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Mapping the Cortex To be human, more does matter.

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Presentation on theme: "Mapping the Cortex To be human, more does matter."— Presentation transcript:


2 Mapping the Cortex To be human, more does matter

3 Brains of Mammals More cortical surface area KW 2-2

4 Hemispheres Two brains in one

5 Lobes Based on skull bones

6 Phrenology Franz Gall

7 Broca’s discovery Neuorologist working in Paris in 1860’s Patient called “Tan” Understood commands Couldn’t speak After Tan’s death, Broca found area of damage in frontal lobe

8 Tan’s Brain Broca presented case study on Tan in 1862

9 Korbinian Brodmann 1868-1918 Neurologist Research suggested by Alois Alzheimer Mapped the cell structure of the brain 52 discrete areas First complete and accurate map (1909)

10 Brodmann Areas of Cortex Numbered areas to changes in cell structure Kw 2-21

11 Penfield’s Neurosurgery Wilder Penfield: A pioneer in neurosurgery Temporal lobe epilepsy First studies of living, reacting brain

12 Motor and Sensory Cortex Motor and Sensory strips One of Penfield’s discoveries KW 2-22 Note difference in cell structure: Brodmann maps

13 Motor and Sensory Strips Homunculus

14 Sensory strip contains Skin Sensations –pressure –warmth –cold –pain

15 Also on sensory strip are Kinesthesis –the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts Vestibular Sense –the sense of body movement and position –including the sense of balance

16 Motor and Sensory Strips Homunculus

17 Contralateral Control KW 2-32

18 Sensory and Motor Strips Contralateral control Amount of cortex related to abilities not size of body area Sensory and motor side by side

19 Visual Areas KW 8-17

20 Visual cortex responds Functional MRI scan of the visual cortex activated by light shown in the subject’s eyes`

21 Auditory Areas KW 9-12

22 Broca’s area Broca’s located next to motor strip area for face (light blue) KW 9-17 Broca’s area

23 Carl Wernicke 1848-1904 Born in Poland Educated in Germany Psychiatry and neurology Studies on receptive aphasia in 1874 Wernicke’s area in temporal lobe

24 Wernicke’s area Patient unable to comprehend commands Able to speak but speech lacked meaning Wernicke’s area next to auditory area on temporal lobe

25 Thought to Spoken Word KW 9-17

26 Prefrontal Lobes Area just behind the forehead Frontal lobes

27 Prefrontal Cortex KW 11-16

28 Prefrontal Cortex and Limbic System KW 11-15

29 Limbic and Frontal Lobes KW 11-15 Limbic system and fontal lobes interact to control behavior

30 Egas Moniz 1875-1955 Portuguese neurologist and politician Developed angiogram to visualize blood supply to brain Frontal lobe surgery Nobel prize in 1949

31 Lobotomy First lobotomy in US preformed in 1937 by Walter Freeman Calming effect Less anxious Lack of care and concern Loss of motivation KW 11-24

32 Phineas Gage

33 Gage’s rock drilling

34 Gage Recreated New imaging techniques allow us to see how rod passed through Gage’s frontal lobes. KW 1-5

35 Visiting Gage Site For directions, visit Gage website at

36 PET Scanner KW 9-20

37 PET Scan Images KW 9-21

38 That’s all folks.

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