Presentation on theme: "Applying DACS to Single-Item Manuscript Cataloging A Workshop Presented by The Society of American Archivists Sunday, August 24, 2008 Society of American."— Presentation transcript:
Applying DACS to Single-Item Manuscript Cataloging A Workshop Presented by The Society of American Archivists Sunday, August 24, 2008 Society of American Archivists Annual Meeting Hilton San Francisco Instructors: Diane DucharmeKaren Spicher Archivist, Beinecke Library,Archivist, Beinecke Library, Yale UniversityYale University Tel: 203-432-8125Tel: 203-432-4205 firstname.lastname@example.org@yale.edu
The Shape of the Day Workshop, 9:00-10:15 Morning break, 10:15-10-45 Workshop, 10:45-12:00 Lunch, 12:00-1:30 Workshop, 1:30-3:00 Afternoon break, 3:00-3:30 Workshop, 3:30-5:00 (wrap-up by 5:00)
040 __ $a CtY-BR $c CtY-BR $e dacs 100 1_ $a Wilder, Thornton, $d 1897-1975. 245 10 $a Thornton Wilder papers, $f 1892-1991 $g (bulk 1935-1975). 300 __ $a 113.88 $f linear feet (210 boxes) 506 __ $a Access is unrestricted. 351 __ $a Organized into eight series: I. Correspondence, 1908-1985. II. Writings, 1915-1991. III. Personal Papers, 1912-1975. IV. Printed Material, 1917-1974. V. Photographs, 1892-1972. VI. Memorabilia and Other Papers, 1923-1963. VII. Audio Tapes and Other Recordings, 1949-1967. VIII. Thornton Wilder Papers Addition, 1911-1974. 520 __ $a Series II, Writings, contains excellent documentation of Wilder’s works, including holograph and typescript drafts of all of his major writings; extensive materials relating to the production and adaptation histories of Our Town and The Skin of Our Teeth; and review and publicity files for both plays and novels. …
040 __ $a CtY-BR $c CtY-BR $e dacs 100 1_ $a Wilder, Thornton, $d 1897-1975. 245 10 $a Our town, $f 1938?. 300 __ $a 1 $f volume (52 pages) ; $c 34 centimeters. 506 __ $a Access is unrestricted. 545 __ $a Thornton Wilder (1897-1975), American novelist and playwright. 520 __ $a Typescript carbon of a version of Our Town, extensively corrected and annotated by Thornton Wilder and Isabel Wilder. 541 __ $a Purchased from Joseph A. Dumont on the Wilder Family Fund, 1987. 546 __ $a In English. 500 __ $a Title from label on front cover. 500 __ $a Presentation inscription: “To Everett [Clinchy?]—In memory of loggia days. Madge,” probably in the hand of Thornton Wilder. 500 __ $a Binding: contemporary paper over boards. 524 __ $a Thornton Wilder, Our Town, 1938?. Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library. 600 10 $a Clinchy, Everett R. $q (Everett Ross), $d 1896- 600 10 $a Wilder, Thornton, $d 1897-1975. 650 _0 $a American literature $y 20th century. 650 _0 $a Authors, American $y 20th century $v Archives. 656 _7 $a Authors. $2 lcsh 692 14 $a Clinchy, Everett R. $q (Everett Ross), $d 1896- $x Presentation inscription from T. Wilder. 692 14 $a Wilder, Thornton, $d 1897-1975 $x Presentation inscription to E. R. Clinchy. 852 __ $a Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven, CT
When NOT to Catalog at the Item Level Items have low research value relative to other holdings Material has low financial value Material has little local significance When standardized subject access and contextualization are low priorities You have other priorities with limited resources
Why Catalog at the Item Level? Research value Financial value Local significance Contextualization Financial and staff resources permit
Options for Single Item Cataloging MARC record Stand-alone database Intentionally-assembled collection with finding aid Using accession files as primary access
Options for Single Item Cataloging: the MARC Record Pro: Controlled vocabulary subject access Export to national utilities is possible Your item is contextualized with other single manuscripts, manuscript collections, and published works Corrections and improvements relatively easy Con: Most labor-intensive approach Cataloging skills (MARC, LCSH) needed Even minimal record can seem excessive for some low-interest items
Options for Single Item Cataloging: Stand-alone Database Pro: Items in a single database Cataloging skills not needed May give sufficient local access (i.e. author and title) Con: Still requires considerable item-level attention Controlled subject access not easily accomplished Contextualization not easily accomplished
Options for Single Item Cataloging: Intentionally- Assembled Collection with Finding Aid Pro: Items in subject-driven collection Cataloging skills not needed May give sufficient local access (i.e. author and title) Con: Does not give you controlled subject access Contextualization possible with collection-level record, but not at item level Additions can be very labor-intensive
Single Item Cataloging is NOT: Vendor description Bibliographical description Scholarly interpretation and analysis
Vendor Description of Clinchy’s “Our Town” Manuscript “It is a typescript bound in decorated boards undated with an unrecognizable inscription on the front free endpaper. [The dealer I bought it from informed me that it came from somewhere on Long Island.] Act I consists of 22 pages; Act II 17 pages, and Act III 13 pages. It is HEAVILY CORRECTED in several [?] hands with directions, additions, passages crossed out, notes, etc. The remarkable thing is that, when compared to the final printed play, there are literally thousands of changes. I could not find any early drafts of this play existing in any institutions. I also understand that Wilder was not much for keeping early drafts and often just gave his stuff away in periods of general housekeeping. I suspect that this is what happened to this draft. Let me know if you are interested in this item.”
Bibliographical Description of “Our Town” Editions “The manuscripts of Wilder’s published novels and plays are extant and nearly all of them are reposited [sic] in the Collection of American Literature in the Beinecke Library at Yale.” “OUR TOWN  A. First Edition: THORNTON WILDER / OUR / TOWN / [the two words of the title are printed in white within a solid circle of blue] / a play in three acts / New York /Coward McCann, Inc. -128 pp. [1-8] pp. 24 x 14 cm. Brown cloth with blue paper labels printed in white on front cover and on spine; tan illustrated end papers…Published on April 2, 1938 in an edition of 5000 copies.” ---J. M. Edelstein, A Bibliographical Checklist of the Writings of Thornton Wilder (New Haven, 1959)
Scholarly Interpretation of “Our Town” Manuscripts “Certain places in the first complete manuscript of Our Town suggest that Wilder fretted over whether the audience would understand what he had so carefully arranged. He tended to speak in his own voice, rather than to dramatize what he knew…a short bit of dialogue deleted from the final version flatly and didactically states what Wilder [in a later draft] showed the audience.” --Donald Haberman, The Plays of Thornton Wilder: A Critical Study. (Middletown, 1967)
ISBD(G) and ISAD(G) ISBD(G) –Full name: General International Standard Bibliographic Description –Developed by: International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) –Purpose: Enable compatible cataloging for international exchange of bibliographic records. –National standards that conform to ISBD(G): AACR2 AMREMM DCRM ISAD(G) –Full name: General International Standard Archival Description –Developed by: International Council on Archives (ICA) –Purpose: Provide guidance for the preparation of archival descriptions, to be used in conjunction with national standards. –National standard that conforms to ISAD (G): DACS
Anglo American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd edition (AACR2) History –First published 1967; second edition 1978; revised 1988 and 2002 –Will be superseded by a new standard: Resource Description and Access (RDA), publication projected for 2009 Scope –Rules for general and media-specific cataloging –Applicable to catalogs in any format –Includes examples in print formatting –Web version links to MARC field definitions Content includes rules for –General cataloging –Manuscripts (Chapter 4) –Choice of access points –Formation of headings for personal, corporate, meeting, and geographic names, and uniform titles Use for Single Manuscripts –Chapter 4 is applicable to any manuscript material –However, rules are brief and give minimal guidance
Archives, Personal Papers, and Manuscripts (APPM) History –First published in 1983; second edition 1989 –Superseded by DACS in 2004; currently out of print and unavailable on web Scope –Adaptation of AACR2 Chapter 4, for archival description –For cataloging only; did not address finding aids or other methods of description –Specifically addressed modern manuscripts –Applicable to all media, though guidance was minimal for non-text –Included examples in MARC coding Content included –Rules for description, organized similarly to AACR2 Chapter 4 –Parts of AACR2’s rules for choice of access points and formation of headings –Appendices addressed MARC coding Use for Single Manuscripts –Detailed guidance for description of single manuscripts
Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (DCRM) History –BDRB published in 1981; DCRB (Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books) in 1991 –DCRM(B)---Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (Books) was published in 2007 as the first of a series of component manuals for the cataloging of special collections materials Scope –An "overarching concept" –A family of manuals, each providing specialized cataloging rules for various formats of rare materials typically found in rare book, manuscript and special collections libraries –Intended to be used in conjunction with AACR2 Content includes –Rationale for provision of more complex descriptions of rare materials –Manuals aim to provide complete rules for cataloging of specific formats Use for single manuscripts –See AMREMM
Descriptive Cataloging of Ancient, Medieval, Renaissance and Early Modern Manuscripts (AMREMM) History –First published in 2002 –created by Gregory A. Pass –now considered part of the DCRM manual set Scope –Intended as a supplement to AACR2 Chapter 4 –Primarily for cataloging of single manuscripts –Predominantly focused on cataloging of medieval codex manuscripts, particularly illuminated copies of individual texts –Coverage of other types of manuscripts minimal Content includes –Rules for description, organized similarly to AACR2 Chapter 4 –Definition of two levels of description: Summary: intended for access to works contained in a manuscript, with supposedly limited physical description Detailed: intended to supply much fuller description of the paleographical,codicological, and artistic elements of a manuscript Use for single manuscripts: –Useful for highly detailed physical description of early codex manuscripts
RBMS Bibliographic Standards Committee Manuscripts Working Group (BSC-MWG) History –Formed in 2007 as a result of concern among manuscript catalogers after the withdrawal of APPM and the adoption of DACS as the official descriptive standard of SAA Scope –To develop rules or guidelines for item-level description and cataloging of modern (post-1600) manuscript material....The rules/guidelines should follow the principles of Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (DCRM), as established and codified in DCRM(B) Content includes –In development Use for single manuscripts –Standard will be devoted to single-item manuscripts
Describing Archives: A Content Standard (DACS) History –Published in 2004 –First comprehensive standard for U. S. archival description Scope –Applicable to any archival material –Applicable to catalog records or finding aids –Explicitly designed to be output neutral –Includes examples in EAD and MARC coding Content –Theoretical introductory sections –Definitions for 25 descriptive elements –Rules for identifying and describing creators –Instructions for forming personal, corporate, family, and geographic names –Appendices: glossary, crosswalks with other standards, examples Use for Single Manuscripts –Minimal guidance and examples for single manuscripts
DACS, Companion Standards, and Local Decisions DACS recommends use of AACR2 for: –Title transcription –Extent –Notes However, AACR2 rules offer minimal guidance for issues specific to single manuscripts, so you’ll have to make some local decisions, such as whether to: –Use brackets for supplied information –Use notes to indicate sources of supplied information –Include optional details in extent element
Yale Manuscript Cataloging Manuals Beinecke Manuscript Unit Mixed Materials Manual –Developed by Beinecke archivists; web-based version, 1996; ongoing revisions –Based on APPM, with addition of local decisions –Applicable to single manuscript and collection-level cataloging –Addresses some non-text media –Separate local manuals for visual materials and music –Separate local manuals for collections processing and creation of finding aids Yale-wide manuals for –Collections –Single manuscripts (under development) These manuals include –Local procedures, organized by MARC field –Examples in MARC coding –Instructions for using Voyager cataloging module and OPAC Use for Single Manuscripts –Detailed guidance for Yale’s local decisions
100 1_ $a Verney, Ralph, $c Sir, $d 1613-1696. 245 10 $a Sir Ralph Verney diary, $f 1640 [i.e. 1641] February 1-July 1.
Sources of Titles Source of information –Books: title page or title page substitute (AACR2 Chapter 2) –Manuscript material: any reliable source (DACS 2.3.1, p. 17) Manuscript Collections: supply a title, including name, documentary form, and, optionally, topic (DACS 2.3.3-2.3.22, p. 17-23) Example: 245 10 $a Thornton Wilder papers, $f 1892-1991 $g (bulk 1935-1975). Single Manuscripts: either transcribe a title, or supply a title including name, documentary form, and, optionally, topic (DACS 2.3-2.3.2, p. 17-23) Examples: 245 10 $a Our town, $f 1938?. (transcribed) 245 10 $a Thornton Wilder draft fragments of Our town, $f circa 1938. (supplied)
Common Types of Annotations Identification of writer, title, or subject Signature or other mark of ownership Presentation inscription Proofreader’s and printer’s markings Notes about content, purpose, importance, or disposition Numbering and pricing for vendor or auction catalog Characteristics that may vary from the rest of the manuscript: –Name of annotator –Date –Handwriting –Writing implement
100 1_ $a Hagerman, James John, $d 1838-1909. 245 10 $a James John Hagerman : $b memoirs of his life, $f 20th century / $c written by himself at Roswell, New Mexico, in 1908. 520 __ $a Typescript, carbon, of a memoir written by James John Hagerman for his sons, possibly transcribed by his son Percy Hagerman. …
245 00 $a Diary recording construction of Saint George Reef lighthouse, $f 1889 April 11-October 9. 545 __ $a Saint George Reef lighthouse is located on Northwest Seal Rock, Saint George Reef, near Crescent City, California. The lighthouse was built between 1882 and 1891, under the direction of A. Ballantyne, who had completed construction of the Tillamook Rock lighthouse, Oregon, in 1881. Operation of the Saint George Reef lighthouse was discontinued in 1975. 520 __ $a Printed “Sunset Daily Journal for 1889,” published in San Francisco and completed in manuscript by an unidentified writer for April 11-October 9. Entries record progress of the steamer Del Norte from San Francisco to Northwest Seal Rock, including names of workmen boarding at San Francisco and Eureka, transport of stone from Humboldt Bay, and daily progress of construction during the 1889 season. Also included are brief accounts and an inventory of construction materials stored on Northwest Seal Rock.
245 00 $a Gleanings from our older literature, $f late 19th century. 520 __ $a Manuscript draft of a speech about book collecting, written in an unidentified hand. The author refers to several 19th century British authors, including Thomas Moore, Sir Walter Scott, and Charles Dickens, as well as Scottish ballads, and mentions the widowhood of Queen Victoria. 500 __ $a Written in a circa 1800 "Protocol Book of Alexander Wood, Writer to the Signet, Notary public and Son of Alexr. Wood Surgeon... " (inscription on first leaf). The protocol book contains 91 numbered but otherwise blank leaves.
Creator/Title Issues Transcribe a title when: –The creator provides a formal title Supply a title when: –No formal title is present –A formal title is present, but is misleading Use judgement when: –A formal title is present, but the source is not the creator, or the source is unidentified –There is evidence of more than one creator or use
Transcribed Titles DACS refers to AACR2 for transcribed titles (DACS 2.3.2, p. 17) Transcribe a formal title appearing on the manuscript –Transcribe wording, order, and spelling –Standardize punctuation and capitalization Also transcribe if present: –Other title information (or optionally supply this) –Statement of responsibility Add the date of creation, in a standardized form
Transcribed Titles (Continued) If more than one formal title appears on the manuscript, use judgement, preferring as appropriate: –Title that is part of the original manuscript –Title page, if present –Most complete title Optionally: – Abridge lengthy titles, using an ellipsis – State the source of a transcribed title in a Note Element – Give other versions of the title in a Note Element
Examples of Transcribed Titles 245 10 $a James John Hagerman : $b memoirs of his life, $f 20th century / $c written by himself at Roswell, New Mexico, in 1908. 245 00 $a Gleanings from our older literature, $f late 19th century. Examples of Note Elements 500 __ $a Title from spine. 500 __ $a Spine title: Journey to California.
Supplied Titles Supply a title if no formal title is present, or if the formal title is misleading Supply at least a name of creator and documentary form Also supply, as appropriate –Other title information –Topical terms Add the date of creation, in standardized form
Examples of Supplied Titles 245 10 $a Edward T. Crosby Civil War diary, $f 1861 September 10-1862 April 9. 245 10 $a John Newell account book, $f 1758-1823. 245 00 $a Diary recording construction of Saint George Reef lighthouse, $f 1889 April 11-October 9.
Name of Creator(s) Source of information: other descriptive elements (DACS 9.3-9.10, p. 90-91) A creator may be a –Writer, artist, or other type of creator of content –Collector of content If the creator is unidentified, state this in the Scope and Content Element, and omit the Name of Creator Element
100 1_ $a Kenah, E. A. 245 10 $a Memoranda : $b from a journal of tours made upon the Continent at various periods beginning in 1821 : with illustrations sketched upon the spot, $f 1821-1836. 545 __ $a E. A. Kenah was the wife of Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Kenah, who served in the British Army in India in the early 19th century.
Scope and Content Element Provides information about the nature of the materials and activities reflected in the unit being described to enable users to judge its potential relevance. (DACS 3.1, p. 35)
Scope and Content Element (Continued) The scope and content element may include information about any or all of the following, as appropriate: function(s), activity(ies), transaction(s), and process(es) that generated the materials being described; the documentary form(s) or intellectual characteristics of the records being described (e.g. minutes, diaries, reports, watercolors, documentaries); the content dates, that is, the time period(s) covered by the intellectual content or subject of the unit being described; geographic area(s) and places to which the records pertain; subject matter to which the records pertain, such as topics, events, people, and organizations; and any other information that assists the user in evaluating the relevance of the materials, such as the completeness, changes in location, ownership and custody while still in the possession of the creator, etc. (DACS 3.1, p.35)
520 __ $a Autograph narrative, extensively illustrated by E. A. Kenah, of two journeys in Europe taken by the Kenah couple with friends in 1821-24 and in 1827-29. On the first tour, accompanied by Walter Burrell, MP for Sussex, and "Mrs. Crutchley of Sunning Hill Park....and a Blenheim spaniel," the Kenahs traveled through France, Switzerland, Italy and Bavaria; they were present in Naples for the 1822 eruption of Mount Vesuvius, and spent time in Rome and Lucca as well. In the later tour, they visited the Low Countries, Germany, and Trieste. The text is clearly drawn from diaries kept by Kenah during the tours, and contains her often humorous responses, as an "Inexperienced Traveller," to tourist sights, local customs and manners, "foreign" food, and travel difficulties.
520 __ $a Kenah describes herself as "a woman in quest of the Picturesque," and over 80 of her watercolors and pen-and-ink sketches are mounted in her travel album. Subjects include "Eruption of Vesuvius, October 22, 1822 as it appeared at midday;" several portraits of Lucchese, Swiss and German figures in local costume; a portrait of Tommaso Sgricci, the famous improvvisatore; a memorial Mass in Caudenberg; the "table d’hote" at the Baths of Ems; the Salon at the Palazzo Ricasoli in 1824; and a variety of "picturesque" landscapes, including a view of the Bay of Naples, of a canal in Venice, and of several castles and mountain scenes in Germany. Also included are several printed views of German scenes which have been hand- colored. 520 __ $a In addition, there are watercolors of English subjects at the end of the volume: cottage scenes, rural landscapes, "view of Box Hill," "Grimsthorpe, 1826," and "Dunkeld from Dr. Fisher’s garden. Sept. 9 1826."
100 1_ $a Duckworth, John Thomas, $c Sir. 245 10 $a Journal, $f 1799 May 13-1800 May 25 / $c Rear Admiral Duckworth. 520 __ $a Holograph journal of the ship Leviathan, flagship of Admiral Duckworth’s command group in the Mediterranean and off Spain from May 1799 to May 1800. The logbook tracks weather conditions, routine activities on all of the ships under his command, signal communications between Duckworth’s ships, and sightings of other ships. The logbook also records several pursuits by Duckworth’s group, including a capture of a Spanish convoy; dispatches from Admiral Nelson and others; several courts-martial; and Duckworth’s participation in the blockade of Cadiz.
600 10 $a Duckworth, John Thomas, $c Sir. 600 10 $a Nelson, Horatio Nelson, $c Viscount, $d 1758- 1805. 610 20 $a Bellerophon (Battleship) 610 10 $a Great Britain. $b Royal Navy $x Officers. 610 10 $a Great Britain. $b Royal Navy $x Sea life. 610 20 $a Leviathan (Battleship) 650 _0 $a Admirals $z Great Britain. 650 _0 $a Napoleonic Wars, 1800-1815. 650 _0 $a Naval battles $z Great Britain. 650 _0 $a Sea control. 650 _0 $a Seafaring life. 651 _0 $a France $x History $y Revolution, 1789-1799. 651 _0 $a Great Britain $x History $y 1789-1820. 651 _0 $a Mediterranean Sea $x History, Naval. 655 _7 $a Logbooks $z Great Britain $y 18th century. $2 aat
520 __ $a Letterpress and carbon copies of autograph and typed letters, signed, concerning business of the Shoshone Agency at the Wind River Indian Reservation. Most letters were written by Harry E. Wadsworth to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington, D. C.; also present are letters, reports, and petitions written by other Agency employees or Shoshone living on the Reservation. Most letters concern administration of services, including discussion of maintenance of buildings, agriculture, land allotment, education, religious missions, crime, health, and efforts by the Agency to influence Shoshone culture. 520 __ $a Also included are Wadsworth’s annual reports and letters written by him concerning issues such as treaties, opening of land to white settlers and mining companies, presence of United States soldiers at Fort Washakie, and suppression of the sun dance and other Native American customs. Letters written by Shoshone, some signed by Shoshone leaders, include reports of proceedings of the general council of the Shoshone tribe and petitions regarding enforcement of treaties.
110 1_ $a United States. $b Office of Indian Affairs. $b Shoshone Agency. 245 10 $a United States Office of Indian Affairs, Shoshone Agency, Wind River Indian Reservation letter book, $f 1906 January 25-1907 January 19. 545 __ $a The Wind River Indian Reservation, located in Fremont County, Wyoming, was created for the Eastern Shoshone Indians under provisions of the Treaty of Fort Bridger in 1868. Part of the Reservation was occupied by Northern Arapaho Indians in 1878. Harry E. Wadsworth began serving as Indian Agent for the Reservation in May, 1903, succeeding H. G. Nickerson. In 1909, the headquarters of the Reservation relocated to the site of Fort Washakie, which had been abandoned that year by the United States Army.
Scope and Content Element (Continued) Repositories should establish institutional policies and guidelines for consistent practices regarding the level of detail to be recorded in the scope and content element. (DACS 3.1, p. 35) “Consistent” does not mean “uniform.”
245 00 $a Sermons, $f 1718-1721. 520 __ $a Manuscript, probably British, containing a cycle of 16 sermons on I Corinthians 15:55-57, delivered from July 27 to November 9, 1718, and two sermons on Psalms 23:4, delivered by "Mr. Bragge" in April, 1721.
100 1_ $a Denne, John, $d ca. 1725-1800. 245 10 $a Four manuscript sermons : $b composed and preached in the years 1790, 91, and 92 : Copford, $f 1792. 520 __ $a Manuscript of four sermons apparently by the rector of St. Michael and All Angels Church in Copford. Topics include the Resurrection, "Universal Good-will," the nature and extent of human perfection, and the importance of education.
520 __ $a Manuscript of four sermons apparently by the rector of St. Michael and All Angels Church in Copford. Topics include the Resurrection, "Universal Good-will," the nature and extent of human perfection, and the importance of education. The sermon on education was preached on the anniversary of the founding of the local Sunday Schools; Denne argues that education will reconcile poor children to their stations in life, keep them from becoming criminals, and "clothe them in humility.“ 600 10 $a Denne, John, $d ca. 1725-1800. 610 20 $a Church of England $v Sermons $y 18th century. 650 _0 $a Occasional sermons. 650 _0 $a Sermons, English $y 18th century. 650 _0 $a Sunday schools $v Sermons. 655 _7 $a Sermons $z Great Britain $y 18th century. $2 aat
Scope and Content Element The scope and content element may include information about any or all of the following, as appropriate: the function(s), activity(ies), transaction(s), and process(es) that generated the materials being described; the documentary form(s) or intellectual characteristics of the records being described (e.g. minutes, diaries, reports, watercolors, documentaries); the content dates, that is, the time period(s) covered by the intellectual content or subject of the unit being described; geographic area(s) and places to which the records pertain; subject matter to which the records pertain, such as topics, events, people, and organizations; and any other information that assists the user in evaluating the relevance of the materials, such as the completeness, changes in location, ownership and custody while still in the possession of the creator, etc. (DACS 3.1, p. 35)
Scope and Content Element Access Points (the short version) This element is a good source for the access points discussed in the Overview of Archival Description. (DACS, p. xvii-xxi) Access Points: Specific terms, codes, concepts and names for which specialized indexes are created to permit faster and more precise searching. It is a local decision as to which names, terms, and concepts found in a description will be included as formal access points.
245 00 $a Marriage contract : $b between François Louis Augustin, Marquis Desmoutiers de Merinville, and Hyacinthe Charlotte Julie Marie Jeanne de la Brisse Danilly : Versailles, $f 1785 January 30. 520 __ $a Manuscript marriage contract in an unidentified hand. Signatures of witnesses include Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and other members of the royal family.
100 1_ $a Lear, Edward, $d 1812-1888. 245 10 $a Illustrated excursions in Italy, $f 1846 / $c by Edward Lear. 520 __ $a Page proofs (London: Charles M’Lean, 1846), with Lear’s holograph corrections and additions, including circa 40 small printed illustrations and 24 plates of landscape engravings.
100 1_ $a Farrington, John, $d d. 1760. 245 10 $a Miscellanies, or, Extracts from books in the forreign journals : $b translated from the French, $f 1758 / $c by John Farrington, of Clapham, aged 79 ; volume 1st. 545 __ $a John Farrington was a merchant in Clapham, England, and a translator of Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s “Discours sur l'origine et les fondements de l'inégalité parmi les hommes”. 520 __ $a Holograph commonplace book containing extracts from philosophical and religious works.
100 1_ $a Hollister, Howard K. $q (Howard Keys), $d b. 1889. 245 10 $a Howard K. Hollister scrapbook, $f 1898-1908. 545 __ $a Howard K. Hollister, son of Ohio Judge Howard C. Hollister (Yale 1878), was born in 1889. Raised in the Walnut Hills section of Cincinnati, Ohio, Hollister attended the 19th District School and Walnut Hills High School. 520 __ $a Scrapbook kept by Howard K. Hollister from 1898 to 1908, documenting Hollister’s life as a Cincinnati schoolboy, as well as his family’s travels in Vermont and elsewhere. The scrapbook includes clippings relating to the Spanish-American War; invitations, tickets, programs, and other ephemera relating to local events; souvenir postcards; school report cards; and writings and notes. Also present is a silhouette of Hollister from the 1901 Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. Notes include references to Hollister’s friendship with Robert A. Taft, son of William Howard Taft. 520 __ $a Accompanied by detached pages and laid in materials, including eleven issues of The Bjornstadiddy, a newspaper edited by children.
100 1_ $a Noyes, Charles P., $d 1842-1921. 245 10 $a Charles P. Noyes autograph album, $f 1772-1926 $g (bulk circa 1860-1900). 545 __ $a Charles P. Noyes was born in Lyme, Connecticut in 1842. After serving in the Civil War he settled in St. Paul, Minnesota, and joined his brothers’ wholesale drug firm. In 1874 he married Emily Hoffman Gilman, with whom he had four children. He was active in financial and business affairs in St. Paul, and was a member of historical associations. In 1907 he compiled a family genealogy titled Noyes-Gilman Ancestry. Noyes retired as president of Noyes Brothers & Cutler in 1920, and he died in 1921. 520 __ $a Autograph album containing letters written in response to Noyes’ requests for autographs, signatures clipped from letters and franked envelopes, and other letters and documents. Most signers are politicians and writers of the Civil War era, including William Lloyd Garrison, Benjamin Harrison, Abraham Lincoln, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Henry M. Waite. Notes and additional documents collected by family members are laid in.
600 10 $a Garrison, William Lloyd, $d 1805-1879 $v Autographs. 600 10 $a Harrison, Benjamin, $d 1833-1901 $v Autographs. 600 10 $a Lincoln, Abraham, $d 1809-1865 $v Autographs. 600 10 $a Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, $d 1807-1882 $v Autographs. 600 10 $a Noyes, Charles P., $d 1842-1921 $v Autographs. 600 10 $a Waite, Henry Matson, $d 1787-1869 $v Autographs. 650 _0 $a Authors $z United States. 650 _0 $a Governors $z United States. 650 _0 $a Legislators $z United States. 650 _0 $a Politicians $z United States. 651 _0 $a United States $x History $y Civil War, 1861-1865 $v Autographs. 655 _7 $a Autograph albums $z United States $y 19th century. $2 aat 655 _7 $a Autograph albums $z United States $y 20th century. $2 aat
100 1_ $a Traill, Thomas Stewart, $d 1781-1862, $e collector. 245 10 $a Thomas Stewart Traill Jacobite document collection, $f 1691-1749. 520 __ $a Album containing 22 mounted manuscripts and 2 printed broadsides, all connected to support for the British House of Stuart and almost all dating from the 1745 Jacobite rebellion. The first 19 are numbered and identified as "Found in the secretary of a partizan of the house of Stewart in 1745." Contents include proclamations issued by Charles Edward Stuart on his arrival in Scotland; a 1742 letter attributed to James, Prince of Wales (the "Old Pretender"); several poems in support of the house of Stuart; an ode on the Stuart victory at Gladsmuir (Prestonpans) and poems on the defeat at Culloden; a list of Jacobite toasts; a 1691 letter of caption issued by William and Mary against Hector MacKenzie; and a contemporary copy of "the Late E. of Argyll’s speech" before his execution in June, 1685.
600 10 $a Argyll, Archibald Campbell, $c Earl of, $d 1629-1685. 600 00 $a Charles Edward, $c Prince, grandson of James II, King of England, $d 1720-1788. 600 00 $a Charles Edward, $c Prince, grandson of James II, King of England, $d 1720-1788 $v Poetry. 600 00 $a James, $c Prince of Wales, $d 1688-1766. 600 10 $a Traill, Thomas Stewart, $d 1781-1862. 650 _0 $a Culloden, Battle of, Scotland, 1746. 650 _0 $a Jacobite Rebellion, 1745-1746. 650 _0 $a Jacobite Rebellion, 1745-1746 $v Poetry. 650 _0 $a Jacobites. 650 _0 $a Jacobites $v Poetry. 650 _0 $a Monmouth’s Rebellion, 1685. 651 _0 $a Great Britain $x History $y 1660-1714. 651 _0 $a Great Britain $x History $y 1714-1837. 651 _0 $a Scotland $x History $y 1660-1688. 651 _0 $a Scotland $x History $y 1689-1745. 692 14 $a Traill, Thomas Stewart, $d 1781-1862. $x Bookplate.
Single-Item or Collection-Level Description? Example documentary forms include: Scrapbooks Autograph books Bound collections of documents Extra-illustrated books Single items with accompanying material
100 0_ $a Buffalo Bill, $d 1846-1917. 245 10 $a Buffalo Bill letter : $b Saint Louis, Missouri, to Joseph Witherspoon Cook, Greenwood, South Dakota, $f 1896 May 23. 545 __ $a Buffalo Bill was employed as a scout by the United States 5th Cavalry, 1868-1872. In 1869 he participated in the Battle of Summit Springs, Colorado, in which the 5th Cavalry defeated Cheyenne Indians. 520 __ $a Autograph letter, signed, responding to Joseph Witherspoon Cook’s interest in a Dakota Indian boy taken prisoner by the United States Army at the Battle of Summit Springs. Buffalo Bill discusses actions of United States soldiers and himself in the battle, capture of the boy by Pawnee scouts employed by General Eugene A. Carr, and removal of the boy and other Indian prisoners to Fort Sedgwick, Colorado. He briefly discusses white captives held by Cheyenne Indians. The letter is written on pictorial letterhead of Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Company.
600 00 $a Buffalo Bill, $d 1846-1917. 600 10 $a Carr, Eugene A. 600 10 $a Cook, Joseph Witherspoon, $d 1836-1902. 610 20 $a Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Company. 610 10 $a United States. $b Army. $b Cavalry, 5th. 650 _0 $a Cheyenne Indians $x Wars, 1868-1869. 650 _0 $a Indian captivities $z Colorado. 650 _0 $a Summit Springs, Battle of, Colo., 1869. 651 _0 $a Fort Sedgwick (Colo.) 655 _7 $a Letterheads $z West (U.S) $y 19th century. $2 aat
Single Item or Add to Intentionally-Assembled Collection? Example documentary forms include: Letters Literary manuscripts Fragments of manuscripts Photographs Drawings Ephemera
Access Points Specific terms, codes, concepts and names for which specialized indexes are created. Six broad categories: – Names –Places –Subjects –Documentary forms –Occupations –Functions It is a local decision as to which names, terms and concepts found in a description will be included as formal access points –The standard format of such terms can be developed locally, but preferably will be taken from standard thesauri….or will be recorded following the rules in Part III. (DACS, p. 117-197)
100 1_ $a Ogden, David L. $q (David Longworth), $d 1792-1863. 245 10 $a Thoughts on men and things. $n Vol. VI, $f 1850 December 29-1862 May 14. 520 __ $a Holograph diary. Entries concern preaching engagements during his retirement, impressions of other ministers, interpretation of Scripture, and religious life in New Haven. Also discussed are circumstances of his dismissal from churches in Southington and Marlboro, his opinions on abolition, and relations between abolitionists and Congregational clergy. 600 10 $a Ogden, David L. $q (David Longworth), $d 1792-1863. 650 _0 $a Clergy $z Connecticut. 650 _0 $a Congregational churches $z Connecticut $x Clergy $v Diaries. 650 _0 $a Slavery and the church $z Connecticut. 651 _0 $a New Haven (Conn.) $x Religion. 655 _7 $a Diaries $z Connecticut $z New Haven $y 19th century. $2 aat 656 _7 $a Clergy $z Connecticut $z New Haven $y 19th century. $2 lcsh
100 1_ $a Dalling, John. 245 10 $a Observations on the present state of the island of Jamaica, $f 1774 May 14. 520 __ $a Manuscript, in an unidentified hand, of a detailed description of the geography, population, economy, government, and social organization of Jamaica by John Dalling. Topics include agriculture, the sugar trade and the mechanics of a typical sugar plantation, slavery and slave customs, and relations between the races. 600 10 $a Dalling, John. 650 _0 $a Plantation life $z Jamaica. 650 _0 $a Slaveholders $z Jamaica. 650 _0 $a Slavery $z Jamaica. 650 _0 $a Sugar trade $z Jamaica. 651 _0 $a Jamaica $x Description and travel. 651 _0 $a Jamaica $x Economic conditions. 651 _0 $a Jamaica $x Race relations. 651 _0 $a Jamaica $x Social life and customs.
Dates Take date information from any reliable source (DACS 2.4.2, p.25) Include year, month, and day, as appropriate Use a consistent format (DACS 2.4.3-2.4.16, p. 25-28) Avoid use of “undated” for single manuscript cataloging If no information is available, supply or estimate a date
Types of Dates (DACS 2.4, p. 24) Date of creation Date of record-keeping activity Date of publication Date of broadcast
Creation: Single Date vs. Span Use a single date or span of dates for creation of the original manuscript Examples: 245 10 $a Buffalo Bill letter : $b Saint Louis, Missouri, to Joseph Witherspoon Cook, Greenwood, South Dakota, $f 1896 May 23. 245 10 $a John Newell account book, $f 1758-1823. Give dates of later annotations in the Scope and Content or Note Element
Record-keeping: Contents vs. Acquisition or Transcription Give span dates of the contents of a scrapbook, album, or other collection of documents If dates of acquisition and assembly by the original collector are important, give these in the Scope and Content or Note Element Consider also giving bulk dates. Example: 100 1_ $a Noyes, Charles P., $d 1842-1921. 245 10 $a Charles P. Noyes autograph album, $f 1772-1926 $g (bulk circa 1860-1900). For a copy of an original manuscript, give date of transcription. Example: 100 1_ $a Hagerman, James John, $d 1838-1909. 245 10 $a James John Hagerman : $b memoirs of his life, $f 20th century / $c written by himself at Roswell, New Mexico, in 1908. Give the date of original manuscript in the Scope and Content or Note Element, if not already present in the title.
Publication: Creation vs. Imprint Publication and copyright dates can be used to supply or estimate a year of creation for an undated manuscript Give copyright and publication information in the Scope and Content or Note Element Example: 100 1_ $a Lear, Edward, $d 1812-1888. 245 10 $a Illustrated excursions in Italy, $f 1846 / $c by Edward Lear. 520 __ $a Page proofs (London: Charles M’Lean, 1846) …
Broadcast: Creation vs. Delivery Dates of delivery of a speech or other presentation can be used to supply or estimate a year of creation for an undated manuscript Give date of delivery in the Scope and Content or Note Element, if not already present in the title Example: 100 1_ $a Denne, John, $d ca. 1725-1800. 245 10 $a Four manuscript sermons : $b composed and preached in the years 1790, 91, and 92 : Copford, $f 1792.
Supplying or Estimating Dates Supplied date –Obtain from an external source –Consult biographies, bibliographies, historical sources Estimated date –Infer from internal evidence –Look for dates mentioned in text –Examine physical artifact for clues If no sources are found, at least estimate a century
Extent Take information from the manuscript itself, or from transfer documents (DACS 2.5.2, p. 29) DACS refers to AACR2 for detailed description of single items (DACS 2.5, p. 29) –Record a quantity, material type, page count, and height in centimeters –For material type, use “volume” if the manuscript is bound or “item” for unbound –Optionally, use “leaves” instead of “pages” if versos are blank –Round centimeters up Example: 300 __ $a 1 $f volume (250 pages) ; $c 20 centimeters. Optionally, include other physical characteristics, or describe these in a Note Element, such as: –Illustrations –Binding or writing surface –Materials tipped in, laid in, or accompanying Examples: 300 __ $a 1 $f volume (250 pages) ; $c 20 centimeters + $e 1 photograph. 300 __ $a 1 $f volume (250 pages) : $b illustrated ; $c 20 centimeters. 300 __ $a 1 $f volume (250 pages) : $b bound in vellum ; $c 20 centimeters.
Determining Page Counts Record or supply a page count (AACR2 Chapter 4) For pages numbered in more than one sequence, list each sequence as it appears in the manuscript For unnumbered pages, count pages and supply the number Optionally, supply an estimate of unnumbered pages or all pages Optionally: –Omit blank pages from page count or estimate –Describe details in the Scope and Content or Note Element Examples: 300 __ $a 1 $f volume (250 pages) ; $c 20 centimeters. 300 __ $a 1 $f item (4 leaves) ; $c 16 x 20 centimeters. 300 __ $a 1 $f volume (vi, 24 leaves, 106 pages) ; $c 24 centimeters. 300 __ $a 1 $f volume (circa 300 pages) ; $c 22 centimeters.
Remaining Descriptive Elements: Issues Specific to Single Manuscripts Administrative/Biographical History (DACS 2.7, p. 34, and 10.1-10.36, p. 93-104) –Provides context for Scope and Content Element –Include: Biographical information for people Administrative history of corporate bodies Publication or performance history of works Notes (DACS 7.1, p. 77): –For information not accommodated by other elements –See AACR2 Chapter 4 for examples of notes for single items Optionally, incorporate some or all of Administrative/Biographical History, Scope and Content, and Note Elements in a single narrative in the Scope and Content Element
Notes Consider making Notes about: Source of a transcribed title, if other than a title page Dates of: –Publication or copyright appearing on a literary manuscript –Delivery of a speech or other presentation –Originals from which a copy was made –Annotations –Acquisition and assembly of bound collections Accompanying material Details of complex page counts Illustrations Handwritings Unusual writing implements, writing surfaces, or bindings
Remaining Descriptive Elements: Issues Specific to Single Manuscripts (Continued) Specialized Notes: Citation (DACS 7.1.5, p. 78) –Specifies a preferred form of citation for the manuscript –Optionally, simplify authoritative forms of names and titles Custodial History (DACS 5.1, p. 59-60) –Records information about past owners –Derived from marks of ownership on the manuscript, or external sources Publication Note (DACS 6.4, p. 75) –Cites published information about the manuscript –Especially consider citing sources that provide significant description, transcription, or context beyond the manuscript itself
Remaining Descriptive Elements: Issues Similar to Collections Reference Code (DACS 2.1, p. 13-15) Name and Location of Repository (DACS 2.2, p. 16) Conditions Governing Access (DACS 4.1, p. 43-45) Physical Access (DACS 4.2, p. 46-47) Technical Access (DACS 4.3, p. 48-49) Conditions Governing Reproduction and Use (DACS 4.4, p. 50-53) Languages and Scripts of the Material (DACS 4.5, p. 54-55) Immediate Source of Acquisition (DACS 5.2, p. 61-62) Existence and Location of Originals (DACS 6.1, p. 69-70) Existence and Location of Copies (DACS 6.2, p. 71-72) Related Archival Materials (DACS 6.3, p. 73-74) Description Control (DACS 8.1, p. 81-82)
Remaining Descriptive Elements: Unlikely to be Used for Single Manuscripts System of Arrangement (DACS 3.2, p. 40-42) Finding Aids (DACS 4.6, p. 56-58) Appraisal, Destruction, and Scheduling Information (DACS 5.3, p. 63- 65) Accruals (DACS 5.4, p. 66-67)
Preparation for Cataloging Does the manuscript meet your repository’s criteria for single item cataloging? How much time will you spend on: –Examining the manuscript –Research in external sources –Creating the catalog record
Examining the Manuscript Review any existing descriptions Examine the whole manuscript, especially looking at: –Cover, spine, pastedowns –Annotations, inscriptions, bookplates, stamps, labels –Pages preceding and following text –Beginning and end of text –Major divisions of text –Drawings, maps, photographs, other visual material –Tipped in, laid in, accompanying material Based on your examination: –Does this manuscript meet your repository’s criteria for individual cataloging? –What kinds of name, title, subject, and documentary form access are most important to your staff and readers?
What to Look For What is the documentary form or forms? What is the date or date span? Who created the manuscript? Are there other associated names? For what purpose(s) was it created? Who has owned or used it? For what purpose(s) has it been used? Is any part of the text a “known” work? –Has the work been published? When? In what versions? –What version of the work is represented in the manuscript? Is it complete? –Was the manuscript created by the author of the work, or is the manuscript a copy made by someone else?
Consulting External Sources Consult sources such as: –Published editions of the manuscript –Descriptions by former owners, vendors, or donors –Biographical sources –Bibliographies of authors’ works –Reference sources concerning historical periods and events –Published editions of works represented in the manuscript Look for information that will affect the most important access points Set time limit for external research
Assembling Descriptive Information Identify at least: –Documentary form –Language –Time period –Physical extent Try to identify, as appropriate: –Creator(s) –Title(s) appearing on manuscript –Author, uniform title, and version of a literary work –Dates or date span –Place of creation –Subject content –Associated names –Evidence of ownership and use Determine research values and appropriate level of detail for description and access If you are not familiar with the documentary form, time period, subject matter, language, script, or handwriting, consider asking a specialist for help
Required Elements Minimum level (DACS, p. 8) –Reference Code –Name and Location of Repository –Title –Date –Extent –Name of Creator –Scope and Content: minimal –Conditions Governing Access –Language and Scripts of the Material Optimum (DACS, p. 9) –All elements above –Administrative/Biographical History –Scope and Content: full –Access points Added Value (DACS, p. 9) –All elements above –Any other desired elements
Creating a Minimum-Level Catalog Record Include all of the following elements: Name of Creator: use authoritative form (DACS, chapters 12-14, p. 119- 197), or omit if unidentified Title: transcribe (use AACR2) or supply Date: record, supply, or estimate Extent: quantity, type, page count, measurement (use AACR2) Scope and Content: briefly describe documentary form characteristics and subject content Conditions Governing Access: state whether the material open or closed to readers Language and Scripts of the Material: include any specialized language knowledge needed for use Reference Code: assign a call number or shelf location Name and Location of Repository: use a consistent format
Creating a Detailed Catalog Record Add (for DACS Optimum Level): Administrative/Biographical History: Provide context for Scope and Content –Omit if the creator is unidentified, or if no information about the creator is found Scope and Content: full description, justifying access points Access points, as appropriate (DACS, chapters 12-14): –Personal, corporate, and geographic names: Library of Congress Authority File (LCAF) –Uniform titles: (LCAF) –Topical subjects: Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) –Documentary forms: national thesauri, such as Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) Consider adding, as appropriate (for DACS Added Value Level): Custodial History: marks of ownership, or other known history Immediate Source of Acquisition: use consistent format Existence and Location of Copies: photocopies, microfilm, digital images Description Control: DACS compliance code (dacs), name of cataloger, date of cataloging Other elements, such as Citation Note and Publications Notes (see AACR2 Chapter 4)
OPAC Display and Indexing Issues In your repository’s catalog: –How can readers search for manuscript material? –How are titles and uniform titles indexed? –How are local subject headings indexed? –How are fields arranged and labeled in the OPAC display? Consider capabilities of your OPAC when making local decisions about: –Use of descriptive elements beyond those required by DACS –Use of fixed field codes –Standard wording for supplied titles –Standard wording for other descriptive fields –Use of LCSH subdivisions for documentary form, time period, and geographic area –Use of local subject headings in addition to LCSH
Local MARC Cataloging Decisions: Examples Identification of manuscript material for search limits Leader/Record Type = p Uniform title indexing 245 10 $a Our town, $f 1938 / $c by Thornton Wilder. or 240 10 $a Our town 245 10 $a Drafts for my new play, $f 1938. or 700 1_ $a Wilder, Thornton, $d 1882-1945. $t Our town. Variant title indexing 245 10 $a Our town, $f 1938 / $c by Thornton Wilder. 246 3_ $a Drafts for my new play 500 __ $a Spine title: Drafts for my new play. Analytic title indexing 245 10 $a Our town, $f 1938 / $c by Thornton Wilder. 520 __ $a …Accompanied by a holograph draft of a radio presentation titled “Thornton Wilder Reads From His New Play”…. 740 _2 $a Thornton Wilder reads from his new play.
Local MARC Cataloging Decisions: Examples (Continued) Identification of manuscript material in general material designation subfield; also possibly useful for keyword searching 245 10 $a Our town $h [manuscript], $f 1938 / $c by Thornton Wilder. Consistent wording for identification of manuscript material in Scope and Content Element; also possibly useful in keyword searching 520 __ $a Typescript draft, with holograph corrections of an early version of Our town… Consistent citation form 524 __ $a Thornton Wilder, Our Town, Draft, 1938. Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library.
Local MARC Cataloging Decisions: Examples (Continued) Subject indexing: separate Wilder manuscript material in truncated subject search 600 10 $a Wilder, Thornton, $d 1897-1975 $v Archives. 600 10 $a Wilder, Thornton, $d 1897-1975 $v Manuscripts. Subject indexing: separate headings by time period in truncated subject search 650 _0 $a Authors, American $y 20th century. 655 _7 $a Playscripts $z United States $y 20th century. $2 aat Local provenance subject heading indexing 692 14 $a Wilder, Thornton, $d 1897-1975 $x Bookplate. 692 14 $a Wilder, Thornton, $d 1897-1975 $x Ownership. 692 14 $a Wilder, Thornton, $d 1897-1975 $x Ms. notes. 692 14 $a Wilder, Thornton, $d 1897-1975 $x Presentation inscription. Added text following OPAC’s label “Other formats available,” identifying type of other format; text can be hotlinked in OPAC 856 41 $3 Digital images $u [url] (catalog record) Other formats available: Digital images (OPAC display)Digital images