Presentation on theme: "Brief Introduction to Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Brief Introduction to Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) 4/14/2017Brief Introduction to Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS)TIPS was funded by the Institute on Educational Sciences (IES).Initial research results show that SWPBIS Teams using the TIPS model with SWIS data improve in (a) the overall meeting foundation practices and (b) the thoroughness of problem identification and problem solving with SWIS data.Single Subject Study is currently in press and will be published January 2011, The Journal of Applied School Psychology. Citation is below.Todd, A., Horner, R., Newton, J.S. Algozzine, B., & Algozzine, K. (in press). Effects of Team-Initiated Problem Solving on Practices of School-wide Behavior Support Teams. Journal of Applied School PsychologyThis power point is intended for use with SW PBIS teams as they use SWIS data for problem solving.Some slides are animated to highlight the critical concepts/discriminationsAnne Todd, Steve Newton, & Rob Horner, University of OregonKate Algozzine & Bob Algozzine,University of North Carolina at CharlotteAPA Citation:Todd, A. W., Newton, J. S., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. (2013). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS II) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon..Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B
2 Target AudienceAnyone who participates in teams designed to build behavior support plans for students with problem behavior.
3 Objectives By the end of today, you will: Understand the TIPS problem solving modelDefine logic for Meeting FoundationsRolesMeeting minutes formDefine Problem Solving ApproachDefine problem with precisionBuild comprehensive solutionsBuild action planDefine Implementation and Adaptation
4 People aren’t tired from solving problems – they are tired from solving the same problem over and over.It isn’t whether you have a problem, it’s whether you have the same problem again next year.Admiration of the problems is contagious!TIPS II Training Manual (2013)
5 Effective Problem Solving SolutionProblemFromToProblemActionPlanningSolutionProblemSolving
7 Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS II) Model What, Who, When, Where, and Why?Identify ProblemwithPrecisionTeam-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS II) ModelHow do we want the problem to change?What next?Make SummativeEvaluationDecisionIdentifyGoal for ChangeCollect and Use DataHas the problem been solved?Monitor Impactof Solution andCompare against GoalIdentifySolution andCreateImplementationPlan withContextual FitImplementSolution withHigh IntegrityWhat are we going to do to bring about desired change?Did we implement with fidelity?MeetingFoundations
8 Critical Features of Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS II) Identify ProblemwithPrecisionMake SummativeEvaluationDecisionIdentifyGoal for ChangeCollect and Use DataMonitor Impactof Solution andCompare against GoalIdentifySolution andCreateImplementationPlan withContextual FitImplementSolution withHigh IntegrityMeetingFoundations
10 Meeting Foundations Clear Purpose/ Authority Agreement about process What is the purpose of our team?What is the impact we are to have on students/ families/ School?What authority do we have to implement solutions?Agreement about processStart time/stop timeScheduleRespect and commitmentRoles and responsibilitiesFacilitatorMinute TakerData AnalystMemberElectronic Meeting Minutes/Agenda
11 Meeting Terms of Agreement Start/ Stop timeSchedule of meetingsConsideration for each otherE.g. “be respectful, be responsible”Side conversationsCome preparedNo side tasks (technology)
12 Roles and Responsibilities Facilitator, Minute Taker, Data Analyst, Team Member
13 Roles on TIPS TeamsFacilitatorMinute TakerData AnalystTeam Member
14 Facilitator’s Responsibilities and Skills Needed Before Meeting:Ask for agenda itemsProvide items to Minute TakerDuring Meeting:Starts meeting on timeManages “flow” of meetingPrompts team members (as necessary) with the TIPS problem-solving “mantra”Is an active participant in meetingDetermines date, time, and location of next meetingFacilitatorFacilitator should be able to:Ask questionsImplement group norms or agreementsKeep meeting on track (or navigate back on track when needed)Move through agenda in a timely fashion
15 Roles on TIPS TeamsFacilitatorMinute TakerData AnalystTeam Member
16 Minute Taker’s Responsibilities Before Meeting:Collects agenda items from FacilitatorPrepares TIPS Meeting Minutes agenda form, including content from Data Analyst, as appropriateIs prepared to project TIPS Meeting Minute form via LCD during meetingDuring Meeting:Records decisions/not es on TIPS Meeting Minutes formAsks for clarification of tasks/decisio ns, as necessaryIs active participant in meetingMinute TakerAfter Meeting:Cleans up TIPS Meeting Minutes from meetingDisseminates Meeting Minutes to team within 36 hours
17 Needed Skills for Minute Taker Minute Taker should be able to:Use word processor (copy, paste, add rows, save files, etc.)Listen to discussion and paraphrase critical information in written formBe fluent with Meeting Minutes formMinute Taker
18 Roles on TIPS TeamsFacilitatorMinute TakerData AnalystTeam Member
19 Data Analyst Responsibilities Before Meeting:Review data and define potential new problems with precision (What, Who, Where, When, Why)Gather/organize data on previously-defined and/or potential new problemsReview data on previously-defined problems (i.e., frequency/rate for most recently-completed calendar month, direction of change in rate since last report, and relationship of change to goal)Prepares graphs for sharing at meetingAsks Facilitator to add potential new problems to agenda for meetingData AnalystDuring Meeting:Leads discussion of potential new problemsResponds to questions about data; produces additional data on request (e.g., additional Drill Down Reports)Is active participant in meeting
20 Needed Skills for Data Analyst Data Analyst should:Like and feel comfortable with dataBe fluent in navigating dataset to generate custom reportsBe able interpret and summarize data/graphs about old and new problems:Retrieve data about previously defined problemsIdentify potential new problemsPrior to meetings generate data summaries for potential student problems and for previously defined student problemsData Analyst
21 Roles on TIPS TeamsFacilitatorMinute TakerData AnalystTeam Member
22 Team Member Responsibilities Before Meeting:Recommends agenda items to FacilitatorDuring Meeting:Analyzes/interprets data; determines whether a new problem existsEnsures new problems are defined with precision (What, Who, Where, When, Why) and accompanied by a Goal and TimelineDiscusses/selects solutions and evaluation data (fidelity and outcome) for new problemsFor problems with existing solution actionsReports on implementation status (Not Started? Partially implemented? Implemented with fidelity? Stopped?)Suggests how implementation of solution actions could be improvedAnalyzes/interprets data to determine whether implemented solution actions areIs an active team memberTeam Member
23 Skills Team Members Need Team Members should:Be willing to listen and consider all perspectivesUse a sense of humorDemonstrate mutual respectBe able to honor group norms or guidelinesTeam Member
24 Who is Responsible?FacilitatorMinute TakerData AnalystAll Team
25 Who is Responsible? Action Person Responsible Reserve Room Recruit items for AgendaReview data prior to the meetingReserve projector and computer for meetingKeep discussion focusedRecord Topics and Decisions on agenda/minutesEnsure that problems are defined with precisionEnsure that solutions have action plansProvide “drill down” data during discussionEnd on timePrepare minutes and send to all membersFacilitatorFacilitatorData AnalystMinute TakerFacilitatorMinute TakerFacilitatorFacilitatorAllData AnalystFacilitatorMinute Taker
27 A framework for organizing and documenting efficient meetings Meeting MinutesA framework for organizing and documenting efficient meetings
28 Organizing for an effective problem solving conversation 4/14/2017Organizing for an effective problem solving conversationA key to collective problem solving is to provide a visual context that allows everyone to follow and contributeProblemUse DataAnimated slide telling a well too known story.Out of TimeSolutionTIPS II Training Manual (2013)
29 Functions of Meeting Minutes Before MeetingDefine agendaClarify start/stop timeGuide data analyst (updates on old problems)During MeetingOrganize time allocation/ PrioritizationEnsure old problems are reviewedEnsure that new problems are defined with precisionEnsure that solutions are comprehensive and linked to action planRecord “Topic” “Decisions”… NOT discussionAssess meeting process and effectivenessAfter MeetingRecord for reviewGuide for tasks between meetings.
31 General Flow of Meeting Call meeting to order – Who is present?Review agenda for todayDiscuss previously defined problem(s) – Were solutions implemented? Discuss current data and relation to goal. Better? Worse? Was goal reached? What next?Discuss administrative tasks and any general issuesDiscuss any new problems – Identify precise problems, develop solution plans (what, who, when), identify goals, determine fidelity and outcome data neededWrap up meeting – Review date/time for next meeting and evaluate present team meeting.
47 Currently, we are seeing 1 referral per day for our new problem.
48 Video for Minute Takers Team meetingVideo for Minute TakersDetermineFacilitator, Data Analyst, Minute Taker, AdministratorDefine one problem (old or new) that was consideredWere meeting minutes used correctly?
49 Identify Problem with Precision What, Who, When, Where, and Why
50 Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS II) Model Identify ProblemwithPrecisionTeam-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS II) ModelMake SummativeEvaluationDecisionIdentifyGoal for ChangeCollect and Use DataMonitor Impactof Solution andCompare against GoalIdentifySolution andCreateImplementationPlan withContextual FitImplementSolution withHigh IntegrityMeetingFoundations
51 Defining a Problem with Precision What is a problem?A “problem” exists when there is a difference between what you want and what you have.
52 Defining a Problem with Precision A major error is to launch into problem solving BEFORE the problem has been defined with precision.Pre-emptive solutionsWhat we did last yearWhat my cousin did with her sonWhat I can buy as a package on the internetWhat I can buy as a training from an expertOften do not workUsually are more expensiveTypically do not “fit” the context.
53 How OftenWhatWhenWhereWhyWhoDesigning Effective Behavior Support
54 Start with Primary Problem Statements Office discipline referrals for 3rd graders are above national median for schools our size.Look at the Big Picture. Then use data to refine the problem to a Precise Problem Statement.Move to Precise Problem StatementsReferrals for physical aggression among third grade students from 11:30-12:30 in the cafeteria are increasing over time. It is believed that this is happening due to lack of consistent teaching of cafeteria procedures.
56 Primary versus Precision Statements Primary StatementsToo many referralsSeptember has more suspensions than last yearGang behavior is increasingThe cafeteria is out of controlStudent disrespect is out of controlPrecision StatementThere are twice as many ODRs for aggression on the playground than last year. These are most likely to occur during first recess, with a large number of students, and the aggression is related to getting access to the new playground equipment.
57 Examples: Primary to Precise Bullying (verbal and physical aggression) on the playground is occurring on average twice during each “first recess,” is being done mostly by four 4th grade boys, and seems to be maintained by social praise from the bystander peer group.Bullying (verbal and physical aggression) on the playground is increasing during “first recess,” is being done mostly by four 4th grade boys, and seems to be maintained by social praise from the bystander peer group.Gang-like behavior is increasing.Behavior on the buses is awful!There were 45 referrals for 3rd, 4th, and 5th graders using inappropriate language on the afternoon buses because these students wanted attention from their from peers.There were 45 referrals for 3rd, 4th, and 5th graders using inappropriate language on the afternoon buses because these students wanted attention from their peers.
58 Your Turn Describe a “Primary” problem Now re-write it as a “Precise Problem Statement.What WhoWhere WhyWhen How Often
59 Identify Solution and Create Implementation Plan with Contextual Fit What and When
60 Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS II) Model Identify ProblemwithPrecisionTeam-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS II) ModelMake SummativeEvaluationDecisionIdentifyGoal for ChangeCollect and Use DataMonitor Impactof Solution andCompare against GoalIdentifySolution andCreateImplementationPlan withContextual FitImplementSolution withHigh IntegrityMeetingFoundations
61 What are we going to do to bring about the desired change?
62 Build Effective Support Plans Match the solution to the function of the problem behaviorMatch the solution to the contextAre able to be doneAre consistent with the values of people in the settingAre practical given time and resourcesBuild “comprehensive plans that consider all “solution elements”
63 Solution Elements Prevent Teach Prompt ReinforceExtinguish orWithhold RewardCorrectionSafetyDataChange the context to avoid the problem situation?Teach what you want. Teach a socially acceptable replacement.Encourage opportunities for the desired behavior.Reward for the desired behavior.Prevent the problem behavior from being rewarded.Use negative feedback if needed.Add safety procedures if needed.Define data to monitor implementation fidelity and impact
64 Example for Precise Behavior Problem Statement 6th and 7th graders are engaging in inappropriate language, harassment, disrespect and aggression in two classrooms at 9:45 and 12:45 to get peer and adult attention and to escape the work. There have been 175 total instances of problem behavior in 6th and 7th grade classrooms so far this school year.PreventTeachPromptReinforceExtinguishCorrectDataRe-review 6th and 7th graders classroom expectations/Respecting others, dailyFocus on Respect, Re-teach stop-walk routineProvide specific feedback for using stop-walk routineSet up “Daily Double”: Class period without problem behavior occurrence receives extra 2 mins, at end of period to talk.Ensure staff use routine for responding to a report when student comes to talk.Use School Defined ProcessOffice discipline referrals.
65 Example for Precise Behavior Problem Statement Several 3rd, 4th, and 5th graders are using inappropriate language four or five times per day on their afternoon bus. It is believed that this is occurring as a means of obtaining peer attention on the the loud bus.PreventTeachPromptReinforceExtinguishCorrectDataCreate a new seating arrangement so that students displaying this behavior are not grouped in close proximity to each other.Re-teach acceptable voice level.Remind students of incentives for positive bus rides and ways to gain other students’ attention appropriatelyReward bus rides with no referrals with activities the following day at schoolTeach students to respond only to appropriate ways of gaining attention.Give bus driver a “red light” to turn on when bus is too loud.Bus driver report of incidents per bus ride.
66 Resources for Solution Development Strickland-Cohen, Loman, Borgmeier & Horner, “Basic FBA to BSP”Available at
67 Fidelity of Implementation Measures the degree in which the intervention was implemented as defined/expectedUse percent/absolute value/ rate/scale as metricStrive for 80% fidelity of implementation as measured weekly or biweeklyMake it easy to gatherAre we implementing the plan?
68 Teacher Completed Fidelity Scales Establish a fidelity check routine that relates to ImplementationA 1-5 scale is used for questionsUp to 3 questions per weekShare scale as a poster in the faculty room, an electronic survey, or paper and pencilDid you provide “high-five greetings” to all students entering your class on time in the morning this week?No YesHow many days during the week did you review with students the procedures for passing in the hall?✓✓✓✓✓✓✓
70 Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS II) Model Identify ProblemwithPrecisionTeam-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS II) ModelMake SummativeEvaluationDecisionIdentifyGoal for ChangeCollect and Use DataMonitor Impactof Solution andCompare against GoalIdentifySolution andCreateImplementationPlan withContextual FitImplementSolution withHigh IntegrityMeetingFoundations
71 Do we need to modify the solution to have a stronger impact? Do we need to discuss the feasibility of this solution?If we met the goal, how do we maintain it?What do we do next?Should we recycle through the problem solving process?Do we need to revise the goal?Do we need to revise the precision statement for the problem?
72 Summary Effective meetings Problem solving Implement plan Organization, roles, minutesProblem solvingDefine problem with precisionBuild comprehensive plan of supportSupport plan should “fit” with behavioral functionImplement planRegularly assess fidelity and impact.
73 University of North Carolina at Charlotte Contact InformationUniversity of Oregon Rob Horner Anne ToddUniversity of North Carolina at CharlotteBob Algozzine Kate AlgozzineDale Cusumano