materials to factories and finished products to markets. Virginia exports agricultural products (including tobacco and poultry), manufactured goods (large ships), and coal.
How have advances in communications and technology helped the economy of Virginia grow? Virginia has a large number of communications and other technology industries that benefit the economy of Virginia.
In what ways is Virginia part of the United States economy? Industries in Virginia produce goods and services used throughout the United States. Many federal government workers live and/or work in Virginia. Many government agencies are located in Virginia and nearby in Washington, D.C.
Let’s review! 1.The period following the Civil War was called ____________. 2.The government agency that provided food, schools, and medical care for freed African Americans was the ________________. 3._____________ allowed freedmen and poor white farmers to rent land by promising a share of the crops to the landowners. 4.Laws passed by southern states making segregation legal were called ______________. 5.Separation of people based on race or religion is called ___________. 6. After Reconstruction, ________ were the key to expansion of Virginia’s cities. Reconstruction Freedmen’s Bureau Sharecropping “Jim Crow” Laws segregation railroads
7.When old systems of farming became no longer effective and crop prices were low, Virginia changed from an _________ to a more ___________ society. 8.People moved from rural to urban areas for __________ opportunities. 9.Laws making racial discrimination illegal were passed during the ___________________. 10.__________ is the full equality of people of all races in the use of public facilities and services. 11.Virginia’s government established a policy of __________________ to resist integration of public schools. 12.The _______________ is the __________ branch of Virginia’s government that makes state laws. 13.Advances in ___________, ______________, and ___________ industries have contributed to economic growth in Virginia. agriculturalindustrialized economic Civil Rights Movement Integration Massive Resistance legislativeGeneral Assembly transportation communications technology
Name these famous Virginians. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.7.8. I wrote a plan for world peace. I created an economic plan for the world. As governor, I started “Pay as You Go”. I won a men’s singles tennis championship. I became a bank president. As governor, I appointed African-Americans. I was the first African- American governor. I was a lawyer who worked for civil rights. Woodrow Wilson George C. MarshallMaggie Walker Oliver W. Hill Harry F. Byrd, Sr. Arthur Ashe, Jr. A. Linwood Holton, Jr. L. Douglas Wilder
Match the products and industries with the numbered Virginia regions. Virgin ia 2 1 3 4 5 Regions of Virginia seafood peanuts shipbuilding tourism military bases poultry apples dairy, beef farming coal coal mining apples farming recreation tobacco information technology federal/state government farming horse industry 1 2 534