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Arminius Mignea – The Lone Pine Software Developing Insights into the Design of the Simplest Self-Replicator (SSR) and its Complexity.

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Presentation on theme: "Arminius Mignea – The Lone Pine Software Developing Insights into the Design of the Simplest Self-Replicator (SSR) and its Complexity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Arminius Mignea – The Lone Pine Software Developing Insights into the Design of the Simplest Self-Replicator (SSR) and its Complexity

2 “Maybe I can say we’re halfway there.” My attention was grabbed by the following fragment from the interview that Nobel scientist Jack Szostak gave on October 19, 2011 to New York Times reporter Claudia Dreifus regarding his research progress on deciphering the Origin Of Life: “How far have you gotten? Maybe I can say we’re halfway there. We think that a primitive cell has to have two parts. First, it has to have a cell membrane that can be a boundary between itself and the rest of the earth. And then there has to be some genetic material, which has to perform some function that’s useful for the cell and get replicated to be inherited…” (see the full interview here: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/18/science/18conversation.html?_r=2&ref=scienc eandtechnology) http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/18/science/18conversation.html?_r=2&ref=scienc eandtechnology The above answer prompted me to think about how can I get some empirical, objective knowledge on what the Simplest Self Replicator (SSR) may look like

3 Goals, Assumptions and Requirements Goals: – Develop insights into internal design of the SSR – Evaluate complexity in creating an artificial SSR Assumptions: – There is an intake of materials from outside SSR – There is an output of refuse materials from inside SSR – We assume throughout that we design for building an artificial SSR – that need not have a biological basis (not built with carbon-based chemistry) but is rather a ‘clunky’ one (made from metal, plastic, semiconductors, etc.) Requirements – SSR has an Enclosure to separate it and protect it from its environment – SSR is capable to create an identical copy of itself

4 The SSR (Simplest Self-Replicator) Schematic Illustration SSR enclosure SSR components (in blue) SSR processes (in red)

5 What happens during SSR replication? – the “cloning” phase

6 What happens during SSR replication? – the “division” phase

7 What happens during SSR replication? Input raw materials and parts accepted by input enclosure gates Input materials processed through material extraction into good materials for fabrication of parts or for energy generation Energy is generated and made available throughout SSR Fabrication function starts to fabricate parts, components and assemblies for: – Cloning (creating copies) of all SSR internal elements – Creating scaffolding elements for the growing SSR interior – Creating new elements that are added to the growing enclosure When the cloning of all original SSR internal parts completed, the SSR division starts: – The original SSR content is now at (for example) “north pole” of the SSR enclosure – The cloned SSR content (the “nascent daughter SSR”) is now at the “south pole” of the SSR enclosure – The SSR enclosure and its content now divides at the “equatorial” plane and the separate “mother” (at North) and daughter (at South) SSR emerge.

8 How is the artificial SSR able to clone accurately all its internal parts? Possible answers: A.By using a mechanical copy process – similar with that used to duplicate house keys B.By using internal design information in combination with computer controlled automatons

9 How is the artificial SSR able to clone accurately all its internal parts? continued I A.By using a mechanical copy process – similar with that used to duplicate house keys WRONG ANSWER !!!

10 How is the artificial SSR able to clone accurately all its internal parts? Continued II B.By using internal design information in combination with computer controlled automatons CORRECT ANSWER !!!

11 SSR Functions and Their Relationships Construction Plan Communication & Notification Replication DivisionCloning Fabrication Ctrl&Assmbly Enclosure Growth Scaffolding Growth Construction Status Bill of Materials Manipulation Fabrication Energy Generation Transport Recycling Supply-Chain Materials & Parts Identif. Output Flow Input Flow Materials Extraction

12 Input Flow Control, Material Identification and Material Extraction Functions Input Flow Control function – Opens/closes the enclosure input gateways – Acts based on the nature of input material/part and commands from other functions Material and Parts Identification function – Identifies nature of input materials and parts – Tags input materials and parts, manufactured materials and fabricated parts with type Id (bar code like) Material Extraction function – Uses specific processes to extract manufacturing materials from raw materials – Uses specific machinery and parts

13 Input Flow Control Function - illustrated The Enclosure Gateway is closed at this time

14 Materials and Parts Identification Function What is the material the bottle is made of? It is Chocolate !!! Yes, but the challenge is to have a robot find this out by itself

15 Material Extraction Function

16 Energy Generation Function, Transport Function Energy Generation function: – Generates energy from raw or processed materials – Distributes/transport and manages energy (electricity) – Uses special machinery: generators, transformers, converters – Material basis: one of fuel, oil, coal, chemical, atomic Transport function: – Transport materials and parts/components – Uses containers, conduits, wires, carriers – Transports also energy and information

17 Supply Chain Function, Recycling Function and Output Flow Control Function Supply Chain function: – Ensures steady supply of materials, energy and parts – Coordinating and scheduling capability Recycling function: – Re-introduce useful materials and parts in the fabrication cycle – Selects materials and parts as refuse; cleans spaces Output Flow Control function: – Sends refuse materials and parts outside SSR – Controls output gateways of the enclosure

18 Bill of Materials Function, Construction Plan Function, Construction Status Function Bill of Materials function: – Catalogs of all materials and all parts – For each element: its composition in sub-elements and materials Construction Plan function: – Catalog of construction plan and design of all parts, components, assemblies including SSR – Catalog of all processes – Catalog of all procedures Construction Status function: – Uses replicas of construction plans to mark construction progress – Status updated by functions involved in fabrication and construction

19 Manipulation Function, Fabrication Function, Fabrication Control Function Manipulation function: – Ability to “grab”, “handle”, “manipulate” materials, parts, components – Implemented with robot arm – like machinery Fabrication Function: – Must be able to fabricate any and all SSR parts and components – In particular able to fabricate all SSR machinery Fabrication Control function: – Follows the construction plans – Commands the fabrication function to manufacture next elements in the plan

20 Communication and Notification Function, Scaffolding Growth Function, Enclosure Growth Function Communication and Notification function: – Facilitates communication between the “control” centers and “execution” centers – Notifications from “executor” to “controller” Scaffolding Growth function: – Controls construction and growth of SSR scaffolding – Mostly on the “daughter” SSR side Enclosure Growth function: – Controls the construction and growth of the enclosure – Addition of enclosure gateways; flexible geometry

21 Cloning Function, Division Function, Replication Function Cloning function – Choreographs the cloning phase – Coordinates fabrication of the clone and growth of scaffolding and enclosure – Copies info catalogs and software into the cloned parts Division function: – Choreograph the SSR division phase – “start the engines” of the “daughter” SSR just before division completes Replication function: – Highest level function: – Implements the designer commandments: Grow and Multiply

22 SSR Functions and Their Relationships Construction Plan Communication & Notification Replication DivisionCloning Fabrication Ctrl&Assmbly Enclosure Growth Scaffolding Growth Construction Status Bill of Materials Manipulation Fabrication Energy Generation Transport Recycling Supply-Chain Materials & Parts Identif. Output Flow Input Flow Materials Extraction

23 What we learned about the artificial SSR? SSR must be designed for growth and division: the enclosure must support changing surface, volume and shape SSR must contain detailed, structured, cohesive descriptive information that must be accurately and integrally passed to next generations SSR. Required information: – all used materials: identification, description, characteristics – manufacturing materials: extraction procedures and processes – bill of materials for all fabricated parts, components and assemblies – procedures and processes for energy generation, storage (if needed) transportation and management – construction plans for all fabricated parts, components and assemblies including the SSR itself. – all fabrication processes and procedures – all assemblage procedures – all recycling procedures and processes

24 What we learned about the artificial SSR? – continued I SSR must contain advanced materials and parts identification capabilities as well as material extraction capabilities SSR must contain sophisticated, fully automated and computer-controlled capabilities for energy generation, transportation, management and distribution SSR must contain very sophisticated fabrication and assemblage capabilities that must be information-driven for full automation and computer control. SSR must posses advanced computing (information processing) capabilities as well as good information communication capabilities. SSR must control its many parts and layered functions through very advanced software running on SSR computer(-like) machinery. Above all SSR must be based on a very sophisticated design that harmoniously, precisely and completely provides full automation and self-sufficiency for all machinery and processes that happens inside an SSR during its growth, division and replication. The design of an SSR can be successful only if it is harmoniously integrated and precisely coordinated with the design and characteristics of its environment.

25 What we learned about the artificial SSR? – continued II An artificial SSR most probable must contain: a material mining sub-unit a metallurgic subunit a chemical plant a power plant an electricity distribution network a network of avenues, alleys and conduits for robotized transportation a semiconductor manufacturing plant a computer manufacturing plant an extended communication network connecting by wire or rather wirelessly all plants and robots a software manufacturing plant and software distribution and installation agents. a materials and parts recycling and refuse management plant an army of intelligent robots for transportation and manipulation a highly sophisticated distributed, multi-layered software system that controls in a cohesive manner all plants, robots and communications.

26 Evaluating the Complexity of an Artificial SSR SSR: autonomous, computerized and automated – No comparable real engineering artifact in terms of: Autonomy (materials, energy, fabrication closure, information closure, ‘intelligence’) full manufacturing automation spectrum of processes and fabrication types – No successful attempt so far on building a real autonomous artificial SSR from scratch. Attempts so far: software simulations cellular automata self-replicating software entities RepRap – self replicating 3D printers self-assembling Lego robots Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Craig Venter’s synthetic bacterial cell

27 Evaluating the Complexity of an Artificial SSR - continued Comparing a genuine artificial SSR with: An advanced car manufacturing/assembly line: – many/most parts are fabricated elsewhere – not fully automated; many manual operations performed by humans – no material identification, material extraction capabilities – not so many process technologies involved – mostly an assembly operation The Large Hadron Collider (HDC) in Switzerland – no fabrication – not comparable in terms of automation, process diversity The Martian Rover – some good amount of autonomy – no fabrication

28 SSR and the Origin Of Life (OOL) Research Any OOL credible explanation should provide answers to the following questions: How the self describing information (of so many varieties) residing in the SSR originated? How the energy generation and transport function originated? How the material identification function and the material extraction function originated? How the fabrication function originated How the transport and manipulation functions originated? How the coordinated control of various functions originated? How the whole sophisticated design of the SSR originated? Is it reasonable to believe/accept that the SSR resulted through random/natural processes when the 21 st century scientists are only beginning to understand only SOME OF THE INTERNALS of a cell? Is it reasonable to believe/accept that the SSR resulted through random/natural processes when the 21 st century scientists and engineers are still not able to design and create an artificial SSR?

29 NASA Advanced Automation for Space Missions The NASA 1980 study 1 edited by Robert A. Freitas, Jr. describes a lunar self- replicating factory to be launching pad of galaxy exploration self-replicating probes ( a 20 year program). The seed of the lunar factory will weigh 100 tons Not all machinery could be built on Moon The project anticipated as being feasible in 21 st century The study mentions that the closure problem is not solved This study is one of the most realistic exploration of the design of an artificial “macro” SSR 1.“Advanced Automation for Space Missions“ Edited by Robert A. Freitas, Jr. Space Initiative/XRI Santa Clara, California at http://www.islandone.org/MMSG/aasm/

30 REPRO – Colonizing the Galaxy In 1980 Robert A. Freitas publishes in the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society “A Self- Reproducing Interstellar Probe” (REPRO) study 1. REPRO was a mammoth self-reproducing spacecraft to be built in orbit around Jupiter. REPRO was a vast and ambitious project, equipped with numerous smaller probes for planetary exploration, but its key purpose was to reproduce. Each REPRO probe would create an automated factory that would build a new probe every 500 years. Probe by probe, star by star, the galaxy would be explored 2. The total fueled mass of REPRO was projected to be 10**10 Kg = 10 **7 tons = 10 million tons for a probe mass of 100,000 tons. It takes 500 years to REPRO to create a replica of itself in the relative hospitable environment of a far-away planet The estimated exploration time of the galaxy was 1– 10 million years 1.http://www.rfreitas.com/Astro/ReproJBISJuly1980.htm 2.2. “Via Nanotechnology to the Stars” by Paul Gilster at http://www.centauri- dreams.org/?p=96

31 Earth – Was “seeded” with Self Replicators (SRs) by an Advanced Civilization and a Master Designer Our Earth was seeded with a wide variety of SRs by and advanced civilization and a Master Designer: There are an estimated 9,7 million species of organisms (plants, animals, fish, insects, bacteria SRs) on planet EARTH The total number of self-replicating machines (SR’s) that work cooperatively on this planet is hard to estimate. It is believed that the number is between 10^20 (1 followed by 20 zeros) and 10^30 (1 followed by 30 zeros) There are strong dependencies between the design and existence of certain type of SRs on the design and existence on other type of SRs. For example the number of bacteria living within the body of the average healthy Homo Sapiens are estimated to outnumber human cells 10 to 1. There are strong dependencies of the design and functioning of all SR types on the Earth environments and planetary environment conditions

32 A Dragonfly type of Self Replicator

33 Garden Flower Type of Self Replicator

34 A Tree Type of Self-Replicator

35 Self Replicating Trees

36 The Metaphysics of It All A reasonable scientific hypothesis is that the Master Designer designed wisely all SSR types for this successful cohabitation of the Homo Sapiens SSR with all other types of SSRs. More so it is hypothesized (again scientifically) that the Earth, the Solar System, the Milky Way Galaxy and the Whole Universe was designed by the Master Designer so that Homo Sapiens has a comfortable place to live. More so, besides having a comfortable place to live Homo Sapiens have plenty of SSR types to study and to marvel at the fabulous skills of the Master Designer revealed so blatantly in His SSR designs. More so, besides having amazing engineering feats to discover and admire, the Homo Sapiens has a rightful Master Designer to praise and worship all his life.


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