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© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Section II Basic Management/ Personal Skills Chapter 5 Decision Making and Problem Solving
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning A Decision-Making, Problem-Solving Environment A problem-solving environment is made up of –Diversity –Disagreement –Risk-taking
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Kinds of Decisions Strategic—executive level Administrative—middle management level Operational—first-line level
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Types of Decisions Command Consultative Consensual
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Whole-Brain Research Left-brain thinking –Processes language –Primarily logical Right-brain thinking –Processes images –Primarily emotional Whole-brain thinking –Using both logic and creativity
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Emotional Intelligence The ability to recognize and manage one’s emotions, as well as those of others The ABC’s of emotions: –Activating events –Belief and self-talk –Consequences
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Basic Methods for Making Decisions or Problem Solving Intuition Snap decisions Delegating Not deciding Using technology for decision making Participatory decision making Brainstorming Focus groups Groupthink
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Four Rules of Brainstorming 1.No one is permitted to criticize an idea. 2.The wilder the idea, the better. 3.The group should concentrate on the quantity of ideas and not concern itself with the quality. 4.Participants should combine suggested ideas or build on others whenever possible.
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Keys to Effective Brainstorming 1.Ensure that participants are prepared. 2.Write down all ideas. 3.Allow no criticizing of ideas. 4.Have a definite ending time.
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning More Complex Decision-Making/ Problem-Solving Processes The seven-step decision-making/problem-solving approach Force-field analysis The nominal group technique The Delphi technique A modified form of the Delphi technique
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Seven-Step Decision- Making/Problem-Solving Process 1.Define the specific problem. 2.Gather all facts concerning the problem. 3.Generate alternatives. 4.Analyze the alternatives. 5.Select the best alternative. 6.Implement the alternative. 7.Evaluate the decision.
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Force-Field Analysis Identifies factors that impede and enhance goal attainment A problem exists when the equilibrium is upset because more factors are impeding goal attainment than enhancing it.
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Nominal Group Technique An objective way to achieve consensus on the most effective alternatives by ranking them. Some people work better by themselves than in a group. Should be reserved for important problems that really require consensus decision.
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Delphi Technique A way to have individual input result in a group effort Uses questionnaires completed by individuals Answers are shared and the questionnaires are completed again until consensus is reached.
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning A Modified Delphi Technique Presents a questionnaire that contains policy statements representing key issues to be decided and a response column with three choices: –Agree with –Not certain but willing to try –Disagree with
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Problem-Solving Policing: The SARA Model 1.Scanning: identifying the problem 2.Analysis: looking at alternatives 3.Response: implementing an alternative 4.Assessment: evaluating the results
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Federal Assistance in Problem-Solving Efforts Office of Community Oriented Policing (COPS) The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS)
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Creativity and Innovation Creativity is a process of breaking old connections and making useful new ones. We are all potentially creative people.
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Thinking Traps 1.Being stuck in black/white, either/or thinking. 2.Being too quick in deciding. 3.Making decisions based on personal feelings about the proposer of an idea. 4.Being a victim of personal habits and prejudices. 5.Not using imagination.
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Mental Locks 1.The right answer. 2.Play is frivolous. 3.That’s not my area. 4.Don’t be foolish. 5.I’m not creative. 6.To err is wrong 7.That’s not logical. 8.Follow the rules. 9.Be practical. 10.Avoid ambiguity.
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Killer Phrases Judgmental Critical Put-downs Stifle others’ creativity To handle killer phrases: –Recognize them. –Describe what is happening. –Challenge the group to discuss whether they are true.
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Common Mistakes Spending too much energy on unimportant details Failing to resolve important issues Being secretive about true feelings Having a closed mind Making decisions while angry or excited Not expressing ideas
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Legal Decisions Law enforcement officers and management must consider if discretionary acts are within the law. Vicarious liability Reducing the occurrence of civil lawsuits
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Ethical Decisions Ethical considerations are important in decision making. Is the decision ethical—morally right?
© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Evaluating Decisions 1.Consistent with the agency’s mission? Goals? Objectives? 2.A long-term solution? 3.Cost effective? 4.Legal? 5.Ethical? 6.Practical? 7.Acceptable to those responsible for implementing it?
McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2010 Modified by Jackie Kroening 2011 CREATIVITY AND HUMAN RELATIONS Chapter 12.
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION: WHAT’S THE QUESTION Define and give examples of: 1. A question of fact 2. A question of value 3. A question of policy.
8 Thinking Critically, Making Decisions, Solving Problems.
1 Mgmt 371 Chapter Nine Managing Decision Making and Problem Solving Much of the slide content was created by Dr, Charlie Cook, Houghton Mifflin, Co.©
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-1.
Teams and Creative Problem Solving and Decision Making
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Chapter 8 Problem Analysis and Decision Making The Rational Model of Decision Making Consists of a structured four-step sequence Consists of a structured.
7-1 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin The Nature of Managerial Decision Making Decision Making The process.
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Team Problem Solving and Decision Making Chapter 14.
Chapter 10 Enhancing Group and Team Performance. Communication Principles Be aware of your communication Appropriately adapt your message to others Effectively.
Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Problem Solving and Decision Making © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible.
QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT Making Decisions The purpose of this module is to develop participants’ facilitation and training skills to enable them to enhance.
Entrepreneurship: Ideas in Action © Cengage Learning/South-Western Chapter 1 Slide 1 Lesson 1.4 Problem Solving for Entrepreneurs Goals List the six steps.
Decision Making Dr Vasuprada Kartic NAC Batch IX PGDCPM.
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