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Chapter 3. MPI MPI = Message Passing Interface Specification of message passing libraries for developers and users –Not a library by itself, but specifies.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3. MPI MPI = Message Passing Interface Specification of message passing libraries for developers and users –Not a library by itself, but specifies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3

2 MPI MPI = Message Passing Interface Specification of message passing libraries for developers and users –Not a library by itself, but specifies what such a library should be –Specifies application programming interface (API) for such libraries –Many libraries implement such APIs on different platforms – MPI libraries Goal: provide a standard for writing message passing programs –Portable, efficient, flexible Language binding: C, C++, FORTRAN programs

3 The Program #include #include "mpi.h" main(int argc, char* argv[]) { int my_rank; /* rank of process */ int p; /* number of processes */ int source; /* rank of sender */ int dest; /* rank of receiver */ int tag = 0; /* tag for messages */ char message[100]; /* storage for message */ MPI_Status status; /* return status for */ /* receive */ /* Start up MPI */ MPI_Init(&argc, &argv); /* Find out process rank */ MPI_Comm_rank(MPI_COMM_WORLD, &my_rank);

4 The Program /* Find out number of processes */ MPI_Comm_size(MPI_COMM_WORLD, &p); if (my_rank != 0) { /* Create message */ sprintf(message, "Greetings from process %d!", my_rank); dest = 0; /* Use strlen+1 so that '\0' gets transmitted */ MPI_Send(message, strlen(message)+1, MPI_CHAR, dest, tag, MPI_COMM_WORLD); } else { /* my_rank == 0 */ for (source = 1; source < p; source++) { MPI_Recv(message, 100, MPI_CHAR, source, tag, MPI_COMM_WORLD, &status); printf("%s\n", message); } /* Shut down MPI */ MPI_Finalize(); } /* main */

5 General MPI programs #include main( int argc, char** argv ) { MPI_Init( &argc, &argv ); /* main part of the program */ /* Use MPI function call depend on your data partitioning and the parallelization architecture */ MPI_Finalize(); }

6 MPI Basics MPI’s pre-defined constants, function prototypes, etc., are included in a header file. This file must be included in your code wherever MPI function calls appear (in “main” and in user subroutines/functions) : –#include “mpi.h” for C codes –#include “mpi++.h” * for C++ codes –include “mpif.h” for f77 and f9x codes MPI_Init must be the first MPI function called Terminates MPI by calling MPI_Finalize These two functions must only be called once in user code.

7 MPI Basics MPI’s pre-defined constants, function prototypes, etc., are included in a header file. This file must be included in your code wherever MPI function calls appear (in “main” and in user subroutines/functions) : –#include “mpi.h” for C codes –#include “mpi++.h” * for C++ codes –include “mpif.h” for f77 and f9x codes MPI_Init must be the first MPI function called Terminates MPI by calling MPI_Finalize These two functions must only be called once in user code.

8 MPI Basics C is case-sensitive language. MPI function names always begin with “MPI_”, followed by specific name with leading character capitalized, e.g., MPI_Comm_rank. MPI pre-defined constant variables are expressed in upper case characters, e.g., MPI_COMM_WORLD.

9 Basic MPI Datatypes MPI datatypeC datatype MPI_CHARsigned char MPI_SIGNED_CHARsigned char MPI_UNSIGNED_CHAR unsigned char MPI_SHORTsigned short MPI_UNSIGNED_SHORT unsigned short MPI_INT signed int MPI_UNSIGNED unsigned int MPI_LONGsigned long MPI_UNSIGNED_LONG unsigned long MPI_FLOATfloat MPI_DOUBLEdouble MPI_LONG_DOUBLElong double

10 MPI is Simple Many parallel programs can be written using just these six functions, only two of which are non-trivial: –MPI_INIT –MPI_FINALIZE –MPI_COMM_SIZE –MPI_COMM_RANK –MPI_SEND –MPI_RECV

11 Initialization Initialization: MPI_Init() initializes MPI environment –Must be called before any other MPI routine (so put it at the beginning of code) –Can be called only once; subsequent calls are erroneous. int MPI_Init(int *argc, char ***argv)

12 Termination MPI_Finalize() cleans up MPI environment –Must be called before exits. –No other MPI routine can be called after this call, even MPI_INIT()

13 Termination MPI_Finalize() cleans up MPI environment –Must be called before exits. –No other MPI routine can be called after this call, even MPI_INIT()

14 Processes MPI is process-oriented: program consists of multiple processes, each corresponding to one processor. MIMD: Each process runs its own code. In practice, runs its own copy of the same code (SPMD).. MPI processes are identified by their ranks: –If total nprocs processes in computation, rank ranges from 0, 1, …, nprocs-1. –nprocs does not change during computation.

15 Communicators Communicator: is a group of processes that can communicate with one another. Most MPI routines require a communicator argument to specify the collection of processes the communication is based on. All processes in the computation form the communicator MPI_COMM_WORLD. –MPI_COMM_WORLD is pre-defined by MPI, available anywhere Can create subgroups/subcommunicators within MPI_COMM_WORLD. –A process may belong to different communicators, and have different ranks in different communicators.

16 Size and Rank Number of processors: MPI_COMM_SIZE() Which processor: MPI_COMM_RANK() Can compute data decomposition etc. –Know total number of grid points, total number of processors and current processor id; can calculate which portion of data current processor is to work on. Ranks also used to specify source and destination of communications. int my_rank, ncpus; MPI_Comm_rank(MPI_COMM_WORLD, &my_rank); MPI_Comm_size(MPI_COMM_WORLD, &ncpus);

17 Compile and Run Program Compile the MPI program mpicc –o greetings greetings.c After compiling, a executable file greetings is generated. If running on the head node mpirun –np 4./greetings Greetings from process 1! Greetings from process 2! Greetings from process 3! This is NOT allowed in HPC supercomputers.

18 PBS scripts PBS: Portable Batch System A cluster is shared with others –Need to use a job submission system PBS will allocate the job to some other computer, log in as the user, and execute it Useful Commands –qsub : submits a job –qstat : monitors status –qdel : deletes a job from a queue

19 A Job with PBS scripts vi myjob1 #!/bin/bash #PBS -N job1 #PBS -q production #PBS -l select=4:ncpus=1 #PBS -l place=free #PBS -V cd $PBS_O_WORKDIR mpirun -np 4 -machinefile $PBS_NODEFILE./greetings

20 Submit Jobs Submit the job qsub myjob service0 Check the job status Qstat PBS Pro Server andy.csi.cuny.edu at CUNY CSI HPC Center Job id Name User Time Use S Queue service0 methane_g09 michael.green R qlong8_gau service0 methane_g09 michael.green R qlong8_gau service0 BEAST_serial edward.myers 2373:38: R qserial service0 2xTDR e.sandoval 0 H qlong16_qdr

21 Submit Jobs See the output cat job1.o Greetings from process 1! Greetings from process 2! Greetings from process 3! See the error file Cat job1.e283724

22 PBS scripts PBS Description #PBS -N jobname Assign a name to job #PBS -M _address Specify address #PBS -m b Send at job start #PBS -m e Send at job end #PBS -m a Send at job abort #PBS -o out_file Redirect stdout to specified file #PBS -e errfile Redirect stderr to specified file #PBS -q queue_name Specify queue to be used #PBS -l select=chunk specification Specify MPI resource requirements #PBS -l walltime=runtime Set wallclock time limit


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