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Body Systems Curriculum Outcomes Addressed

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Presentation on theme: "Body Systems Curriculum Outcomes Addressed"— Presentation transcript:

1 Body Systems Curriculum Outcomes Addressed
• Explain structural and functional relationships between and among cells, tissues, organs, and systems in the human body (304-7) • Describe the basic factors that affect functions/efficiency of the respiratory, circulatory, digestive, excretory, and nervous system (304-9) • Describe the science underlying various technologies used to assist or replace unhealthy organs or systems (111-5) • Provide examples of careers that are associated with the health of body systems (112-10) • Describe three examples of the interdependence of various systems of the human body (304-10)

2 You will learn… Main human body systems
Major organs and tissues Diseases and disorders Technologies and procedures used to replace and/or repair body systems and/or their organs Careers associated with the maintenance and/or repair of human body systems Organ system interactions (interconnectedness between two or more organ systems)

3 Human Body Systems Circulatory System (Cardiovascular and Lymphatic)
Digestive System Endocrine System Excretory System (including the Urinary System) Integumentary System Muscular System Nervous System Reproductive System Respiratory System Skeletal System

4 1. Circulatory System Function
Enables the transport of nutrients, gases, hormones, white blood cells and wastes to and from cells of the body Organs Heart, Blood Vessels Diseases 1) Arrhythmia - Abnormal heart rates and rhythms 2) Angina pectoris – Severe heart pain, often accompanied by shortness of breath, fatigue, and nausea. It is caused by not enough blood getting to the heart muscle. One treatment is taking nitroglycerine tablets to relieve the pain by increasing blood flow to the heart muscle. Careers 1) Cardiologist - a physician specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the circulatory system, especially, the heart. 2) Cardiovascular Surgeon – carries out heart surgeries 3) Hematologist - a physician specializing in diseases of the blood. Technology 1) Electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG) – a printout recording of the electrical activity of the heart; frequently used by cardiologists. 2) Phlebotomist - specially trained nurse or technician who draws blood for lab tests and may also start IV’s (intravenous fluids). 3) Echocardiography - using ultra high frequency sound waves (sonar) to form an image of the inside of the heart. This procedure can demonstrate valve damage, congenital (before birth) defects and other abnormalities.

5 2. Digestive System Function
Ingests and breaks down food so that it can be digested by the body Organs Mouth, Esophagus, Stomach, Liver, Pancreas, Gallbladder, S/L Intestine Diseases 1) Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) - Severe “heartburn”; Weakness of the valve between the esophagus and stomach may allow stomach acid to back up into the esophagus and inflame the lining. 2) Jaundice - Yellowing of skin and whites of eyes from a reflux of bile from the blood into body tissues; results from blockage of the ducts draining bile from liver into intestines or excessive breakdown of red blood cells. 3) Crohn’s Disease - a chronic inflammatory disease of the bowel. Typical symptoms are abdominal pain, weight loss, diarrhea. Careers 1) Gastroenterologist – a physician specializing in diseases of the digestive system including esophagus, stomach and intestines. These specialists do not do surgery. Patients needing surgery are referred to a general surgeon. 2) Proctologist – a physician specializing in diseases of the rectum and anus. Proctology is a surgical subspecialty. Technology 1) Endoscopy - flexible fiberoptic instrument attached to a video camera that can be used to visualize the esophagus, stomach and large bowel. 2) Ultrasonography (ultrasound) - using high frequency sound waves to visualize internal organs.

6 3. Endocrine System Function
Secretes hormones into blood stream to regulate body activities such as metabolism, growth, water and mineral balance, and the stress response Organs Pituitary gland, Hypothalamus, Thyroid, Heart, etc. Diseases 1) Diabetes - condition in which the pancreas does not produce enough of the hormone insulin or the body does not effectively use the insulin it produces. Because insulin is important in helping the body convert sugars and starches into necessary energy, there can be serious consequences if diabetes is left undiagnosed and/or untreated. 2) Thyroid Disorders - If your thyroid gland is not active enough, it is called hypothyroidism. It can make you gain weight, feel fatigued, and have difficulty dealing with cold temperatures. If your thyroid is too active, it makes too many thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism). Too much thyroid hormone can make you lose weight, speed up your heart rate, and make you very sensitive to heat. Careers 1) Endocrinologist - specially trained doctors who diagnose diseases that affect your glands/endocrine system.; diagnose and treat hormone imbalances by helping to restore the normal balance of hormones in your system. Technology 1) Insulin Pump - replace the need for periodic injections by delivering rapid-acting insulin continuously throughout the day using a catheter. 2)

7 4. Excretory (Urinary) System
Function Eliminates liquid wastes and regulates water balance Organs Kidney, Bladder, Urethra, Ureter Diseases 1) Kidney stone – small calcium deposits in the kidney caused by accumulation of minerals from our diet; may cause very painful urination. 2) Urinary tract infection (UTI) - infection of the ureters, bladder, and urethra. Most often caused by bacterial infection. Urination is painful and difficult. UTI occurs more often in women than men. Antibiotic is the common treatment. 3) Nephritis - swollen kidney(s) due to the inflammation of the nephron (kidney’s microscopic filtering unit). Nephritis can be caused by infection, but mostly by autoimmune disorders which affect major organs. 4) Gout - caused by excess uric acid stored up in the blood. It affects joints and leads to pain, redness, and inflammation. Careers 1) Nephrologist – a physician specializing in kidney diseases. 2) Urologist - a physician specializing in diseases of the lower urinary tract (the bladder and urethra) as well as problems with the male reproductive system. Technology 1) Dialysis - a procedure for cleansing the blood of waste products in individuals with complete kidney failure or who have had kidneys removed by surgery; the patient’s blood is circulated through a machine that removes waste products. The blood is recirculated back into the patient. 2) Cystoscopy – looking into the urinary bladder with a fiberoptic instrument.

8 5. Integumentary System Function Organs Diseases Careers
Protects the body from environment, injury, and infection, and stores fat Organs Skin, Hair, Nails Diseases 1) Athlete’s Foot - common fungus infection in which the skin between the toes becomes itchy and cracked. It is caused by an infection that is the result of fungi that grow well in warm, damp areas such showers and locker rooms 2) Skin cancer - the growth of abnormal skin cells - the most common type of cancer in humans.  3) Acne - skin disease marked by pimples on face, chest, and back; the result of increased levels of male hormones that cause oil glands to oversecrete. Careers 1) Dermatologist - specialize in treating diseases, disorders and injuries of the skin, hair, and nails. They treat common diseases that many people get, such as acne and warts, as well as skin cancer and chronic skin conditions Technology 1) Skin Grafting - transplantation of skin; the transplanted tissue is called a skin graft; used to treat extensive wounding, burns, areas of extensive skin loss due to infection Specific surgeries that may require skin grafts for healing to occur - most commonly removal of skin cancers 2) Laser Treatment - Laser treatments are used to reduce the quantity of wrinkles, scars, pimples and bruises. It works but shooting short controlled beams of light on the needed area of the damaged skin.

9 6. Muscular System Function Organs Muscles Diseases
Enables movement, posture & balance by contraction & extension of muscles Organs Muscles Diseases 1) Muscular dystrophy - a group of inherited diseases in which the muscles that control movement progressively weaken, often to the point that people affected cannot control their muscle/movement. The most common form in children is called Duchenne muscular dystrophy and affects only males.  2) Tendonitis- Repeated strain on a tendon (attachment of a muscle to bone) can inflame the tendon resulting in pain and difficulty with movement involving the muscle. Tendons have a poor blood supply; therefore, they typically take a long time to heal (six weeks or more). Careers 1) 2) Physical therapist – rehabilitation specialists who treat a multitude of medical problems including patients recovering from joint surgery, limb amputation, stroke, heart attack and suffering with neuromuscular diseases; teach patients exercises to strengthen their muscles and increase mobility. Technology 1) Electromyography - a recording of muscle electrical activity; Fine needles are introduced into muscles in order to make recordings of contractile activity. Useful in evaluating causes of paralysis and diagnosing muscular dystrophy, etc. 2) Muscle biopsy – Cutting out a small tissue sample of muscle in order to examine it under a microscope; to diagnose neuromuscular disorders.

10 7. Nervous System Function
Senses environment; communicates with and activates parts of the body Organs Brain, Spinal Cord, Nerves Diseases 1) Multiple Sclerosis – a disease of unknown cause that causes multiple hard plaques of degeneration of the insulation of nerve fibers in the central nervous system; patients may suffer paralysis, sensory disturbances or blindness. 2) Epilepsy - a medical condition that produces seizures affecting a variety of mental and physical functions; may be controlled with medication, or if unresponsive to drugs, may require surgery. 3) Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) - the fancy name for a “stroke”. A blood vessel in the brain may burst causing internal bleeding or a clot may arise in a brain blood vessel which deprives brain tissue of oxygen; the patient may suffer paralysis, loss of speech, or loss of vision. Careers 1) Neurologist - physician specializing in diseases of the brain, spinal cord, nerves. 2) Neurosurgeon – carry out surgeries related to the brain and spinal cord Technology 1) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – a medical imaging technique used to visualize internal structures of the body in detail; MRI can create more detailed images of the body than X-rays (i.e., identify soft tissue tumour in kidneys) 2) Spinal tap - introducing a needle into the spinal column to sample the fluid around the brain and spinal cord in order to test for bacteria or disease 3) Pacemaker - a medical device that uses electrical impulses, delivered by electrodes contacting the heart muscles, to regulate the heart beat.

11 8. Reproductive System Function Organs Diseases Careers
Produces new life; produces eggs and supports the development of offspring (female); produces and delivers sperm and associated fluids (male) Organs Ovary, Uterus, Fallopian Tubes, Cervix, Testes, Vas Deferens, Prostate Gland Diseases 1) Hydrocele - a fluid filled sac partially surrounding the testis. Manifests itself as a swelling on the side of the scrotum. Can be surgically corrected 2) Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) - swelling of the prostate gland which surrounds the base of the male bladder and urethra causing difficulty urinating Careers 1) Obstetrician - physician specializing in the diagnosis and management of pregnancy and delivering babies. 2) Gynecologist - a physician specializing in diseases of the female reproductive system and surgery of this area. Technology 1) Transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) - the surgical cure for BPH. An instrument inserted through the penile urethra is used to partially cut away the prostate to relieve obstruction of the urinary tract. 2) Colposcopy - using a magnifying instrument to inspect the interior of the vagina and cervix, the entrance to the uterus. 3) Mammoplasty – Surgical reconstruction of the breast may involve breast enlargement or reduction or cosmetic reconstruction after mastectomy.

12 9. Respiratory System Function
Supplies oxygen to the blood and removes carbon dioxide Organs Lungs, Larynx, Pharynx, Trachea, Bronchi Diseases 1) Bronchitis is an inflammation/swelling of the the bronchi (the airways that carry airflow from the nose/trachea to the lungs); can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or smoking; stops air from entering lungs, causing wheezing and pain 2) Emphysema - results in progressive destruction of the air sacs in the lungs and loss of respiratory membrane for oxygen exchange (i.e., in smokers). 3) Cystic fibrosis - an inheritable disease that affects the lungs and other systems producing mucus such as the digestive system. Patients suffer frequent lung infections that are hard to treat because mucus is thick; results in increased scarring of the lungs. 4) Epistaxis – a fancier name for a “nosebleed” Careers 1) Pulmonologist - a physician specializing in diseases of the lungs. 2) Respiratory Therapist - a specially trained technician who administers, among other treatments, inhalation therapy to patients with lung disease. Technology 1) Pulmonary angiography - special X-rays of the vessels of the lungs. 2) Laryngoscopy - visual examination of the larynx. 3) Endotracheal intubation - passing a special air-tube into the trachea so oxygen can be reliably supplied directly to the lungs without risk of inhaling vomit from the stomach (i.e., during surgery or during general anesthesia)

13 10. Skeletal System Function
Provides mechanical support for the body, protects internal organs, stores minerals until needed, and produces red blood cells Organs Bone (i.e., vertebrae, skull, rib cage), Cartilage Diseases 1) Osteoporosis – The hard, rock-like quality of bone is dependent upon calcium. When too much calcium is dissolved from bones or not enough replaced, bones lose density and are easily fractured. Women are at higher risk of developing osteoporosis. A collapse of bony vertebrae of the spine results in loss of height and stooped posture. Hip fractures commonly result. 2) Carpal tunnel - People whose job involves repeated flexing of their wrist (i.e., typing) may develop pain in thumb, index, middle fingers and weakness of movements of the thumb (i.e., grasping an object). Repetitive movements may inflame and thicken the ligament near the wrist bone and compress the nerve. Careers 1) Rheumatologist – treat joint diseases such as arthritis and evaluate and treat osteoporosis, tendonitis, gout and lupus among many other chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders. 2) Orthopaedist – treat children with spine and limb deformities and adults with bone fractures, damaged tendons, or surgery to replace hip or knee joint. Technology 1) Arthroscopy - A fiberoptic instrument used to visualize surfaces of bones entering into a joint, find tears in joints, and evaluate sources of inflammation. 2) Bone scan – A radioactive element is introduced into the blood stream; used to diagnose potential bone tumors among other bone pathologies.

14 Body System Interconnections
The human body has been referred to as “the incredible machine.” The body’s systems are interconnected. Each organ system has a different function and yet, they are constantly working in harmony to keep a person alive. Each body/organ system is connected with each other body/organ system in some way – whether they work together, depend on each other, or affect one another in some small way, they are all interconnected and necessary for a healthy, long life. Systems rarely work alone. All of the systems in an organism are interconnected. A simple example is the connection between the circulatory and respiratory systems. As blood circulates through your body, it eventually needs fresh oxygen (O2) from the air. When the blood reaches the lungs (part of the respiratory system), the blood is re-oxygenated. Your stomach, part of the digestive system, constantly interacts with your endocrine system and spreads hormones throughout your body.

15 Body System Interconnections
The Skeletal System… Supports the body and gives skeletal muscles something to pull against so that the skeletal muscles can move (MUSCULAR) Protects the mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, and gall bladder (DIGESTIVE) Protects trachea, vocal cords and diaphragm (RESPIRATORY) Protects the heart (rib cage) and the skeletal system’s bone marrow produces red blood cells that carry oxygen throughout the body (CIRCULATORY) Protects the kidneys (URINARY) Protects the brain (skull) and spinal cord (NERVOUS) Bones provide calcium that is essential for the proper function of the nervous system (NERVOUS)

16 Body System Interconnections
The Muscular System… Muscles move bone and tendons connect to bone (SKELETAL) Smooth muscle found in the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and rectum help along digestion (DIGESTIVE) Smooth muscle is found in the diaphragm which helps with respiration because of its movement (RESPIRATORY) Cardiac muscle is found in the heart and allows the heart to expand and contract (CIRCULATORY) Smooth muscle is found in the bladder (URINARY) Provides protection for impulses sent down through the body from the brain (NERVOUS) Smooth muscle surrounds your circulatory and lymph system. Those muscle tissues are spread throughout your body and are involved in controlling your body temperature (CIRCULATORY) 

17 Body System Interconnections
The Digestive System… Provides nutrients for bone growth and repair (SKELETAL) Provides nutrients for muscles to do work (MUSCULAR) Provides the diaphragm with nutrients in order to facilitate breathing (RESPIRATORY) Provides the heart with nutrients so that the heart can continue beating (CIRCULATORY) Provides nutrients so that the kidneys can clean your blood of wastes produced by all of the other systems (URINARY) Provides energy for the brain in order for it to continue controlling all of the other systems (NERVOUS)

18 Body System Interconnections
The Respiratory System… Provides oxygen in order for bones to do work and removes carbon dioxide and water that skeletal cells produce as waste (SKELETAL) Provides oxygen for muscles to do work and removes carbon dioxide and water that muscles produce as a waste product (MUSCULAR) Provides oxygen for the digestive system and removes carbon dioxide and water as waste products by digestive system (DIGESTIVE) Your mouth and pharynx are used to swallow and to breathe. There is a branching point where you will find the epiglottis that directs food to your stomach and air to your lungs (DIGESTIVE) Provides the oxygen that is carried by red blood cells to all parts of the body and removed CO2 & H20 created by heart (CIRCULATORY) Provides oxygen so the urinary system can clean the body of waste products (URINARY) Provides oxygen to the brain so that the brain can continue to function properly; connects in your nose for smell (NERVOUS)

19 Body System Interconnections
The Circulatory System… Moves oxygen and glucose around to skeletal cells (SKELETAL) Moves oxygen and glucose around to muscle cells (MUSCULAR) Moves oxygen and glucose around for cells and moves wastes so that they can be disposed of (DIGESTIVE) When you breathe, the circulatory system carries oxygen to your cells and carries dissolved carbon dioxide back to the lungs.  (RESPIRATORY) Moves oxygen and glucose around for use in the cells of all systems (RESPIRATORY, URINARY, NERVOUS) Hormones create by the endocrine system travel through the body via the circulatory system (ENDOCRINE)

20 Body System Interconnections
The Urinary System… Cleans the blood of waste products produced by the cells in all systems (SKELETAL, MUSCULAR, DIGESTIVE, CIRCULATORY, URINARY, and NERVOUS) Blood that circulates through the body passes through one of the two kidneys. Urea, uric acid, and water are removed from the blood and most of the water is put back into the system (CIRCULATORY) Greatly controlled by the endocrine system; As levels of compounds and fluids are monitored, kidney function must be constantly altered to provide the best internal environment for your cells. If you drink too much water, hormones are released that allow for more urine production. If you are dehydrated, less urine will be produced (ENDOCRINE)

21 Body System Interconnections
The Nervous System… The cerebrum and cerebellum in the brain control movement, balance, thinking, etc; the brain regulates the position of bones by controlling muscles (SKELETAL, MUSCULAR) The spinal cord delivers messages from the brain to the rest of the body (ALL SYSTEMS) The medulla in the brain stem controls involuntary muscle movement during digestion (DIGESTIVE), during respiration or breathing (RESPIRATORY), and in order to keep a regular heart beat (CIRCULATORY) The nervous system regulates the speed at which food moves through the digestive tract (DIGESTIVE) Baroreceptors send information to the brain about blood pressure (CIRCULATORY) The medulla in the brain stem involuntary movement that occurs during the cleaning of blood and urination (URINARY)

22 Body System Interconnections
The Integumentary System… Skin is an important defense barrier against foreign invaders such as bacteria (ENDOCRINE) Receptors in the skin send sensory information to the brain (NERVOUS) Nerves control muscles connected to hair follicles (NERVOUS) Sweat glands and peripheral blood flow are regulated by the autonomic nervous system (NERVOUS) Capillaries near the surface of the skin open when your body needs to cool off and close when you need to conserve heat (CIRCULATORY) 

23 Body System Interconnections
The Endocrine System… The endocrine system is everywhere and the chemicals produced by the system act in a variety of ways on every cell of your body (ALL SYSTEMS) The circulatory system is the transport system for endocrine information such as hormones and chemicals (CIRCULATORY) You have a pituitary gland in the base of your skull that releases hormones that control blood pressure and your excretory system (EXCRETORY/URINARY) You have a thyroid gland in your neck that controls your bone growth rate and metabolism (SKELETAL)

24 Helpful Resources Nervous System Interactions with Other Systems Organs Systems of the Body – Biology For Kids An Owner’s Guide to the Cell Games and Quizzes Dealing with Body Systems and Organs

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