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Name that Fallacy Advanced Composition: Critical Reasoning & Writing If a language provides a label for a complex concept, that could make it easier to.

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Presentation on theme: "Name that Fallacy Advanced Composition: Critical Reasoning & Writing If a language provides a label for a complex concept, that could make it easier to."— Presentation transcript:

1 Name that Fallacy Advanced Composition: Critical Reasoning & Writing If a language provides a label for a complex concept, that could make it easier to think about the concept, because the mind can handle it as a single package when juggling a set of ideas, rather than having to keep each of its components in the air separately. It can also give a concept an additional label in long-term memory, making it more easily retrievable.

2 Definition: attacking the person rather than the argument or the issue FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum

3 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum Definition: inferring what is true of the whole must be true of its constituents (parts), in other words, to argue form the property of a group to a property of a member

4 Definition: a conclusion is drawn about a whole based on the feature/s of its part when, in fact, no justification is provided for the inference FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum

5 Definition: individual offered as evidence, solely based on reputation OR individual offered as expert is not an expert on the issue in dispute FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum

6 Definition: shifts the meaning of a word or phrase in a single argument FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum

7 Definition: a broad claim based on too small a sample size (usually what lies behind a stereotype) FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum

8 Definition: merely a descriptive association and offers no proof of the connection between two things being compared FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum

9 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum Definition: misleading interpretation of data, statistics, or other factual information

10 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum Definition: groups more than one question in the form of a single question and presupposes something that has not been proven or accepted by all the people involved

11 Definition: a statement that assumes that the very question being argued has already been proved—in other words, the conclusion of the argument is hidden among its assumption FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum

12 Definition: attempt to shift attention from the merits of the argument—validity of reasoning, truth of claims—to source or origin of argument deflecting attention from the real issue FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum

13 Definition: trying to persuade people to agree with you by threatening them with painful consequences— the violence need not be physical FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum

14 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum Definition: generalizations that exaggerate and therefore simplify the truth

15 Definition: reframe opponent’s position to make it easier to attack—the newly framed position may be a view similar to but not the same as the one your opponent holds (a diversionary tactic) FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum

16 Definition: argues a situation or a person is an exception to the rule based on one or more irrelevant characteristics that do not define an exception—leads to unmerited advantages FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum

17 Definition: the arguer presents and either/or situation, suggesting that only two alternatives exist—the simplification of a complex problem FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum

18 Definition: irrelevant topic is presented in order to divert attention from the original issue FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum

19 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum Definition: argues for or against a proposition on the basis of lack of evidence for it—in other words, makes an assertion based on “what we do not know”

20 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum Definition: term or phrase is used to define something, but then there are so many qualifications to the definition that they render the original term or phrase meaningless

21 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum Definition: arguer assumes that what has existed for a long time and therefore become tradition should continue to exist because it is a tradition

22 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum Definition: argues for a claim based on irrelevant appeal to popularity

23 Definition: defend or attack a position or another from criticism by turning the critique back against the opponent or accuser—remember: the merit of a person’s argument has nothing to do with the person’s character or behavior FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum

24 Definition: a simplistic and improbably (sometimes horrible) prediction based on series of steps—this fallacy ignores the complexity of developments in any long chain of events FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum

25 Definition: because one event follows another event, the first event must be the cause of the second—false cause FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum

26 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum Definition: arguing against a claim by pointing out that its origin (genesis/historic origins) is tainted or that it was invented by someone deserving our contempt

27 Definition: the claim (conclusion) does not follow the premises (reasons) FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 1.Fallacy of Composition 2.Fallacy of Division 3.Equivocation 4.Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 5. Distorting the Facts 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question 8. Hasty Generalization 9. Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors 10. False Analogy 11. Straw Man 12. Special Pleading 13. Begging the Question 14. False Dichotomy or False Dilemma 15. Oversimplification 16. Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 17. Tu Quoque or “You too” 18. Genetic Fallacy 19. Poisoning the well 20. Appeal to Ignorance 21. Ad Hominem 22. Appeal to Authority 23. Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK 25. Appeal to Tradition 26. Ad Populum

28 Tip: The difference between post hoc (one of presumption) and non sequitur fallacies (one of ambiguity) is that, whereas the post hoc fallacy is due to lack of causal connection, in the non sequitur fallacy the error is due to lack of logical connection.

29 Another Tip Fallacy of Composition makes a false claim on the WHOLE based on a part. Think: COMPOSITION = WHOLE whereas Fallacy of Division makes a false claim about a PART based on the whole. Think: DIVISION = PART

30 Still Another Tip: Fallacies Ad Populum can take three additional forms, and you often see them in advertisements: 1.Bandwagon Appeal 2.Patriotic Appeal 3.Snob Appeal

31 And the Tips Keep Coming! While both are fallacies of Relevance, the Genetic Fallacy says that something is true or untrue because of its source, instead of merit. It does not attack person directly, but instead attacks original source (often historical) of the argument. Poisoning the Well is more of a pre-emptive strike, when someone wants to discredit a person and ignore what s/he is about to argue. Discrediting what a person might later claim.

32 Name the Fallacy: “You say ‘Why do I think [America] is in danger?’ and I say look at the record. Seven years of the Truman- Acheson Administration and what’s happened? Six hundred million people lost to the Communists, and a war in Korea in which we have lost 117,000 American Casualties.” (From Nixon’s “Checkers” speech.

33 Name the Fallacy: Since 9/11 we’ve tried and convicted few terrorists, therefore our defense system must be working.

34 Name that Fallacy: Steven Johnson grew up in poverty. Therefore, he will make a fine President of the United States.

35 Name that Fallacy: “A group of self-appointed lifestyle police are pushing to control many aspects of our daily lives. If they succeed, we lose our basic right of free choice. Today they’re targeting smoking. What’s next? Red meat? Leather? Coffee? If fifty million smokers can lose their rights anyone can.” (From an ad for the National Smokers Alliance.)

36 Name that Fallacy Either I keep smoking, or I’ll get fat. I don’t want to get fat, so I better keep smoking.

37 Name that Fallacy: You can’t expect insight and credibility from the recent book The Feminist Challenge because its author David Bouchier is, obviously, a man.

38 Name that Fallacy: “His books about ancient Egypt are worthless because he is a convicted forger and embezzler.”

39 Name that Fallacy: If such actions were not illegal, then they would not be prohibited by the law.”

40 Name that Fallacy: “Clearly, you must recognize that in this case I’m firm. You are stubborn. He’s pig-headed.” (Philosopher Betrand Russell.)

41 Name that Fallacy: Anyone who truly cares about preserving the American way of life will vote Republican this fall.

42 Name that Fallacy: Minorities get paid less than whites in America. Therefore, the black CEO of a multi-billion dollar company gets paid less than the white janitor who cleans his office.

43 Name that Fallacy: “All Latinos are volatile people.” (Former Senator Jesse Helms, on Mexican protests against Senate Foreign Affairs subcommittee hearings on corruption south of the border.)

44 Name that Fallacy: Bill: "I believe that abortion is morally acceptable. After all, a woman should have a right to her own body." Jane: "I disagree completely. Dr. Johan Skarn says that abortion is always morally wrong, regardless of the situation. He has to be right, after all, he is a respected expert in his field." Bill: "I've never heard of Dr. Skarn. Who is he?" Jane: "He's the guy that won the Nobel Prize in physics for his work on cold fusion." Bill: "I see. Does he have any expertise in morality or ethics?" Jane: "I don't know. But he's a world famous expert, so I believe him."

45 Name that Fallacy: “You know, Professor Brown, I really need to get an A in this class. I'd like to stop by during your office hours later to discuss my grade. I'll be in your building anyway, visiting my father. He's your dean, by the way. I'll see you later."

46 Name that Fallacy: A car makes less pollution than a bus. Therefore, cars are less of a pollution problem than buses.

47 Name that Fallacy: “I give so much pleasure to so many people. Why can’t I get some pleasure for myself?” (Comedian John Belushi to his doctor in justification of drug use.)

48 Name that Fallacy: Just as instructors can prune sentences for poor grammar, so the principal was entitled to find certain articles inappropriate for publication—in this situation because they might reveal the identity of pregnant students and because references to sexual activity were deemed improper for high school students to see.

49 Name that Fallacy: “He cannot accuse me of libel because he was just successfully sued for libel.”

50 Name that Fallacy: “Senator Jones says that we should not fund the attack submarine program. I disagree entirely. I can’t understand why he wants to leave us defenseless like that.”

51 Name that Fallacy: "We admit that this measure is popular. But we also urge you to note that there are so many bond issues on this ballot that the whole thing is getting ridiculous."

52 Name that Fallacy: In the Academy Award winning best film, The King’s Speech, King George VI Bertie (played by Colin Firth) ascended to the throne at the end of Three years later, he gives the speech of the film’s title. In the time between these two events, the British government notoriously blundered and appeased the Nazis, most famously at Munich. Less well-remembered is that after Prime Minister Chamberlain returned from giving away a chunk of Europe to the Germans, he was immediately invited to Buckingham Palace to appear on the balcony with the King and Queen (the latter is now better known as the recently departed but beloved “Queen Mum”). This was both a violation of protocol—the Royals are supposed to stay out of politics—and an extraordinary endorsement of a prime minister whose foreign policy was disastrous. Much of the Labor Party was rightly furious. This despicable historical fact is less well-known than it should be, but the film fails twice—first, by not showing it at all, and, second, by implying that Bertie was staunchly anti-fascist from the start.

53 Name that Fallacy: “Since racial hatred is caused by diversity, isn’t it a good idea to curb immigration?”

54 Name that Fallacy: “I do not have much information on this except the general statement of the agency that there is nothing in the files to disprove his communist connections.” (In 1950, Senator Joseph R. McCarthy’s response when asked about the 40 th name on his list of 81 Americans he claimed were communists working for the United Stated Department of State.)

55 Name that Fallacy: “He really is the perfect man for me, though you’re right, he doesn’t have a job, a car, or a phone, spends most of his time playing World of Warcraft, and still lives with his mother whom he calls his sweetheart.”

56 Name that Fallacy: School violence has gone up and academic performance has gone down ever since organized prayer was banned at public schools. Therefore, prayer should be reintroduced, resulting in school improvement.

57 Name that Fallacy: Of course this mode of government is the best. We have had this government for over 200 years and no one has talked about changing it in all that time. So, it has got to be good.

58 Name that Fallacy: “The Bold and the Listless must be a great book. It’s been on the best seller list for 8 weeks.”

59 Fallacies in Ads and Public Service Announcements (PSAs)

60 Analysis Breakdown 1.the argument (AKA, what the ad/PSA wants you to buy or do) 2.overall effect of the design 3.the relation of print to image 4.appeals to reasoning and/or emotions 5.fallacy or fallacies committed 6.effect of the ad on the intended audience 7.effect of the ad on those who are not part of the intended audience

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