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Mary Kathryn Turner, RDH, EdD Dean, Science & Allied Health

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Presentation on theme: "Mary Kathryn Turner, RDH, EdD Dean, Science & Allied Health"— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessment of Organizational Culture in a Community College Partnership: A Case Study
Mary Kathryn Turner, RDH, EdD Dean, Science & Allied Health Sacramento City College SWHOAC Meeting – May 29, 2009

2 Introduction & Background
Innovative education/industry partnership based on shared goal of addressing nursing shortage California nursing shortage – impacting both education and industry (Sechrist, Lewis & Rutledge, 1999) High cost of nursing programs, faculty & facilities No recognition of the organizational differences – especially the cultures

3 Introduction & Background
Organizational culture “A pattern of shared basic assumptions that was learned by a group as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems.” (Schein, 2004, p. 17)

4 Introduction & Background
Organizational culture “A pattern of shared basic assumptions that was learned by a group as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems.” (Schein, 2004, p. 17) “The way we do things around here…..”

5 Statement of Problem The success of community college and industry partnerships may be adversely affected by the lack of awareness of differences in organizational culture. Culture clash – the primary causal factor in the failure of mergers and acquisitions and strategic alliances (Carleton & Lineberry, 2004)

6 Study Purpose & Significance
Analyze the cultural characteristics and sources of conflict in a community college and hospital system partnership If impact of organizational culture is recognized at onset of community college partnership development, appropriate strategies and interventions can be put in place to better ensure success.

7 Theoretical Framework & Literature Review
Organizational ethnography Organizational culture (Geertz, Schein, Martin) Higher educational culture (Clark, Dill, Kuh & Whitt) Culture in healthcare organizations and nursing profession (Senge, Shortell, McNish) Acquisitions, mergers & partnerships (Cross, Johnson & Tornatzky, Kisker & Carucci, Buono & Bowditch, Radtke) Organizational conflict (Pondy, Becker & Geer, Wall & Callister)

8 Methodology Case study - Qualitative & Quantitative
Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) Wilder Collaboration Factors Inventory (WCFI) Demographic Data Personal Interviews

9 Methodology – OCAI Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI)
Competing Values Framework (Cameron & Ettington, 1988) 4-fold culture typing on 2 axes Clan (Human Relations) Model Adhocracy (Open Systems) Model Market (Rational Goal) Model Hierarchy (Internal Process) Model

10 Achievement oriented activities
Methodology - OCAI Flexibility; Individuality Spontaneity Internal focus; Short term orientation Smoothing activities Clan Orientation: Collaboration Leader Style: Motivator, Facilitator, Bonding: Loyalty, Tradition Strategic Emphasis: Human resources, Cohesion Adhocracy Orientation: Creative Leader Style: Vision setter, Innovator, Entrepreneur Bonding: Innovation, Development Strategic Emphasis: Growth, Acquisition of resources External focus; Long term time frame Achievement oriented activities Hierarchy Orientation: Controlling Leader Style: Coordinator, Organizer Bonding: Rules, Policies Strategic Emphasis: Permanence, Stability Market Orientation: Competing Leader Style: Producer, Hard-driver Bonding: Tasks, Goal accomplishment Strategic Emphasis: Competitive actions, Achievement Stability; Control Predictability

11 Methodology - WCFI Wilder Collaboration Factors Inventory (WCFI)
(Mattessich, Murray-Close, Monsey, 2001) 19 collaboration success factors General environment Membership* Process and Structure* Communication* Purpose* Resources*

12 Methodology - Participants
Surveys (n = 67; 75%) 26 Community college administrators, faculty or staff (n = 23; 88%) 41 Hospital system personnel (n = 27; 66%) Interviews 2 Administrators from each organization Definition of organizational culture Characteristics of their culture & the partner’s culture Sources of conflict Changes in institutional practices Lessons learned

13 Participants Caucasian female Over 45 years of age Master’s degree
Over 11 years employment in organization Involved in partnership 5 years or more

14 Research Hypotheses & Questions - #1
Organizational cultural attributes, as identified by members of a collaborative partnership are different for a community college and a hospital system. What are the perceived cultural attributes for each organization? How are the cultural attributes similar? How are the cultural attributes different?

15 Results – Research Hypothesis #1
Clan Adhocracy Hierarchy Market Community College Hospital

16 Results – Research Hypothesis #1
Clan Adhocracy Hierarchy Market Solid = Community College Dotted = Hospital

17 Results – Research Hypothesis #1
Organizational cultural attributes, as identified by members of a collaborative partnership are different for a community college and a hospital system. Significant difference in dependent variables of Clan (p = .05), Market and Hierarchy (p = .01).

18 Discussion Self-perceived cultural characteristics
Clan Adhocracy Hierarchy Market Solid = Community College Dotted = Hospital

19 Discussion Self-perceived cultural characteristics
Hospital -- Clan/Market College -- Clan/Hierarchy Flexibility & Internal Focus “Family-like” work environment Team-work, participation & consensus Friendly, people share Leaders – mentors, parent figures Loyalty & tradition Human resource development – cohesion & morale Sensitivity to customers & concern for people

20 Discussion Self-perceived cultural characteristics
Hospital -- Clan/Market College -- Clan/Hierarchy Internal focus Consistency, Cohesion, short-term orientation Structured organization Efficiency, smooth-running, stability & performance Secure employment and predictability Controlled environment Rules, policies & procedures External focus Achievement, tasks, long-term orientation Competitive organization Production, goal accomplishment & market superiority Teamwork focused on achievement Demanding environment Emphasis on winning, reputation & success

21 Research Hypotheses & Questions - #2
The perception of an organization’s cultural attributes is different when assessed by members of the organization versus members of the partner organization. Do the partners perceive their counterpart’s culture to possess the same characteristics as identified by individuals from within the organization?

22 Results – Research Hypothesis #2
Clan Adhocracy Hierarchy Market Community College Hospital

23 Results – Research Hypothesis #2
Clan Adhocracy Hierarchy Market Solid = Community College Dotted = Hospital

24 Results – Research Hypothesis #2
The perception of an organization’s cultural attributes is different when assessed by members of the organization versus members of the partner organization. Significant difference (p = .0005; .001) in mean scores of given organization and mean scores of partner organization for Clan, Adhocracy*, Market & Hierarchy. * Hospital partner -- Adhocracy “my” vs “partner” T-test not significant

25 Discussion Self-Perceived Culture Partner-Perceived Culture
Adhocracy Clan Hierarchy Market Solid = Community College Dotted = Hospital

26 Discussion Partner-perceived cultural characteristics
Hospital -- Market College – Hierarchy Internal focus Consistency, Cohesion, short-term orientation Formalized & structured Procedure oriented Controlling organization Leaders – coordinators Consistency, uniformity & efficiency Stability External focus Achievement, results, long-term orientation Competitive & goal focused Results oriented Competitive organization Leaders – innovators Production & market superiority Winning

27 Research Hypotheses & Questions - #3
Higher level managers who initiate a partnership will have a different perception of the two organization’s cultures than those individuals at the operational or implementation level. Are there any differences between how higher level managers view their organization’s culture and how individuals at the operational level view the culture?

28 Results – Research Hypothesis #3
Higher level managers who initiate a partnership will have a different perception of the two organization’s cultures than those individuals at the operational or implementation level. Management vs. operational employees demonstrate a significant difference (p = .25) in mean scores on Hierarchy – partner organization.

29 Research Hypotheses & Questions - #4
Perceived sources of conflict will be related to differences in organizational culture. What are the perceived sources of conflict as related to success factors within the partnership? How are the perceived sources of conflict related to the organizational cultures?

30 Results – Research Hypothesis #4 Perceived sources of conflict
Membership Trust (77%) Willingness to compromise (55%)

31 Results – Research Hypothesis #4 Perceived sources of conflict
Membership Trust Willingness to compromise Process & Structure Participants not able to speak for organization (71%) Lack of flexibility in decision-making (68%) Unwillingness to consider different approaches (66%) Clear roles and responsibilities Clear decision making process

32 Results – Research Hypothesis #4 Perceived sources of conflict
Communication Open communication Participants not always informed Leaders don’t always communicate well

33 Results – Research Hypothesis #4 Perceived sources of conflict
Communication Open communication Participants not always informed Leaders don’t always communicate well Purpose

34 Results – Research Hypothesis #4 Perceived sources of conflict
Communication Open communication Participants not always informed Leaders don’t always communicate well Purpose Resources Leaders don’t possess necessary skills for working with people

35 Results – Research Hypothesis #4
Perceived sources of conflict will be related to differences in organizational culture. How are the perceived sources of conflict related to the organizational cultures? No significant difference in mean scores on conflict constructs of Membership, Process/Structure, Communication & Purpose* between community college and hospital partners. *Resource construct unable to be analyzed.

36 Discussion Conflict Membership Trust (Clan) – “us” vs. “them” Process & Structure Lack of flexibility (Hierarchy) Decision-making (Hierarchy/Market) Communication Open dialogue (Clan/Hierarchy/Market) Resources Leadership skills (Hierarchy/Market)

37 Cultural Properties/Elements for Organizational Language, Communication, and Decision-making Artifacts & Creations College Language of “student success” and “academic freedom” Hospital Partners Language of “business model” and “return on investment” “Closed” meetings Decision-making and implementation protocol -- slow & cumbersome Decision-making and implementation protocol -- effective & efficient

38 Cultural Properties/Elements for Organizational Language, Communication, and Decision-making Values
College Faculty role in educational process and student success Hospital Partners Business model supports student success All individuals will be allows to participate in the dialogue and their opinions will be valued All levels of employee can generate ideas; Communication processes are effective & efficient Consensus & participatory decision-making; Tradition, Slow Processes Creativity & dynamics; Quick response necessary due to competitive environment

39 Cultural Properties/Elements for Organizational Language, Communication, and Decision-making Basic Assumptions College “Educational process” not a “business venture” but “traditional educational model” Hospital Partners Hospital is “non-profit business” & language & communication reflect “business model” Inclusionary dialogue is valued, but boundaries for “outsiders” Decisions may occur without dialogue and are expected to be implemented Faculty at core of participatory decision-making; decisions make outside process not viewed as valid Once decisions are made the team is “empowered” & expected to implement without question

40 Cultural Properties/Elements for Organizational Measurements of Success Artifacts & Creations
College Traditional semester curriculum delivery Hospital Partners 18-month curriculum delivery High NCLEX pass rates Skills & knowledge necessary to integrate quickly into workforce Graduations for hospital supported students should be held at the college because it is college program Graduations designed to celebrate success of students, success of partnership & success of hospital system

41 Cultural Properties/Elements for Organizational Measurements of Success Values
College What’s best for the students Hospital Partners Maintain quality and integrity of the (educational) program Maintain quality and integrity of the (educational) program

42 Cultural Properties/Elements for Organizational Measurements of Success Basic Assumptions
College Traditional way best way to provide education; Curriculum so stressful that both faculty & students need break Hospital Partners New ways can be better; Healthcare is 24/7 so why shouldn’t education be the same Student who make it through the program should be able to pass the NCLEX Utilize appropriate selection process so students complete program & pass NCLEX “Quality product” result of student attrition because all students cannot always be successful at making nursing a career “Quality product” not just a number—but mechanisms should be in place to ensure success of all students if selection process is appropriate

43 Discussion Conflict “Just the way we work is very different and it was almost like a one-night stand and we decided to get married in Vegas. Had we spent more time exploring what that marriage looked liked, I think we might have structured the project a little bit differently.”

44 Implications for Practice
Practice cultural “due diligence” Partnership = Merger or acquisition Self-identified and perceived cultural characteristics Identify potential sources of conflict Facilitate conversation between partners including all participants Monitor speed of implementation

45 Acknowledgements Los Rios Community College District
Sacramento City College Sutter Health, Sacramento Sierra Region


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