Presentation on theme: "Although humans have used biotechnology for thousands of years, discoveries made in the 1960s and 1970s increased our understanding about cells and molecules,"— Presentation transcript:
Although humans have used biotechnology for thousands of years, discoveries made in the 1960s and 1970s increased our understanding about cells and molecules, therefore, changing how biotechnology is used today.
Can you think of some discoveries that have affected modern-day biotechnology?
DNA as genetic material
Double helical structure of DNA
DNA used to synthesize proteins
A sequence of three nucleotide bases determines each of the twenty amino acids
Now that we’ve identified some cellular and molecular discoveries, can you think of some current research applications in biotechnology?
Human Genome Project An international effort to map all the body’s genome: roughly 40,000 genes Started in 1990 and just recently completed Why genes? Understanding genetic flaws helps researchers: Make precise diagnoses and predictions Design more effective drugs Prevent many painful disorders
Proteomics With the Human Genome Project is completed, researchers are focusing on proteomics: the networks of proteins within cells and tissues Determining the 3-D structure of proteins allows researchers to find sites where proteins are vulnerable to drugs Proteins are far more complex to study than genes; also, there are hundreds of thousands more proteins than genes
Forensics DNA fingerprinting links suspects to biological evidence: blood, semen, hair, clothing items used by the FBI and police since 1987 to solve crimes also used to determine paternity in custody and child support cases
Plant Agriculture Biopesticides based on natural agents like fatty acid compounds and microorganisms target pests without harming humans and animals Phermones are substances insects produce to attract mates; phermone-based traps lure insects away from crops Herbicides often kill both weeds and crops; however, plant breeders can now develop crops tolerant to specific herbicides
Livestock Production Biotech-based diagnostic tests provide early and accurate diagnosis of disease in livestock Animal breeders produce livestock genetically-resistant to certain diseases Antibody technologies help develop treatments for diseased livestock Animal feed with special proteins boosts nutrition and prevents disease
Waste Management Bioremediation uses natural as well as recombinant microorganisms to break down toxic substances in the environment Cloned strains of waste-eating bacteria can quickly consume and degrade landfills Recombinant-engineered microbes can clean up oil spills naturally Special bacteria cleans up waste at factories before it enters the environment