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Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments1 7. Wild Futures Lecture outline: n Re-wilding n Re-introductions of native species n Workshop:

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments1 7. Wild Futures Lecture outline: n Re-wilding n Re-introductions of native species n Workshop:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments1 7. Wild Futures Lecture outline: n Re-wilding n Re-introductions of native species n Workshop: Developing a wilderness inventory for Britain

2 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments2 "Ability to see the cultural value of wilderness boils down, in the last analysis, to a question of intellectual humility. The shallow- minded modern who has lost his footage in the land assumes that he has already discovered what is important...." Aldo Leopold, A Sand County Almanac

3 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments3 1. Re-wilding n Emerging wild land policy in the UK - background of historical, environmental, social, political and economic drivers n Benchmark projects - The Carrifran Wildwood Project - Trees for Life - Wild Ennerdale - Hafod y Llan - Wicken Fen n Multiple benefits and environmental resilience

4 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments4 Question: What is re-wilding?

5 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments5 1. Re-wilding (cont’d) n Multiple viewpoints as to what is ‘wild’ n History of attrition - from prehistory to present - recent revival in interest in ‘wild nature’ n Emerging policy - Scotland (SNH, NTS, JMT) - England (English Nature, Wildlife Trusts) - Wales (Coed Eryri, CCW) n Opportunities for (re)wilding - economic climate - policy climate - public interest

6 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments6 n Two basic approaches: - "letting go“ if a landscape is left unmanaged for a long enough period, nature will take over and produce its own entirely natural landscape may not necessarily be the same landscape that existed before human settlement, but it will be natural - "wild by design“ we may need to actively 'design' wild landscapes by assisting the regeneration of native species to recreate a more natural looking landscape limited economic activity in the form of low intensity grazing and recreation is still possible and indeed desirable E.g. Council for National Parks (1998) 1. Re-wilding (cont’d)

7 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments7 n Developing new wild lands where opportunities arise - Edwards Review (1991) - CNP “Wild By Design” (1998) n Aspects of re-wilding - promotion of wilderness qualities - enhancing and recreating semi-natural habitats - promotion of ecological process in near-natural areas 1. Re-wilding (cont’d)

8 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments8 n Edwards Review (1991) “a number of experimental schemes on a limited scale should be set up in National Parks where farming is withdrawn entirely and the natural succession of vegetation is allowed to take its course” (Recommendation 6.3, Edwards, 1991) 1. Re-wilding (cont’d)

9 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments9 “Wild By Design” n Semi-natural areas, which appear natural but are in fact influenced by management for agriculture or forestry. n Near-natural areas, where the land is totally divorced from agricultural or forestry use – in which natural processes are encouraged to maintain the diversity of habitats, and vegetation is free to vary naturally with variations in the physical environment. (After CNP, 1998, p.3)

10 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments10 n Promotion of the wilderness qualities - while maintaining productive use which may best be applied to semi-natural areas - in accordance with the aims of the UK Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) to conserve and enhance biological diversity 1. Re-wilding (cont’d)

11 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments11 n Enhancing and recreating semi-natural habitats and recreating others n For example: - reducing grazing pressure to allow vegetation to develop more naturally - enhancing and restoring natural features such as river restoration schemes - restructuring specific landscape elements such as conifer plantations to give a more natural outline 1. Re-wilding (cont’d)

12 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments12 n Promotion of areas where ecological processes can be paramount - especially in near-natural areas where relatively large areas of land can be left without management for long periods of time 1. Re-wilding (cont’d)

13 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments13 Question: What is the current basis for re-wilding in Britain?

14 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments14 n Environmental resilience - how does (re)wilding fit with this approach/view? - drivers for change social, environmental, economic - factors influencing environmental degradation and landscape response robust nature vs delicate balance landscape and public perceptions 1. Re-wilding (cont’d)

15 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments15 n Environmental drivers - climate change and ecological response shifting patterns of migration and range N-S movements and altitudinal shifts - changing geographies of nature - humanistic barriers to adaptability lack of space/continuity between wild areas pollution (critical loads) and environmental stress 1. Re-wilding (cont’d)

16 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments16 n Policy drivers - CAP reform and changes in agricultural subsidies paid to farmers over-production/over-grazing environmental stewardship agri-environment schemes (fitting in) - habitat Directive Natura 2000 Biodiversity Action Plans (BAPs) Water Framework Directive 1. Re-wilding (cont’d)

17 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments17 n Economic drivers - CAP reform and the single farm payment - agricultural ‘disasters’ FMD BSE - falling prices and the power of the big supermarkets - increasing proportion of rural economy based on tourism and recreation 1. Re-wilding (cont’d)

18 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments18 n Social drivers - rise in outdoor recreation and leisure time - greater mobility and disposable income - rural migration: in migration of retirees and commuters out migration of farm workers, etc. 1. Re-wilding (cont’d)

19 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments19 n Wilder Futures? n Where do we go from here? - change is inevitable… work with it - inclusive debate and decision-making - plan, respond and initiate n Possible scenarios? - status quo - abandonment - rewilding - diversification - urbanisation 1. Re-wilding (cont’d)

20 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments20 n Various strategic projects: - LUPG’s “New Wildwoods Project” - RSPB’s “Futurescapes” n The Wildland Network - new umbrella organisation - objectives: To promote the recognition and appreciation of wild land To protect and conserve the qualities of wildness To promote the establishment of complete ecosystems on a large scale, through research, advice, encouragement and education Re-wilding (cont’d)

21 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments21 n The next steps? - “Wild by Design” highlights the challenge …“the commitment to leave minimal intervention areas on a much larger scale (landscapes of thousands of hectares) and over much longer periods (hundreds of years)” (CNP, 1998) - integrating re-wilding with farming “Wilderness and Plenty” Fraser Darling - packaging and marketing selling idea to public and politicians - developing a workable and realistic strategy 1. Re-wilding (cont’d)

22 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments22 2. Re-introductions of native species n Nature management in UK? - maintaining habitats and species - remnants of former farming/forestry systems - management using past practice - i.e. “nature gardening” n Alternative systems? - less human intervention - role of large herbivores and predators?

23 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments23 2. Re-introductions of native species (cont’d) n Herbivores as a management tool? - NOT a unit of production (e.g. farm animals) - Vector of ecological maintenance “shaggy gardeners” or “woolly mowers” prevent tree regeneration on heaths Maintain short grass sward on chalk down

24 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments24 Question: What are the key issues when considering use of large herbivores as a tool in re- wilding projects?

25 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments25 n What are appropriate populations? - carrying capacity? - relationship between animal numbers and pattern and structure of vegetation? - species type? grazers vs browsers vs foragers preferred fodder niche habitats (e.g. beaver in riparian zone) - predation and demographics? - The “herbivore guild” 2. Re-introductions of native species (cont’d)

26 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments26 Question : What is an appropriate “herbivore guild” for Britain?

27 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments27 Question: What about carnivores?

28 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments28 n US Wildlands Project: - “Cores, Corridors and Carnivores” - large mammalian carnivores seen as essential to wildland bear wolf lynx - re-introductions in mainland Europe bear and lynx (France, Spain, Switzerland, Austria, Itlay and Poland) wolf (Norway, Germany, Poland and wider Alps) 2. Re-introductions of native species (cont’d)

29 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments29 n Lynx as a possible starting point - adaptable variation in prey range of suitable habitats (mountain scrub to dense forest) cold adapted - mountains of Scotland, northern England, Wales sufficient prey and habitat 2. Re-introductions of native species (cont’d)

30 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments30 Question: What about wolf and bear?

31 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments31 Reading Council for National Parks (1998) Wild by Design in the National Parks of England and Wales: a guide to the issues. CNP, London. Edwards, R. (1991) Fit for the Future. Report of the National Parks Review Panel. Countryside Commission, Cheltenham, CCP 334. Fenton, J. (1996) Wild land or wildereness – is there a difference? ECOS 17(2), The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (2001) Futurescapes: the large scale habitat restoration for wildlife and people. RSPB, Sandy. Taylor, P. (2005) Beyond Conservation. Chapters 6, 7 and 8. Vera, F.W.M. (2000) Grazing ecology and forest history. CABI Publishing, Waltingford.

32 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments32 Workshop Developing a wildland inventory for Britain

33 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments33 Task

34 Lecture 7GEOG3320 – Management of Wilderness Environments34 Next week Case studies 1: Wild Britain n The Cairngorms n Plynlimon n The North Pennines n Workshop: guest lecture – Toby Aykroyd on “Wild Britain”


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