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Electrothermal AAS AIT.

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Presentation on theme: "Electrothermal AAS AIT."— Presentation transcript:

1 Electrothermal AAS AIT

2 Limitation of flame AAS
advantages of flame atomisation are: simplicity speed most metals atomise in readily available flames sensitivity suitable for general analyses (mg/L) need for lower concentrations became apparent in the 60s (heavy metal pollution)

3 Exercise 3.1 Limiting factors for FAAS sensitivity
90% of sample not analysed rapid passage through flame dilute atomic vapour in flame flame chemistry problems matrix problems

4 Non-flame atomisation
an AA system based around a flame and nebuliser will never achieve ug/L vapour generation AAS doesn’t use a flame atomisation occurs without significant temperature input for most elements, this will not work electrothermal AAS – electrical heating; same temperatures as flame

5 Basic principles the flame and the nebuliser are replaced in EAAS
sample is delivered as a single aliquot into a sample holder heated electrically the absorption beam passes through the sample holder to the monochromator and detector

6 Exercise 3.2 How are problems in Ex 3.1 dealt with in EAAS?
90% of sample not analysed all sample analysed as single aliquot rapid passage through flame sample held within sample holder dilute atomic vapour in flame small volume of sample holder increases concentration flame chemistry problems no flame matrix components matrix removed or reduced in effect

7 Equipment burner/nebuliser replaced by workhead
most instruments allow the two units to be interchangeable rest of the instrument is identical: hollow cathode lamp monochromator photomultiplier detector signal processing and readout EAAS instruments must have computer control automate the sample delivery monitor the heating signal measurement.

8 Workhead and cell workhead contains the sample cell and provides the services for controlled heating of the sample sample cell is a hollow graphite tube approximately 28mm in length by 8mm in diameter EAAS also called graphite furnace AAS interior of the cylinder is coated with a layer of pyrolytic graphite greater resistance to heat than normal graphite sample is delivered into the graphite tube through a small hole in the side of the tube

9 the tube rests on electrodes
graphite is only a moderate conductor of electricity, so the tube heats up metal housing around the furnace is water cooled enables rapid restoration of the furnace to ambient temperature after atomisation inert gas (generally argon) is flushed through and around the tube from the ends: to remove steam and smoke vaporised during the heating to prevent oxidation of the graphite to help with cooling

10 Workhead Ar flows through and around tube cooling water coils HCL beam
quartz windows HCL beam cooling water coils

11 Autosamplers use an autosampler to place the sample in the graphite tube volumes involved are typically 5-20 uL also allow multiple samples to be run without an operator in attendance different solutions (blank, sample, standard, matrix modifier) are used in combination for the analysis kept apart in the plastic tubing by air gaps

12 The heating process does not simply involve an instant transition to C. Class Exercise 3.3 What do you expect would happen to a droplet of milk inside the graphite furnace it is was suddenly exposed to 2200C? spatter everywhere analyte would be lost in the spray

13 Heating stages Drying removal of all volatiles
temperatures slightly above the boiling point of the solvent 30-60 seconds Ashing organic matter is burnt away temp. increased to C 5-40 seconds Atomisation temperatures used in FAAS ( C) 3-4 seconds measurement of absorbance

14 Temperature cycle Atomising Cooling Ashing Drying

15 Designing the temperature program
time and temperature conditions must be carefully selected analyte and the matrix will affect the times and temperatures in each step instrument manual provides a standard program for all elements (in pure water or dilute acid can be used as a starting point for a real sample

16 Exercise 3.4 Analyte Matrix Drying time N Y Drying temp. Ashing time
Ashing temp. Atomisation time Atom. temp.

17 Drying designed to remove all volatiles
without losing analyte by over-vigorous boiling Exercise 3.5 Factors affecting drying time volume viscosity of liquid Factors affecting temperature bp of solvent

18 Drying divided into a number of steps:
increase from room temperature to boiling point of solvent remain at this temperature for a time increase up to about 50ºC above b.p. to remove last volatiles main problem: incomplete drying leads to splattering of the remaining material listen for a fizz as the temperature goes up

19 Exercise 3.6 differences in drying stage, compared to the standard program for lead in water, where the matrix is: petrol Time: no change Temp.: decrease milk Time: increase Temp.: no change

20 Ashing non-volatile organic components of the matrix by burning them away Exercise 3.7 Factors affecting ashing time amount of organic matter temperature being used Factors affecting temperature volatility of analyte (eg lead)

21 Ashing also into three stages
quick increase from the final drying temperature to the ashing temperature remain at ashing temperature for required time in the last few seconds before atomisation, turnoff gas flow atmosphere inside the tube is still for atomisation

22 Chemical modifiers used where the analyte is relatively volatile
would be lost during the ashing stage at normal temps >600C eg lead which is volatile above 500ºC; ashing temperature would have to be quite low a much longer time required modifier used to reduce volatility of analyte eg modifier for lead is phosphate lead phosphate has a much higher boiling point than other lead salts modifier must not hold onto the analyte during atomisation! other elements needing modifiers include Cd, Hg, As & Sb

23 Ashing problems generation of smoke during atomisation
causes a high background reading due to scattering observe this at the start of the atomisation step a puff of smoke coming out through the delivery hole

24 Exercise 3.8 differences in ashing stage, compared to the standard program for copper in water: lead in water Time: no change Temp.: decrease or use modifier aluminium in milk Time: increase Temp.: increase

25 Atomisation convert analyte to atomic vapour Exercise 3.9
Factors affecting atomisation time nothing Factors affecting atomisation temp. volatility of analyte

26 Signal measurement more complex than in flame AAS
analyte atoms are only present for a few seconds once per run rather than being present whenever the nebuliser is in the flask. signal is a short-lived peak signal capture by computer is essential data only recorded in atomisation steps ignores “absorbance” (actually scattering) during drying and ashing due to steam and smoke

27 Checking instrument performance
in flame AAS, sensitivity is the concentration giving an absorbance of in EAAS, the characteristic mass is the mass giving that absorbance used in the same way to check performance

28 Calculating mc mc and ms are in picograms (10-12 g) pg = uL x ug/L
eg 15 uL of 10 ug/L is 150 pg

29 Exercise 3.10 Calculate the expected absorbance for 10 uL of 20 ug/L Fe, if the characteristic mass for Fe is 1.2 pg. Comment on the instrument performance, if a 10 uL aliquot of 50 ug/L Pb gives an absorbance of 0.24, given the characteristic mass is 5.5 pg.

30 Memory effect with flame AAS, if you put too a high a conc. soln in, the absorbance reading goes off scale and all you do is dilute it with EAAS, these things happen as well you temporarily wreck the tube lots of the excess metal doesn’t atomise and stays in the tube – memory effect if it is very hard to atomise (eg Al, Ca) throw the tube away try a number of tube cleans not just the analyte (think sea water)

31 Exercise 3.11 How could you check whether the tube is ready to be used after a number of tube cleans? run a blank and check its absorbance

32 Solutions sample or standard blank standard addition modifier
should be between 15 and 30 uL should be consistent for all solutions

33 Tube life 500 cycles with very simple solutions Exercise 3.12
in your own time is examinable

34 Background correction
a means of correcting for sources of non-analyte reduction in beam intensity (things that increase Abs): smoke particles molecular species not all the ash smoke is removable measured absorbance is the sum of analyte and background absorbance correction systems measure total and background analyte is difference

35 Correction systems Deuterium lamp
signal reaching the detector alternates between: the HCL, which measures At, and a deuterium lamp which only detects Ab a simple system requires that the HCL and D2 beams are exactly aligned through the tube (!!! not flame)

36 Exercise 3.13 Why would the analyte absorption not be detected in the deuterium beam? same reason HCL lamps were developed atomic absorption line too narrow to be detectable in continuous source

37 Correction systems Zeeman effect
magnetic effect which changes the characteristics of the analyte absorption line when the magnet is on, the analyte no longer absorbs the HCL alternate between off (total) and on (background) only requires the HCL lamp much more expensive

38 Vapour generation relies on the formation of a volatile species containing the analyte metal the pure metal itself, eg mercury (cold vapour) the readily decomposed hydride of metals, eg arsenic, antimony and tin (hydride generation) volatile form of the metal is created by chemical reaction a stream of gas (eg nitrogen) passes through it transferred to cell in HCL beam heating if required (hydrides) gain in sensitivity (ug/L) Amendment – not an aliquot – continuous uptake

39 Monochromator & Detector
Reaction vessel (sample + reagents) Hollow Cathode Lamp Monochromator & Detector heated quartz tube Gas stream in Gas stream out (with analyte)

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