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What Are We Learning Today? 1.4 Explore ways in which individuals and collectives express identities.

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Presentation on theme: "What Are We Learning Today? 1.4 Explore ways in which individuals and collectives express identities."— Presentation transcript:

1 What Are We Learning Today? 1.4 Explore ways in which individuals and collectives express identities.

2 Who Are You? Do you carry a document, such as a birth certificate or passport, that identifies you in some way? Your birth certificate, for example, shows your name, who your parents are, and when and where you were born. Your passport shows similar info. Documents like these give some info. about your identity, but this info. tells only a small part of the story of who you are.

3 What are some factors that have shaped who you are?

4 Identity & Context Your family, your heritage, your history, your language(s), your traditions, and many other factors that affect identity are all part of the context (the circumstances or surroundings) in which your identity developed. Different contexts can make you take on different roles that highlight different aspects of your identity. For example, the aspects of your identity you highlight at school are probably different from those you highlight at home, when you are with your friends at the mall, or when you’re playing a sport. (Figure 1-5)

5 Time & Who You Are The passage of time also plays a role in shaping your identity. Recall who you were when you were 6 years old. Then think about who you were last year and who you are today. Are you the same as, or different from, the person you were when you were 6? Have you changed since last year? How so?

6 How Do You Express Who Your Are? Every day, you tell the world about yourself in many different ways. The language(s) you speak, the friends you choose, the clothes you wear, the food you eat, the things you buy, the music you listen to, the leisure activities you choose (and many other actions you take) all express aspects of your identity. They make statements about who you are.

7 Expressing Individual Identity: Traditions For many ppl of Finnish heritage, a sauna is an important tradition that expresses an aspect of their identity. They believe that a sauna not only cleans and heals the body, but also purifies the mind. What traditions do you follow?

8 How many different ways can you describe snow?

9 Few Words for Snow No matter how you put the words together, if you are speaking English, you would nearly always use a form of the word “snow” in your description. This is because English has relatively few words for snow.

10 Language & Worldview Compare this with the many different words that describe snowy conditions in Inuktitut, the language spoken by the Inuit who live in Canada’s North. (FYI pg. 24) Why would the Inuit have so many more words for snow than we do? Many language experts and anthropologists (ppl who study ppl, societies, and customs) believe that language expresses the way ppl view and understand the world around them. As a result, they say, language is an important part of ppl’s identity.

11 Expressing Individual Identity: Clothing Do the clothes you wear express aspects of your identity? Dressing in the latest style may make a statement about the role of fashion in your sense of identity. Wearing items purchased in a vintage or used- clothing shop may make a statement about other beliefs you hold. Even the clothes you choose not to wear may express aspects of your identity. Ppl who choose not to wear clothing that displays trendy brand names may be expressing a belief that is important to them.


13 Piercings Just as clothing is often an expression of identity, so is body adornment (decoration). Ppl have been adorning their bodies for thousands of years. Women in Iran, for example, have been wearing earrings in their pierced ears for more than 4000 years. Body piercing was also popular in India and Pakistan, as well in other ancient cultures, such as the Aztecs and Maya of Mexico.

14 Tattoos Tattoos are another ancient form of body adornment. They have been used by groups to show marital status or membership in a clan. They have also commemorated important battles, journeys, or visions. (Figure 1-7) In many Western societies, piercing and tattooing were frowned on for a long time. Some cultures, such as Jews, even prohibit marking the skin.

15 Homework For homework I would like a paragraph answering either the first or second bullet depending on whether you would get a tattoo or not: If you think one day you would like to get a tattoo why would you get one? What would you get? Where would you put it? Would your tattoo be a reflection of your identity? Do you think it might change how ppl perceive you? Why or why not? If you would probably never get a tattoo why wouldn’t you? Would you care if your future husband/wife or children got one? Why or why not? Do you think not having tattoos says something about your identity? Why or why not?

16 Lubicon Cree assignment

17 Collective Identity Collective identity: expressing your identity as a member of a group. What was your first collective that you belonged to? Your family! For example, your family would have defined the first language you spoke and the cultural traditions you followed. If your parents or guardians belonged to a collective such as a church, synagogue, mosque, or temple, you probably did too. Then you would have learned the beliefs, traditions, and rituals of that collective.

18 Changing Collectives As you grew older, many other collectives may have begun to play a role in shaping aspects of your identity. When you were a young child, for example, you may have worn the clothes your parents chose for you. Their choices may have been influenced by a # of factors, including their beliefs about appropriate dress for young children. As you grew older, however, you may have begun making your own clothing choices, which may have been influenced more by your friends.

19 Affirming Collective Identity In Quebec, Francophones form a majority of the population, but in other provinces, they form a minority – sometimes a small minority. In Alberta, for example, Francophones make up a little more than 2% of the population. What challenges might their small number present to Franco-Albertans who wish to affirm their identity as Francophones?

20 Affirming Francophone Identity One way Francophone Albertans affirm their identity is by founding associations and institutions to protect and affirm their rights and to affirm their collective identity. La Francophonie is an example of this. It is an association for young ppl between the ages of 14 and 25. It was formed in the 1970s to encourage Alberta’s Francophone youth to promote their identity. Why would it be especially important for young ppl to be part of associations and institutions that affirm their language and identity?

21 Collective Identity & Context In different contexts, you may often be expressing a different aspect of your collective identity. Each collective probably has ground rules that its members accept without question. These “rules” may be written or unwritten, and they may be expressed in the form of customs, traditions, and rituals that affirm the beliefs and identity of members of the collective. Can you think of any unwritten “rules” you have in any collectives you belong to? (Figure 1-14)

22 Gender-neutral Language For centuries, English used the masculine form of many words to apply to both men and women. Examples: mankind, chairman, policemen In the 20 th century, more women began to enter positions and occupations that had traditionally been dominated by men. As this happened, the words commonly used to describe these positions and occupations changed to gender-neutral terms that could describe both women and men. “Mankind” became “humankind,” “chairman” became the “chairperson” or “chair,” and “policemen” became “police officers.” (FYI pg. 29)

23 Slang & Jargon What is slang? What is jargon? Slang is often defined as a collection of terms used by the members of a social collective, such as teenagers. Jargon is similar to slang. It, too, is a collection of terms, but it is often used by members of professional collectives, such as computer technicians, teachers, doctors, and musicians. (Figure 1-12)

24 Why Use Slang & Jargon? Language experts believe that ppl use slang and jargon to: – Avoid long descriptions and explanations – Convey precise meaning to other members of the collective – Affirm their identity as a member of a particular collective Using slang and jargon maintains group solidarity because everyone in the collective understands the same “language” while those outside the group do not. Ppl feel a sense of belonging to the collective when they share this special language.

25 What Are We Learning Today? 1.5 Explore understandings and dimensions of globalization.

26 What does globalization mean?

27 Identities & Globalization 1 perspective on globalization suggests that it is a process by which the world’s citizens are becoming more connected and interdependent. The connections that link ppl to 1 another take many forms and are expanding faster than ever before. The connections make everyone more interdependent (rely on other ppl) and affect everyone’s identity.

28 Make a list of everything that is in your possession right now. Where was your shirt made, your watch, your shoes, your iPod, etc. How many different countries do you represent at this very moment? (Figure 1-16)

29 Trade You may not actually travel to China, India, or the US, but int’l trade connects you directly to ppl in these countries. Trade is not the only link between ppl. You may, for example, share a connection with ppl in other parts of the world through your religious or spiritual beliefs. Or, you may share an enthusiasm for a sport or a particular kind of music.

30 Are there any negative consequences to buying a new cell phone?

31 Coltan 2 nd half pg. 36 (Figure 1-17) 1 st half pg. 37 (Figure 1-18) How is your identity connected to the identity of coltan miners in the Democratic Republic of Congo?

32 Beyond Individual & Collective Identities In the summer of 2010, ppl around the world connected with 1 another through a sporting event. Soccer teams from 32 countries went to South Africa to play in the finals of the World Cup. Team supporters, in their home country or in the country to which they had immigrated, identified with their teams and celebrated their participation.

33 The World Cup Thanks to global communication systems, a shared interest connected soccer fans around the world. For a couple of weeks, these fans formed a global collective. What does a global collective mean? The World Cup is just 1 example of the vast and growing network of interconnections that shape, and are shaped by, the lives and identities of ppl everywhere. (Figure 1-20)

34 Other Global Collectives The identities of ppl around the world are also connected through membership in other collectives. These collectives may be created as a result of shared interests or goals. Ppl who are interested in the env’t can connect through organizations such as Sierra Club or Greenpeace, and ppl who are interested in humanitarian causes can connect through groups such as Amnesty International and World Vision. Global collectives like these help countries and individuals affirm and promote aspects of their identity and share their perspectives with others.

35 Making Global Connections Many ppl believe that these growing connections and interdependence enable ppl from diverse backgrounds/cultures to connect and communicate in a way that expands their individual identity and promotes understanding and cooperation. But do global connections and interdependence always lead to positive results? Many worry that they do not. Others believe that globalization is reducing diversity, that ppl’s distinct identities, individual and collective, are disappearing. They say that globalization will erase differences between ppl.

36 Trade as a Globalizing Force Pg. 44 Ppl have always reached out to others to obtain things they cannot grow or make themselves. In North America, for example, some areas of the Eastern Arctic are rich in soapstone, a soft rock that can be easily carved. At the same time, wood is scarce. So the Inuit of the Eastern Arctic reached out to other Aboriginal groups, such as the James Bay Cree, who lived farther south, where wood was more plentiful. The Inuit traded their soapstone for wood.

37 Why do people/societies trade with one another?

38 Why Trade? In the same way as the Inuit connected with nearby ppls through the exchange of goods, ppl who live in different parts of the world have connected with 1 another through trade for thousands of years. Ppl trade with 1 another to obtain goods and services that are: – Not available in their own region – Better quality or less expensive – Different from goods produced at home

39 Trade Possibilities Are Endless… Trade goods may be anything from natural resources, such as lumber and oil, to clothing, car parts, agricultural products, and stocks and bonds. Goods may be imported into a country from other countries – or exported out of a country to other countries. Except in a small area of southern Ontario, the Canadian climate is unsuitable for growing peanuts. So Canadian supermarkets import peanuts grown in the US and other countries, such as China. At the same time, Canada is rich in oil, which is exported to the US and other countries.


41 Transportation as a Globalizing Force Pg. 46 Figure 2-5

42 All these logos are symbols that represent familiar “Canadian” companies. But are they really Canadian?

43 Owned by Americans The Hudson’s Bay Company, North America’s oldest corporation, was sold to American billionaire Jerry Zucker in 2006. Zellers, which was founded during the Great Depression of the 1930s and later bought by the Bay, went to Zucker in the same sale. Tim Hortons was founded by and named for Tim Horton, a Stanley Cup winning Toronto Maple Leaf defenceman in the 1960s. This company was sold to the American fast-food chain Wendy’s International in 1995.

44 Where do you think the decisions about running these companies are now made? Does it matter that so many “Canadian” businesses are now owned by American companies?

45 Transnational Corporations A business like Wendy’s is a transnational corporation (also a multinational corporation). A transnational corporation is a company that is based in 1 country while developing and manufacturing its products, or delivering its goods and services, in more than 1 country. This means when you buy a donut at Tim Hortons or a banana at your neighbourhood supermarket, you are participating in the global economy. How is this so?

46 The Banana Wars Three American transnational corporations control most of the world’s banana supply: Dole, Chiquita, and Del Monte. Most of the bananas come from Ecuador Bananas are grown elsewhere – but it is harder to access them Text pgs 50-55 homework


48 Pros of Transnationals Transnational corporations play an important role in the globalization process. Companies like McDonald’s, Coca-Cola, and Nike sell fast food, soft drinks, and shoes around the world. In many countries, they provide training and jobs for ppl who might not otherwise have work.

49 Cons of Transnationals But critics of transnationals say that the jobs are often “McJobs.” McJobs are low-level positions that require little skill and provide few opportunities to advance. Critics also argue that profits earned by transnationals, such as Daishowa Paper Manufacturing of Japan and Coca-Cola of the US, go to the country where the company has its headquarters. The profits do not benefit the ppl of the country where the goods are actually made or sold.

50 Of the world’s top 500 transnational corporations based on total revenues, 170 are in the US, 70 are in Japan, 38 in Britain, 38 in France, 35 in Germany, and 14 in Canada. What does this stat say about globalization?

51 Homework For tomorrow, I would like a 1 page response answering the following question: Is the word “McJob,” which is defined in dictionaries as “low paying jobs that require little skill and provide little opportunity for advancement,” an unfair and inaccurate definition? Do you think it should be removed from the dictionary altogether? Why or why not? Watch the following link to gather ideas for your response: GS23gyj4 (May take this in for marks) GS23gyj4

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