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© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Section II Basic Management/ Personal Skills Chapter 5 Decision Making and Problem Solving.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Section II Basic Management/ Personal Skills Chapter 5 Decision Making and Problem Solving."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Section II Basic Management/ Personal Skills Chapter 5 Decision Making and Problem Solving

2 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning A Decision-Making, Problem-Solving Environment A problem-solving environment is made up of –Diversity –Disagreement –Risk-taking

3 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Kinds of Decisions Strategic—executive level Administrative—middle management level Operational—first-line level

4 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Types of Decisions Command Consultative Consensual

5 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Whole-Brain Research Left-brain thinking –Processes language –Primarily logical Right-brain thinking –Processes images –Primarily emotional Whole-brain thinking –Using both logic and creativity

6 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Emotional Intelligence The ability to recognize and manage one’s emotions, as well as those of others The ABC’s of emotions: –Activating events –Belief and self-talk –Consequences

7 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Basic Methods for Making Decisions or Problem Solving Intuition Snap decisions Delegating Not deciding Using technology for decision making Participatory decision making Brainstorming Focus groups Groupthink

8 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Four Rules of Brainstorming 1.No one is permitted to criticize an idea. 2.The wilder the idea, the better. 3.The group should concentrate on the quantity of ideas and not concern itself with the quality. 4.Participants should combine suggested ideas or build on others whenever possible.

9 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Keys to Effective Brainstorming 1.Ensure that participants are prepared. 2.Write down all ideas. 3.Allow no criticizing of ideas. 4.Have a definite ending time.

10 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning More Complex Decision-Making/ Problem-Solving Processes The seven-step decision-making/problem-solving approach Force-field analysis The nominal group technique The Delphi technique A modified form of the Delphi technique

11 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Seven-Step Decision- Making/Problem-Solving Process 1.Define the specific problem. 2.Gather all facts concerning the problem. 3.Generate alternatives. 4.Analyze the alternatives. 5.Select the best alternative. 6.Implement the alternative. 7.Evaluate the decision.

12 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Force-Field Analysis Identifies factors that impede and enhance goal attainment A problem exists when the equilibrium is upset because more factors are impeding goal attainment than enhancing it.

13 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Nominal Group Technique An objective way to achieve consensus on the most effective alternatives by ranking them. Some people work better by themselves than in a group. Should be reserved for important problems that really require consensus decision.

14 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning The Delphi Technique A way to have individual input result in a group effort Uses questionnaires completed by individuals Answers are shared and the questionnaires are completed again until consensus is reached.

15 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning A Modified Delphi Technique Presents a questionnaire that contains policy statements representing key issues to be decided and a response column with three choices: –Agree with –Not certain but willing to try –Disagree with

16 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Problem-Solving Policing: The SARA Model 1.Scanning: identifying the problem 2.Analysis: looking at alternatives 3.Response: implementing an alternative 4.Assessment: evaluating the results

17 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Federal Assistance in Problem-Solving Efforts Office of Community Oriented Policing (COPS) The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS)

18 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Creativity and Innovation Creativity is a process of breaking old connections and making useful new ones. We are all potentially creative people.

19 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Thinking Traps 1.Being stuck in black/white, either/or thinking. 2.Being too quick in deciding. 3.Making decisions based on personal feelings about the proposer of an idea. 4.Being a victim of personal habits and prejudices. 5.Not using imagination.

20 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Mental Locks 1.The right answer. 2.Play is frivolous. 3.That’s not my area. 4.Don’t be foolish. 5.I’m not creative. 6.To err is wrong 7.That’s not logical. 8.Follow the rules. 9.Be practical. 10.Avoid ambiguity.

21 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Killer Phrases Judgmental Critical Put-downs Stifle others’ creativity To handle killer phrases: –Recognize them. –Describe what is happening. –Challenge the group to discuss whether they are true.

22 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Common Mistakes Spending too much energy on unimportant details Failing to resolve important issues Being secretive about true feelings Having a closed mind Making decisions while angry or excited Not expressing ideas

23 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Legal Decisions Law enforcement officers and management must consider if discretionary acts are within the law. Vicarious liability Reducing the occurrence of civil lawsuits

24 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Ethical Decisions Ethical considerations are important in decision making. Is the decision ethical—morally right?

25 © 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Evaluating Decisions 1.Consistent with the agency’s mission? Goals? Objectives? 2.A long-term solution? 3.Cost effective? 4.Legal? 5.Ethical? 6.Practical? 7.Acceptable to those responsible for implementing it?

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