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Advanced Composition: Critical Reasoning & Writing

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1 Advanced Composition: Critical Reasoning & Writing
Name that Fallacy If a language provides a label for a complex concept, that could make it easier to think about the concept, because the mind can handle it as a single package when juggling a set of ideas, rather than having to keep each of its components in the air separately. It can also give a concept an additional label in long-term memory, making it more easily retrievable. Advanced Composition: Critical Reasoning & Writing

2 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: attacking the person rather than the argument or the issue 21. Ad Hominem “Jones is arguing for prayer in school, but he has twice been convicted of assaulting members of clergy, so his argument is not valid.”

3 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: inferring what is true of the whole must be true of its constituents (parts), in other words, to argue form the property of a group to a property of a member 2. Fallacy of Division “The average American has 1.8 children, so my brother and sister-in-law should have 1.8 children.”

4 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: a conclusion is drawn about a whole based on the feature/s of its part when, in fact, no justification is provided for the inference Fallacy of Composition “A team of five NBA all-stars is the best team in basketball if each of the five players is the best at his position.”

5 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: individual offered as evidence, solely based on reputation OR individual offered as expert is not an expert on the issue in dispute 22. Appeal to Authority “The fact that a high-energy physicist has won the Nobel Prize is no reason for attaching any special weight to her views on the causes of cancer, the reduction of traffic accidents, or the legalization of marijuana.”

6 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: shifts the meaning of a word or phrase in a single argument 3. Equivocation “Euthanasia is a good death; one dies a good death when one dies peacefully in old age; therefore, euthanasia is dying peacefully in old age.”

7 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: a broad claim based on too small a sample size (usually what lies behind a stereotype) 8. Hasty Generalization ‘While it may be true in your experience that only native Hungarians you personally know do not speak English very well, that is no basis for asserting that Hungarians do not speak English very well.”

8 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: merely a descriptive association and offers no proof of the connection between two things being compared 10. False Analogy David Hume in support of suicide: “It would be no crime in me to divert the Nile or Danube from its course, where I able to effect such purposes. Where then is the crime of turning a few ounces of blood from their natural channel?”

9 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: misleading interpretation of data, statistics, or other factual information 5. Distorting the Facts “A pharmaceutical company spends millions to develop a new drug that will help pregnant women avoid spontaneous abortion. The company reports its findings, but it does not also report that it has learned from its researchers of a serous downside for this drug in many cases, resulting in deformed limbs in the neonate.”

10 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: groups more than one question in the form of a single question and presupposes something that has not been proven or accepted by all the people involved 7. Many Questions or Loaded Question “When did you stop beating your wife?”

11 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: a statement that assumes that the very question being argued has already been proved—in other words, the conclusion of the argument is hidden among its assumption Begging the Question “From the fact that you live in a death penalty state and were not murdered yesterday, we cannot infer that the death penalty was a deterrent.”

12 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: attempt to shift attention from the merits of the argument—validity of reasoning, truth of claims—to source or origin of argument deflecting attention from the real issue 19. Poisoning the Well “During the 1970s some critics of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) argued against it by pointing out that Marx and Engels, in their Communist Manifesto, favored equality of women and men—and therefor the ERA was immoral, undesirable, and perhaps even a Communist plot.”

13 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: trying to persuade people to agree with you by threatening them with painful consequences— the violence need not be physical 23. Appeal to Fear Teddy Roosevelt: “Speak softly but carry a big stick.”

14 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: generalizations that exaggerate and therefore simplify the truth 15. Oversimplification “Poverty causes crime.” “Taxation is unfair.” “Truth is stranger than fiction.”

15 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: reframe opponent’s position to make it easier to attack—the newly framed position may be a view similar to but not the same as the one your opponent holds (a diversionary tactic) 11. Straw Man “So, you defend the death penalty—and all the horrible things done in its name. No one in his right mind would hold such a view.”

16 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: argues a situation or a person is an exception to the rule based on one or more irrelevant characteristics that do not define an exception—leads to unmerited advantages 12. Special Pleading “Yes, I know Billy hit Sally first, but he’s my son. He’s a good boy, and I know he must have had a good reason.”

17 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: the arguer presents and either/or situation, suggesting that only two alternatives exist—the simplification of a complex problem 14. False Dichotomy /False Dilemma “Either we get tough with drug users, or we must surrender and legalize all drugs.”

18 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: irrelevant topic is presented in order to divert attention from the original issue 16. Red Herring “Some critics, seeking to defend out government’s refusal to sign the Kyoto accords to reduce global warming, argue that signing is supported by mainly left-leaning scientists.”

19 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: argues for or against a proposition on the basis of lack of evidence for it—in other words, makes an assertion based on “what we do not know” 20. Appeal to Ignorance “Because no one knows how many innocent persons have been convicted for murder and wrongly executed, the death penalty is too risky” OR “Since no one knows how many people have been deterred from murder by the threat of execution, we abolish the death penalty at our own peril.”

20 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: term or phrase is used to define something, but then there are so many qualifications to the definition that they render the original term or phrase meaningless 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications “A politician calls another country a democracy—except it turns out it doesn’t have regular elections, lacks a written constitution, had no independent judiciary, prohibits religious worship, except of the state-designated deity, and so forth.”

21 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: arguer assumes that what has existed for a long time and therefore become tradition should continue to exist because it is a tradition 25. Appeal to Tradition “Sure I believe in God. People have believed in God for thousands of years so it seems clear that God must exist. After all, why else would the belief last so long?”

22 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: argues for a claim based on irrelevant appeal to popularity 26. Ad Populum "I read the other day that most people really like the new gun control laws. I was sort of suspicious of them, but I guess if most people like them, then they must be okay."

23 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: defend or attack a position or another from criticism by turning the critique back against the opponent or accuser—remember: the merit of a person’s argument has nothing to do with the person’s character or behavior 17. Tu Quoque “You’re a fine one, trying to persuade me to give up smoking when you indulge yourself with a pipe and a cigar from time to time. Maybe I should quit, but then so should you. As things stand now, however, it’s hypocritical of you to complain about my smoking when you persist in the same habit.”

24 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: a simplistic and improbably (sometimes horrible) prediction based on series of steps—this fallacy ignores the complexity of developments in any long chain of events 9. Slippery Slope “Government regulation leads to ruinous interference, overregulation, and totalitarian control.”

25 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: because one event follows another event, the first event must be the cause of the second—false cause 6. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc 40 Years ago Advocates of tobacco industry: “Medical researchers had merely noticed that in some people, lung cancer developed after considerable smoking, indeed, years after; but (they insisted) this correlation was not at all the same as a causal relation between smoking and lung cancer. True enough. The claim that A causes B is not the same as the claim that B comes after A. After all, it was possible that smokers as a group had some other common trait and that this factor was the true cause of the cancer.”

26 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: arguing against a claim by pointing out that its origin (genesis/historic origins) is tainted or that it was invented by someone deserving our contempt 18. Genetic Fallacy “One might attack the ideas of the Declaration of Independence by pointing out that its principal author, Thomas Jefferson, was a slaveholder.”

27 FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE
Fallacy of Composition Fallacy of Division Equivocation Non Sequitur “does not follow” FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Distorting the Facts Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or Doubtful Cause Many Questions or Loaded Question Hasty Generalization Slippery Slope / Parade of Horrors False Analogy Straw Man Special Pleading Begging the Question False Dichotomy or False Dilemma Oversimplification Red Herring FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE Tu Quoque or “You too” Genetic Fallacy Poisoning the well Appeal to Ignorance Ad Hominem Appeal to Authority Appeal to Fear 24. Death by a Thousand Qualifications NOT IN TEXTBOOK Appeal to Tradition Ad Populum Definition: the claim (conclusion) does not follow the premises (reasons) 4. Non Sequitur “does not follow” “He went to the movies on three consecutive nights, so he must love movies.”

28 Tip: The difference between post hoc (one of presumption) and non sequitur fallacies (one of ambiguity) is that, whereas the post hoc fallacy is due to lack of causal connection, in the non sequitur fallacy the error is due to lack of logical connection.

29 Think: COMPOSITION = WHOLE
Another Tip Fallacy of Composition makes a false claim on the WHOLE based on a part. Think: COMPOSITION = WHOLE whereas Fallacy of Division makes a false claim about a PART based on the whole. Think: DIVISION = PART

30 Still Another Tip: Fallacies Ad Populum can take three additional forms, and you often see them in advertisements: Bandwagon Appeal Patriotic Appeal Snob Appeal

31 And the Tips Keep Coming!
While both are fallacies of Relevance, the Genetic Fallacy says that something is true or untrue because of its source, instead of merit. It does not attack person directly, but instead attacks original source (often historical) of the argument. Poisoning the Well is more of a pre-emptive strike, when someone wants to discredit a person and ignore what s/he is about to argue. Discrediting what a person might later claim.

32 Name the Fallacy: “You say ‘Why do I think [America] is in danger?’ and I say look at the record. Seven years of the Truman- Acheson Administration and what’s happened? Six hundred million people lost to the Communists, and a war in Korea in which we have lost 117,000 American Casualties.” (From Nixon’s “Checkers” speech. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc / False or doubtful cause

33 Name the Fallacy: Since 9/11 we’ve tried and convicted few terrorists, therefore our defense system must be working. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc / False cause

34 Name that Fallacy: Steven Johnson grew up in poverty. Therefore, he will make a fine President of the United States. Non Sequitur

35 Name that Fallacy: “A group of self-appointed lifestyle police are pushing to control many aspects of our daily lives. If they succeed, we lose our basic right of free choice. Today they’re targeting smoking. What’s next? Red meat? Leather? Coffee? If fifty million smokers can lose their rights anyone can.” (From an ad for the National Smokers Alliance.) Slippery Slope.

36 Name that Fallacy Either I keep smoking, or I’ll get fat. I don’t want to get fat, so I better keep smoking. False Dilemma—either/or.

37 Name that Fallacy: You can’t expect insight and credibility from the recent book The Feminist Challenge because its author David Bouchier is, obviously, a man. Genetic Fallacy / Ad hominem

38 Name that Fallacy: “His books about ancient Egypt are worthless because he is a convicted forger and embezzler.” Ad hominem

39 Name that Fallacy: If such actions were not illegal, then they would not be prohibited by the law.” Begging the question.

40 (Philosopher Betrand Russell.)
Name that Fallacy: “Clearly, you must recognize that in this case I’m firm. You are stubborn. He’s pig-headed.” (Philosopher Betrand Russell.) Special Pleading.

41 Name that Fallacy: Anyone who truly cares about preserving the American way of life will vote Republican this fall. Poisoning the well.

42 Name that Fallacy: Minorities get paid less than whites in America. Therefore, the black CEO of a multi-billion dollar company gets paid less than the white janitor who cleans his office. Fallacy of Division

43 “All Latinos are volatile people.”
Name that Fallacy: “All Latinos are volatile people.” (Former Senator Jesse Helms, on Mexican protests against Senate Foreign Affairs subcommittee hearings on corruption south of the border.) Hasty Generalization.

44 Name that Fallacy: Bill: "I believe that abortion is morally acceptable. After all, a woman should have a right to her own body." 
 Jane: "I disagree completely. Dr. Johan Skarn says that abortion is always morally wrong, regardless of the situation. He has to be right, after all, he is a respected expert in his field." 
 Bill: "I've never heard of Dr. Skarn. Who is he?" 
 Jane: "He's the guy that won the Nobel Prize in physics for his work on cold fusion." 
 Bill: "I see. Does he have any expertise in morality or ethics?" 
 Jane: "I don't know. But he's a world famous expert, so I believe him." Appeal to Authority.

45 Name that Fallacy: “You know, Professor Brown, I really need to get an A in this class. I'd like to stop by during your office hours later to discuss my grade. I'll be in your building anyway, visiting my father. He's your dean, by the way. I'll see you later." Appeal to Fear.

46 Name that Fallacy: A car makes less pollution than a bus. Therefore, cars are less of a pollution problem than buses. Fallacy of Composition

47 Name that Fallacy: “I give so much pleasure to so many people. Why can’t I get some pleasure for myself?” (Comedian John Belushi to his doctor in justification of drug use.) Equivocation.

48 Name that Fallacy: Just as instructors can prune sentences for poor grammar, so the principal was entitled to find certain articles inappropriate for publication—in this situation because they might reveal the identity of pregnant students and because references to sexual activity were deemed improper for high school students to see. False Analogy.

49 Name that Fallacy: “He cannot accuse me of libel because he was just successfully sued for libel.” Tu quoque “You also”

50 Name that Fallacy: “Senator Jones says that we should not fund the attack submarine program. I disagree entirely. I can’t understand why he wants to leave us defenseless like that.” Straw Man.

51 Name that Fallacy: "We admit that this measure is popular. But we also urge you to note that there are so many bond issues on this ballot that the whole thing is getting ridiculous." Red Herring.

52 Name that Fallacy: In the Academy Award winning best film, The King’s Speech, King George VI Bertie (played by Colin Firth) ascended to the throne at the end of Three years later, he gives the speech of the film’s title. In the time between these two events, the British government notoriously blundered and appeased the Nazis, most famously at Munich. Less well-remembered is that after Prime Minister Chamberlain returned from giving away a chunk of Europe to the Germans, he was immediately invited to Buckingham Palace to appear on the balcony with the King and Queen (the latter is now better known as the recently departed but beloved “Queen Mum”). This was both a violation of protocol—the Royals are supposed to stay out of politics—and an extraordinary endorsement of a prime minister whose foreign policy was disastrous. Much of the Labor Party was rightly furious. This despicable historical fact is less well-known than it should be, but the film fails twice—first, by not showing it at all, and, second, by implying that Bertie was staunchly anti-fascist from the start. Distorting the Facts

53 Name that Fallacy: “Since racial hatred is caused by diversity, isn’t it a good idea to curb immigration?” Many Questions or Loaded Question

54 Name that Fallacy: “I do not have much information on this except the general statement of the agency that there is nothing in the files to disprove his communist connections.” (In 1950, Senator Joseph R. McCarthy’s response when asked about the 40th name on his list of 81 Americans he claimed were communists working for the United Stated Department of State.) Appeal to Ignorance

55 Name that Fallacy: “He really is the perfect man for me, though you’re right, he doesn’t have a job, a car, or a phone, spends most of his time playing World of Warcraft, and still lives with his mother whom he calls his sweetheart.” Death by a Thousand Qualifications

56 Name that Fallacy: School violence has gone up and academic performance has gone down ever since organized prayer was banned at public schools. Therefore, prayer should be reintroduced, resulting in school improvement. Oversimplification / False Cause

57 Name that Fallacy: Of course this mode of government is the best. We have had this government for over 200 years and no one has talked about changing it in all that time. So, it has got to be good. Appeal to Tradition

58 Name that Fallacy: “The Bold and the Listless must be a great book. It’s been on the best seller list for 8 weeks.” Non sequitur.

59 Fallacies in Ads and Public Service Announcements (PSAs)

60 Analysis Breakdown the argument (AKA, what the ad/PSA wants you to buy or do) overall effect of the design the relation of print to image appeals to reasoning and/or emotions fallacy or fallacies committed effect of the ad on the intended audience effect of the ad on those who are not part of the intended audience

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