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Social Psychology Developmental Psychology Personality and Abnormal Psychology Physiological Psychology Sensation and Perception Learning and Ethology.

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Presentation on theme: "Social Psychology Developmental Psychology Personality and Abnormal Psychology Physiological Psychology Sensation and Perception Learning and Ethology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Psychology Developmental Psychology Personality and Abnormal Psychology Physiological Psychology Sensation and Perception Learning and Ethology Cognitive Psychology Research Design, Statistics, Tests, and Measurements 1 1111111 22222222 33333333 4 4 444444 55555555

2 Social - 1 The performance of which of the following activities is LEAST likely to be facilitated by the presence of an audience? – (A) speed of winding a fishing reel – (B) memorizing a script – (C) running – (D) adding numbers – (E) taking a final examination

3 Social - 2 Which of the following theories is characterized by the assumption that individuals have a need to evaluate their own attitudes and abilities? – (A) Social facilitation – (B) Social comparison theory – (C) Social influence – (D) Social exchange theory – (E) Equity theory

4 Social - 3 The prisoner’s dilemma is used to study – (A) the autokinetic effect – (B) recidivism in former convicts – (C) affiliation and attraction – (D) need complementarity – (E) cooperation and competition

5 Social – 4 According to inoculation theory, a person’s belief can be inoculated against a persuasive attack by – (A) providing arguments to support the ineitial belief prior to the attack – (B) providing arguments to support the initial belief subsequent to the attack – (C) warning the individual that there will be an attack – (D) anticipating the attacker’s arguments and discrediting those arguments – (E) refuting the persuasive attack subsequent to its presentation

6 Social – 5 Lewin and his colleagues in their 1939 study of leadership styles found that – (A) laissez-faire groups had the greatest productivity – (B) the productivity of the democratic groups was greater than that of autocratic groups – (C) autocratic leaders were better liked that democratic leaders – (D) autocratic leaders created more hostility than democratic leaders – (E) the personality traits of a leader had a greater effect than his leadership style

7 Development - 1 Which of the following is commonly referred to as the father of developmental psychology? – (A) G. Stanley Hall – (B) Sigmund Freud – (C) Erik Erikson – (D) William James – (E) John Locke

8 Developmental – 2 According to Piaget, the attainment of formal operations is characterized by – (A) understanding of object permanence – (B) preoperational thinking – (C) beginning of symbol usage – (D) ability to manipulate abstract concepts – (E) tertiary circular reactions

9 Developmental - 3 “Give me a group of infants, and if I could control the world in which they are raised, I could predict which will become doctors and which will become sculptors.” This statement is most likely based on: – (A) the utilization of the methods of classical conditioning – (B) the Freudian explanation of human behavior – (C) an early behaviorist conception of the nature of human development – (D) a functionalistic emphasis on the adaptive nature of behavior – (E) a firm opposition to determinism

10 Developmental – 4 Which of the following is NOT a morpheme? – (A) the “s” in “dogs” – (B) the “dog” in “dogs” – (C) the “ed” in “learned” – (D) the “ou” in “soup” – (E) the “bio” in “biology”

11 Developmental – 5 Who first showed that contact comfort was necessary for the formation of the mother- infant attachment bond? – (A) Sigmund Freud – (B) John Bowlby – (C) Mary Ainsworth – (D) Konrad Lorenz – (E) Harry Harlow

12 Personality and Abnormal - 1 Delusions, flat affect, and catatonic behavior are all symptoms of – (A) schizophrenia – (B) bipolar disorder – (C) multiple personality disorder – (D) schizoid personality disorder – (E) somatoform disorder

13 Personality and Abnormal - 2 An investigator used a test to measure masculinity and femininity in a large sample of college students, consisting of equal numbers of males and females. The test showed that 30 percent of the sample was androgynous. This finding is most relevant to which of the following propositions? – (A) genotypic sex exerts the greatest influence on gender identity – (B) gender roles become less differentiated after puberty, as hormone levels reach equilibrium – (C) adults who model both “masculine instrumentality” and “feminine expressiveness” are the ones most likely to raise androgynous offspring – (D) rather than being at two ends of a spectrum, masculinity and femininity are two separate traits that can coexist within an individual – (E) men are not more likely than women to be androgynous

14 Personality and Abnormal - 3 The learned helplessness model put forth by Seligman is a model of which of the following? – (A) Schizophrenia – (B) Autism – (C) Depression – (D) Obsessive-compulsive disorder – (E) Mania

15 Personality and Abnormal – 4 A person gets a good grade on a midterm exam and believes that the good grade was due to an easy test. This statement is most relevant to which of the following theorists? – (A) Abraham Maslow – (B) Julian Rotter – (C) Sandra Bem – (D) Gordon Allport – (E) Raymond Cattell

16 Personality and Abnormal – 5 The Myth of Mental Illness was written by – (A) David Rosenhan – (B) Dorothea Dix – (C) Albert Ellis – (D) The American Psychiatric Association – (E) Thomas Szasz

17 Physiological - 1 REM sleep is characterized by which of the following? – (A) sleep walking – (B) delta waves – (C) night terrors – (D) dreams – (E) sleep spindles

18 Physiological - 2 Which of the following describes the correct sequence of electrical activity as it passes through a single nerve cell? – (A) Axon, dendrite, soma, vesicle – (B) Soma, cell body, dendrite, vesicle – (C) Soma, vesicle, dendrite, axon – (D) Dendrite, soma, axon, vesicle – (E) Dendrite, cell body, vesicle, axon

19 Physiological - 3 After suffering a stroke that damaged his LEFT OCCIPITAL LOBE, Bill’s ability to speak and understand language remained intact. Nevertheless, he was unable to identify simple visual stimuli, such as letters from the alphabet. He was able to accurately copy these visual stimuli on a piece of paper. Bill’s symptoms suggest which of the following disorders? – (A) apraxia – (B) aphagia – (C) aphasia – (D) agnosia – (E) amnesia

20 Physiological – 4 John goes out on a date with Lisa. He orders a bowl of soup, which, unknown to him, is spoiled. After eating the soup, he feels slightly light- headed. John attributes his light-headedness to being in love with Lisa. This can be best explained by which of the following theories? – (A) James-Lange – (B) Cannon-Bard – (C) Schachter-Singer – (D) Hubel-Wiesel – (E) Wever-Bray

21 Physiological – 5 Disturbances in nerve tracts for certain neurotransmitters have been linked with various psychiatric disorders and degenerative diseases. Which of the following pairings is NOT correct? – (A) Dopamine and schizophrenia – (B) Norepinephrine and depression – (C) Serotonin and mania – (D) Acetylcholine and Alzheimer’s disease – (E) GABA and Parkinson’s disease

22 Sensation and Perception - 1 The tendency to perceive continuous patterns in stimuli is called – (A) good continuation – (B) closure – (C) proximity – (D) similarity – (E) linear perspective

23 Sensation and Perception - 2 In an experiment on vision, stimuli of different magnitudes are presented to a subject who is then asked to respond “yes” if he sees the stimulus and “no” if he does not. Using this procedure, the experimenter is likely to find that a subject with HIGH sensitivity will – (A) say “yes” more times than “no” – (B) have more hits than false alarms – (C) have a high absolute threshold – (D) have a low difference threshold – (E) also have a high response bias

24 Sensation and Perception - 3 Which of the following determine perceived size? – I. Retinal size – II. Perceived distance – III. Pupil size (A) I only (B) II only (C) III only (D) I and II only (E) II and III only

25 Sensation and Perception – 4 The dispute between the place theory and the frequency theory has to do with the action of the – (A) basilar membrane – (B) ossicles – (C) inferior colliculus – (D) somatosensory cortex – (E) fovea

26 Sensation and Perception – 5 Staring at a red stimulus for a while leads to a green afterimage. This supports – (A) Békésy’s theory – (B) Hering’s opponent-process theory – (C) Helmholtz’s trichromatic theory – (D) Wever’s volley principle – (E) the duplexity theory

27 Learning and Ethology - 1 You turn on the can opener to open the dog food and your dog begins to salivate. The sound of the can opener is a(n) – (A) unconditioned stimulus – (B) conditioned response – (C) unconditioned response – (D) conditioned stimulus – (E) neutral response

28 Learning and Ethology - 2 Which of the following is NOT based on operant conditioning? – (A) contingency management – (B) behavioral contracting – (C) implosion – (D) token economics – (E) Premack principle

29 Learning and Ethology - 3 If it works as planned, which of the following is the best example of escape? – (A) A client misses a session, so the therapist charges an extra fee – (B) A teacher gives detention to all late students – (C) A parent rescinds a curfew because a child gets good grades – (D) A doctor gives a lollipop to all children who do not cry when they get a shot – (E) A child is warned that if he doesn’t clean his room, he will be punished. The child cleans his room.

30 Learning and Ethology – 4 Köhler’s experiment on chimpanzee problem solving demonstrated that – (A) insight can be explained by trial-and-error learning – (B) not all learning is trial-and-error – (C) trial-and-error learning never occurs – (D) chimpanzees used cognitive maps to find the bananas – (E) chimpanzees do not learn by trial-and-error

31 Learning and Ethology – 5 Which of the following best states John Garcia’s major contribution to classical conditioning? – (A) Classical conditioning is based on contingency – (B) Classical conditioning is due to instinctual drift – (C) Classical conditioning is actually a type of operant conditioning – (D) Classical conditioning is affected by the animal’s biological makeup – (E) Classical conditioning is based on contiguity alone

32 Cognitive - 1 According to the stage theory of memory, information can go through memory in which order? – (A) Sensory memory, long-term memory, short-term memory – (B) Iconic memory, short-term memory, long-term memory – (C) Echoic memory, iconic memory, long-term memory – (D) Short-term memory, long-term memory, sensory memory – (E) Long-term memory, sensory memory, short-term memory

33 Cognitive - 2 You hear an excerpt of music and your companion asks you who wrote it. You’ve never heard it before, but reply that it’s likely that Bach wrote it. Your judgment can be best explained on the basis of – (A) proactive inhibition – (B) divergent thinking – (C) representativeness – (D) the method of loci – (E) procedural memory

34 Cognitive - 3 Upon being asked to list various uses for a blanket, Lillian responds, “a parachute, a basketball net, and fake icing for a small sculpture of a cake.” Lillian is using – (A) parallel distributed processing – (B) metacognition – (C) crystallized intelligence – (D) divergent thinking – (E) transformational rules

35 Cognitive – 4 A student learned a monologue from Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night and then, a month later, learned a monologue from King Lear. Every time he tried to recite the monologue from Lear, he began reciting the Twelfth Night monologue. This is known as – (A) the Method of Loci – (B) the method of savings – (C) proactive inhibition – (D) encoding specificity – (E) retroactive inhibition

36 Cognitive – 5 For Noam Chomsky, the semantic interpretation of a sentence comes from – (A) surface structure – (B) inhibition theory – (C) deep structure – (D) divergent thinking – (E) transformational rules

37 Research, Design, Statistics, Tests, & Measurements - 1 What is the mean of the following distribution? 1,1,7,8,8 – (A) 1 – (B) 2 – (C) 5 – (D) 7 – (E) 8

38 Research, Design, Statistics, Tests, & Measurements - 2 When a person says, “Molly is smarter than John,” she is employing which measurement scale? – (A) Nominal – (B) Ordinal – (C) Interval – (D) Ratio – (E) Categorical

39 Research, Design, Statistics, Tests, & Measurements - 3 A Type II error occurs – (A) whenever a true null hypothesis is accepted – (B) whenever a false null hypothesis is rejected – (C) whenever a false null hypothesis is accepted – (D) whenever a true null hypothesis is rejected – (E) whenever a statistically insignificant result is obtained

40 Research, Design, Statistics, Tests, & Measurements – 4 What type of validity hinges largely on actions and decisions made before any test items are actually administered? – (A) Criterion – (B) Construct – (C) Content – (D) Predictive – (E) Convergent

41 Research, Design, Statistics, Tests, & Measurements - 5 A 4-year old, Mary, has an IQ score of 200. an 8- year old, Jimmy, has an IQ score of 100. a 10-year old, Johnny, has an IQ of 90. assuming that these are not deviation IQs, which child has the highest mental age? – (A) Mary – (B) Jimmy – (C) Johnny – (D) None, all the children have the same mental age – (E) mental age cannot be determined from the information given

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