Logic Modeling 101 Jessica Meyerson Wilder Research May 21, 2009.

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Logic Modeling 101 Jessica Meyerson Wilder Research May 21, 2009

What is a logic model? A logic model is a diagram that shows how your program is supposed to work. wilderresearch.org

Why should my organization have one? They can help you develop and improve programs They can give you a framework for evaluating your programs Funders like ‘em!!! wilderresearch.org

What should a good logic model do? It should clearly illustrate your program’s theory of change wilderresearch.org

What is a theory of change? Your theory of change explains how your program is supposed to work. It is often expressed as a series of “if-then” statements. If we provide quality training on developing logic models, some of you will start to use them If you use start using logic models, then you will: ─ Have an opportunity to strengthen your programming ─ Be eligible for more funding and public support wilderresearch.org

Theory of change Continued Ideally, your program theory should be supported by at least some research. This research should indicate either that: Your basic approach will work (e.g., stopping drunk driving will reduce alcohol related deaths) or There is a clear and unmet need for this type of program (e.g. there are currently no programs specifically for mothers in prison) wilderresearch.org

How do I turn my theory of change into a diagram? Logic models can take many different forms Family takes vacation in Rome Family learns about ancient Rome history Kids decide to study archaeology in college Kids grow up to be globe- trotting archaeologists Plane tickets Travelers check Family that likes to travel Provide swimming lessons Learn to swim Pass Red Cross Lifeguard Test Increased educational & financial opportunities More young women attending college More young women in work force Reduced Teen Pregnancy More girls finishing high school Pregnancy Prevention Program

What should my logic model look like? Any form (circle, square, trapezoid, etc.), is okay, as long as your model: Is logical Clearly illustrates, in a step-by-step fashion, how your activities will produce your desired results wilderresearch.org

Common Components Most effective logic models include the following basic components: Problem statement Program goal(s) Inputs Activities Outputs Outcomes

wilderresearch.org Problem statement Your problem statement should succinctly describe the problem you hope to address. For example: African-American men are disproportionately represented in American jails One quarter of all teenager girls are afflicted with a sexually transmitted disease Sixty percent of Minneapolis’ high school students fail to graduate on time

wilderresearch.org Program goal(s) Your goal statement should offer a brief description of your program’s overarching aim or purpose. For example: To improve the status of young African-American women by reducing teen pregnancy To increase literacy levels among low-income immigrants To keep at-risk kids out of gangs by providing them with responsible adult mentors

wilderresearch.org Inputs These are the resources you plan to invest in the project. For example: Staff Volunteers Funds Classroom or office space Program materials (e.g., curricula or handouts) Partnerships

wilderresearch.org Activities These are the basic actions your program takes, or the services it provides, to achieve the desired results. For example: Offering counseling Offering parenting education classes Arranging for out-of-home placements

wilderresearch.org Outputs These are the direct, tangible, products of your activities: The number of children you place The number of classes you offer The number family conferences you hold The number of families you re-unify

wilderresearch.org Outcomes These are the changes expected to result from your program if everything works well.

wilderresearch.org Outcomes continued They can be changes affecting individual clients, whole communities, systems, or organizations. For example: Clients will learn new strategies for resolving family conflict Community members will become more involved supporting at-risk families Fewer children will be placed out-of-home

wilderresearch.org Outcomes continued Often, outcomes are divided into: Short-term outcomes (fairly rapid changes in participants’ knowledge, attitudes or skills) Intermediate outcomes (more gradual changes in a participants’ behavior or practices) Long-term outcomes (widespread changes in social, economic, or environmental conditions)

wilderresearch.org Inputs Tutors Classroom Space Reading materials Activities Provide free reading lessons to adults Outputs # of students # of tutors # of sessions #books read Outcomes Students learn to read Put the pieces together… Problem statement: Over 90 million US adults are functionally illiterate or near illiterate Program Goal: To reduce adult illiteracy by offering free reading lessons Simple logic model for a literacy tutoring program

Of course, not all models are that simple… wilderresearch.org

Complex models continued wilderresearch.org

Once developed, the logic model can be used to… Describe the program to funders Illustrate program approach to other stakeholders Train new staff about the program Control ‘program drift’ Provide a basis for developing an evaluation Facilitate program management

How, specifically, do logic models help with developing evaluations? Logic models are especially useful in outcome evaluations, because they help you: Determine the long-term outcomes you want to achieve Set short-term and intermediate outcomes that can be used to measure progress along the way Some logic models will also include a list of “indicators” (measures) for each outcome wilderresearch.org

Inputs Tutors Classroom Space Reading materials Activities Provide free reading lessons to adults Outputs # of students # of tutors # of sessions #books read Outcomes Students learn to read Indicators Students improve reading test scores Students obtain GEDs What are indicators of success??? Problem statement: Over 90 million US adults are functionally illiterate or near illiterate Program Goal: To reduce adult illiteracy by offering free reading lessons Logic model for a literacy tutoring program

wilderresearch.org Logic Model Resources Now that we’ve gone over the basics, it’s time to start building your program’s logic model. You can find some helpful guides, tip sheets, and tools at: Wilder Research: www.wilder.orgwww.wilder.org The Kellog Foundation: http://www.wkkf.org/Pubs/Tools/Evaluation/Pub3669.pdf http://www.wkkf.org/Pubs/Tools/Evaluation/Pub3669.pdf The Community Toolbox: http://ctb.ku.edu/tools//section_1877.htm http://ctb.ku.edu/tools//section_1877.htm The University of Wisconsin Extension Service: http://www.uwex.edu/ces/pdande/Evaluation/evallogicmodele xamples.html http://www.uwex.edu/ces/pdande/Evaluation/evallogicmodele xamples.html

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