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Silver Threads Among the Gold Continuing Development.

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Presentation on theme: "Silver Threads Among the Gold Continuing Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 Silver Threads Among the Gold Continuing Development

2 Growing As We Age

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4 Age distribution of U.S population, 1980, 1990, and 2002 Data source: The Bureau of the Census Year 1980Year 1990Year % 5 % 10%

5 Our Aging Populace The most rapidly growing age group worldwide is that over the age of 85 years. In the United States there are currently about 4 million persons over the age of 85; by 2050, nearly 19 million are projected.

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10 Thornton Wilder THE EIGHTH DAY, 1967 THE DRUNKEN SISTERS, 1970 THEOPHILUS NORTH, 1973

11 The Chicago Picasso 1967 Pablo Ruiz Picasso

12 Alberta Hunter ( ) Legendary blues singer, lyricist, and actress Alberta Hunter, a distinctive stylist and one of the top recording artists in the 1920s and 1930s, experienced a dramatic comeback in her old age.

13 Bertrand Arthur William Russell (1949) The Philosophy of Logical Atomism (1954) Human Society in Ethics and Politics (1955) Russell-Einstein Manifesto (1957) Organizes the first Pugwash Conference (1958) Founding President of Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (1961) Imprisoned for one week in connection with anti-nuclear protests Just a few examples of Russell’s late life (age 75-97) work

14 Frank Lloyd Wright Price Company Tower (1952) Beth Sholom Synagogue (1954) Guggenheim Museum, (1956) Marin County Civic Center (1957)

15 AGING Healthy Aging Pathologies of Aging

16 How to Age Successfully Genes Diet/Nutrition Stay Healthy Reduce Stress EXERCISE Body Brain

17 Study Approaches Micro-approaches Macro-approaches

18 Brain Aging Structural Brain Changes Functional Changes in Brain and Behavior

19 Changes in Brain Structure Brain Aging is Selective – Regions – Tissue Type Gray Matter White Matter Timing – Last in – First out Nature of Change

20 Courchesne, E., et al Normal brain development and aging: quantitative analysis at in vivo MR imaging in healthy volunteers, Radiology, 216 (2000) Gray Matter VolumeWhite Matter Volume

21 Courchesne, E., et al Normal brain development and aging: quantitative analysis at in vivo MR imaging in healthy volunteers, Radiology, 216 (2000) MRIPostmortem

22 White Matter Hyperintensities

23 Changes in Brain Function Patterns of Brain Activation – Compensatory Plasticity – Non-selective Recruitment Inhibitory Control of Attention & Behavior – Evidence from EEG – Evidence from PET/FMRI – Animal Models (Center Surround)

24 Models of Cognitive Aging Generalized Slowing Working Memory Dedifferentiation Inhibition

25 Cognitive Aging Sensory Motor Memory Attention

26 Aging Attention Selectivity Sustained Attention Divided Attention Shifting Attention Spatial Attention Consequences of Degraded Attention

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30 Shifting Attention Summary Speed of attention deployment does not change with healthy aging The ability to gate (inhibit) irrelevant sensory information diminishes with normal aging This effect may be modality-specific Decline of gating is most apparent over frontal regions suggesting age-related changes in frontal inhibitory functions

31 Memory & Pathologies of Aging

32 Aging & Memory Most common complaint of aging is declining memory ability Overview – Memory Short-term memory, Long-term memory – Memory in normal aging – Memory in pathological (abnormal) aging

33 Common “forms” of memory Short-term (Immediate or Working) memory – Limited storage capacity – Limited duration (seconds, minutes) – Linked to attention Long-term memory – Unlimited capacity – Long duration (minutes to decades) – multifaceted

34 Forms of “long-term” memory

35 Normal Aging and Memory Anna Thompson of South Boston employed as a cook in a school cafeteria reported at the City Hall Station that she had been held up on State Street the night before and robbed $56. She had four small children the rent was due and they had not eaten for two days. The police, touched by the woman‘s story took up a collection for her.

36 Memory across adulthood

37 Memory ability in the elderly is highly variable

38 Memory and medial temporal lobe H.M.

39 Memory and medial temporal lobe normal aging

40 Aging and dementia Dementia is leading cause of cognitive disability in elderly Definition: The loss of intellectual functions (such as thinking, remembering, and reasoning) of sufficient severity to interfere with a person’s daily functioning. – Memory + one other area of functioning ~50% of people > 85 years have cognitive impairment or dementia Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia

41 AD and brain: pathology

42 AD and the brain: gross pathology

43 AD and the brain: imaging PET: Metabolism

44 Memory & aging summary Aging changes most pronounced in long-term memory – Decline is inevitable, but highly variable Memory changes linked to medial temporal lobe changes Many elderly people (>85 years) develop severe cognitive disability (e.g., dementia) limiting everyday functioning Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia – AD is NOT accelerated aging

45 Additional References Baltes, P.B. and Lindenberger, U., Emergence of a powerful connection between sensory and cognitive functions across the adult life span: a new window to the study of cognitive aging?, Psychology and Aging, 12 (1997) Birren, J.E. and Fisher, L.M., Aging and speed of behavior: possible consequences for psychological functioning, Annual Review of Psychology, 46 (1995) Chao, L.L. and Knight, R.T., Prefrontal deficits in attention and inhibitory control with aging, Cerebral Cortex, 7 (1997) Craik, F.I.M. and T.A. Salthouse, eds. The handbook of aging and cognition. Second ed. 2000, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, NJ. Hasher, L., Zacks, R. T. (1988). Working memory, comprehension, and aging: A review and a new view. The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 22, Polich, J., EEG and ERP assessment of normal aging, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 104 (1997) Raz, N., Gunning-Dixon, F.M., Head, D., Dupuis, J.H. and Acker, J.D., Neuroanatomical correlates of cognitive aging: Evidence from structural magnetic resonance imaging, Neuropsychology, 12 (1998). Salthouse, T.A., Independence of age-related influences on cognitive abilities across the life span, Developmental Psychology, 34 (1998)


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