1Assessment of Organizational Culture in a Community College Partnership: A Case Study Mary Kathryn Turner, RDH, EdDDean, Science & Allied HealthSacramento City CollegeSWHOAC Meeting – May 29, 2009
2Introduction & Background Innovative education/industry partnership based on shared goal of addressing nursing shortageCalifornia nursing shortage – impacting both education and industry (Sechrist, Lewis & Rutledge, 1999)High cost of nursing programs, faculty & facilitiesNo recognition of the organizational differences – especially the cultures
3Introduction & Background Organizational culture“A pattern of shared basic assumptions that was learned by a group as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems.”(Schein, 2004, p. 17)
4Introduction & Background Organizational culture“A pattern of shared basic assumptions that was learned by a group as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems.”(Schein, 2004, p. 17)“The way we do things around here…..”
5Statement of ProblemThe success of community college and industry partnerships may be adversely affected by the lack of awareness of differences in organizational culture.Culture clash – the primary causal factor in the failure of mergers and acquisitions and strategic alliances (Carleton & Lineberry, 2004)
6Study Purpose & Significance Analyze the cultural characteristics and sources of conflict in a community college and hospital system partnershipIf impact of organizational culture is recognized at onset of community college partnership development, appropriate strategies and interventions can be put in place to better ensure success.
12Methodology - Participants Surveys (n = 67; 75%)26 Community college administrators, faculty or staff (n = 23; 88%)41 Hospital system personnel (n = 27; 66%)Interviews2 Administrators from each organizationDefinition of organizational cultureCharacteristics of their culture & the partner’s cultureSources of conflictChanges in institutional practicesLessons learned
13Participants Caucasian female Over 45 years of age Master’s degree Over 11 years employment in organizationInvolved in partnership 5 years or more
14Research Hypotheses & Questions - #1 Organizational cultural attributes, as identified by members of a collaborative partnership are different for a community college and a hospital system.What are the perceived cultural attributes for each organization?How are the cultural attributes similar?How are the cultural attributes different?
15Results – Research Hypothesis #1 ClanAdhocracyHierarchyMarketCommunity CollegeHospital
16Results – Research Hypothesis #1 ClanAdhocracyHierarchyMarketSolid = Community College Dotted = Hospital
17Results – Research Hypothesis #1 Organizational cultural attributes, as identified by members of a collaborative partnership are different for a community college and a hospital system.Significant difference in dependent variables of Clan (p = .05), Market and Hierarchy (p = .01).
18Discussion Self-perceived cultural characteristics ClanAdhocracyHierarchyMarketSolid = Community College Dotted = Hospital
19Discussion Self-perceived cultural characteristics Hospital -- Clan/MarketCollege -- Clan/HierarchyFlexibility & Internal Focus“Family-like” work environmentTeam-work, participation & consensusFriendly, people shareLeaders – mentors, parent figuresLoyalty & traditionHuman resource development – cohesion & moraleSensitivity to customers & concern for people
21Research Hypotheses & Questions - #2 The perception of an organization’s cultural attributes is different when assessed by members of the organization versus members of the partner organization.Do the partners perceive their counterpart’s culture to possess the same characteristics as identified by individuals from within the organization?
22Results – Research Hypothesis #2 ClanAdhocracyHierarchyMarketCommunity CollegeHospital
23Results – Research Hypothesis #2 ClanAdhocracyHierarchyMarketSolid = Community College Dotted = Hospital
24Results – Research Hypothesis #2 The perception of an organization’s cultural attributes is different when assessed by members of the organization versus members of the partner organization.Significant difference (p = .0005; .001) in mean scores of given organization and mean scores of partner organization for Clan, Adhocracy*, Market & Hierarchy.* Hospital partner -- Adhocracy “my” vs “partner” T-test not significant
25Discussion Self-Perceived Culture Partner-Perceived Culture AdhocracyClanHierarchyMarketSolid = Community College Dotted = Hospital
27Research Hypotheses & Questions - #3 Higher level managers who initiate a partnership will have a different perception of the two organization’s cultures than those individuals at the operational or implementation level.Are there any differences between how higher level managers view their organization’s culture and how individuals at the operational level view the culture?
28Results – Research Hypothesis #3 Higher level managers who initiate a partnership will have a different perception of the two organization’s cultures than those individuals at the operational or implementation level.Management vs. operational employees demonstrate a significant difference (p = .25) in mean scores on Hierarchy – partner organization.
29Research Hypotheses & Questions - #4 Perceived sources of conflict will be related to differences in organizational culture.What are the perceived sources of conflict as related to success factors within the partnership?How are the perceived sources of conflict related to the organizational cultures?
30Results – Research Hypothesis #4 Perceived sources of conflict MembershipTrust (77%)Willingness to compromise (55%)
31Results – Research Hypothesis #4 Perceived sources of conflict MembershipTrustWillingness to compromiseProcess & StructureParticipants not able to speak for organization (71%)Lack of flexibility in decision-making (68%)Unwillingness to consider different approaches (66%)Clear roles and responsibilitiesClear decision making process
32Results – Research Hypothesis #4 Perceived sources of conflict CommunicationOpen communicationParticipants not always informedLeaders don’t always communicate well
33Results – Research Hypothesis #4 Perceived sources of conflict CommunicationOpen communicationParticipants not always informedLeaders don’t always communicate wellPurpose
34Results – Research Hypothesis #4 Perceived sources of conflict CommunicationOpen communicationParticipants not always informedLeaders don’t always communicate wellPurposeResourcesLeaders don’t possess necessary skills for working with people
35Results – Research Hypothesis #4 Perceived sources of conflict will be related to differences in organizational culture.How are the perceived sources of conflict related to the organizational cultures?No significant difference in mean scores on conflict constructs of Membership, Process/Structure, Communication & Purpose* between community college and hospital partners.*Resource construct unable to be analyzed.
36Discussion ConflictMembership Trust (Clan) – “us” vs. “them” Process & Structure Lack of flexibility (Hierarchy) Decision-making (Hierarchy/Market) Communication Open dialogue (Clan/Hierarchy/Market) Resources Leadership skills (Hierarchy/Market)
37Cultural Properties/Elements for Organizational Language, Communication, and Decision-making Artifacts & CreationsCollegeLanguage of “student success” and “academic freedom”Hospital PartnersLanguage of “business model” and “return on investment”“Closed” meetingsDecision-making and implementation protocol -- slow & cumbersomeDecision-making and implementation protocol -- effective & efficient
38Cultural Properties/Elements for Organizational Language, Communication, and Decision-making Values CollegeFaculty role in educational process and student successHospital PartnersBusiness model supports student successAll individuals will be allows to participate in the dialogue and their opinions will be valuedAll levels of employee can generate ideas; Communication processes are effective & efficientConsensus & participatory decision-making; Tradition, Slow ProcessesCreativity & dynamics; Quick response necessary due to competitive environment
39Cultural Properties/Elements for Organizational Language, Communication, and Decision-making Basic AssumptionsCollege“Educational process” not a “business venture” but “traditional educational model”Hospital PartnersHospital is “non-profit business” & language & communication reflect “business model”Inclusionary dialogue is valued, but boundaries for “outsiders”Decisions may occur without dialogue and are expected to be implementedFaculty at core of participatory decision-making; decisions make outside process not viewed as validOnce decisions are made the team is “empowered” & expected to implement without question
40Cultural Properties/Elements for Organizational Measurements of Success Artifacts & Creations CollegeTraditional semester curriculum deliveryHospital Partners18-month curriculum deliveryHigh NCLEX pass ratesSkills & knowledge necessary to integrate quickly into workforceGraduations for hospital supported students should be held at the college because it is college programGraduations designed to celebrate success of students, success of partnership & success of hospital system
41Cultural Properties/Elements for Organizational Measurements of Success Values CollegeWhat’s best for the studentsHospital PartnersMaintain quality and integrity of the (educational) programMaintain quality and integrityof the (educational) program
42Cultural Properties/Elements for Organizational Measurements of Success Basic Assumptions CollegeTraditional way best way to provide education; Curriculum so stressful that both faculty & students need breakHospital PartnersNew ways can be better; Healthcare is 24/7 so why shouldn’t education be the sameStudent who make it through the program should be able to pass the NCLEXUtilize appropriate selection process so students complete program & pass NCLEX“Quality product” result of student attrition because all students cannot always be successful at making nursing a career“Quality product” not just a number—but mechanisms should be in place to ensure success of all students if selection process is appropriate
43Discussion Conflict“Just the way we work is very different and it was almost like a one-night stand and we decided to get married in Vegas. Had we spent more time exploring what that marriage looked liked, I think we might have structured the project a little bit differently.”
44Implications for Practice Practice cultural “due diligence”Partnership = Merger or acquisitionSelf-identified and perceived cultural characteristicsIdentify potential sources of conflictFacilitate conversation between partners including all participantsMonitor speed of implementation
45Acknowledgements Los Rios Community College District Sacramento City CollegeSutter Health, Sacramento Sierra Region