Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. When it is not so important who did the action When the one who did the action is unknown.
Example: My bike was stolen. In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen. I do not know, however, who did it.
To change from active to passive voice follow these rules: 1- The object becomes subject. 2- Use verb to be in the tense of the active verb. 3- Use the past participle. 4- The subject becomes object and use (by) before it.
SubjectObject Active The servant cleans the room Passive The room is cleaned by the servant. Agent Subject.
STRUCTURE Subject + v. to be (in the tense of the active verb) + Past Participle Example: A letter was written.
VERB TO BE - Verb to be in the passiveVerb to be in different tenses am-is-are +past participlePresent simple (am-is- are) Was- were +past participlePast simple (was- were) Has been – have been + past participle Present perfect (has been- have been) had been + past participlePast perfect (had been) Will + be + past participle Can + be + past participle Will + be Can + be
Active voicePassive voice Helen cleans the house The house is cleaned by Helen Some people collect pictures Pictures are collected by some people The dog killed a ratA rat was killed by the dog The teacher will explain the story The story will be explained by the teacher
Examples Simple present: A letter is written by Rita. Simple past: A letter was written by Rita. Present perfect: A letter has been written by Rita. Past perfect: A letter had been written by Rita. Future (or modal verbs) : A letter will be written by Rita.
Example of Present Simple: Active: Tom cleans the house. Passive: The house is cleaned by Tom. Example of Past Simple: Active: Sam repaired the car. Passive: The car was repaired by Sam.
Example of Present Perfect: Active: Many tourists have visited that castle. Passive: That castle has been visited by many tourists.
Example of Future (Will): Active: Tonight, John will wash the dishes. Passive: Tonight, the dishes will be washed by John.
Example with can: Active: Bill can water the flowers. Passive:The flowers can be watered by Bill.
1. Active: Anne writes a letter. Passive: A letter is written by Anne. 2. Active: Anne wrote a letter. Passive: A letter was written by Anne. Examples:
3. Active: Anne has written a letter. Passive: A letter has been written by Anne. 4. Active: Anne will write a letter. Passive: A letter will be written by Anne.
LET’S TRY!! 1) Julia rescued three cats. _____________________ 2) Alex learned the poem. ______________________ 3)Steven has forgotten the book ______________________
4) They sang a new song. ____________________ 5) The girls had lost the match. ______________________ 6) The teacher will open the window. _______________________