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02/05/2015MIT32141 1950sAdvertising; 1960s and Creative Revolution MIT3214.

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Presentation on theme: "02/05/2015MIT32141 1950sAdvertising; 1960s and Creative Revolution MIT3214."— Presentation transcript:

1 02/05/2015MIT32141 1950sAdvertising; 1960s and Creative Revolution MIT3214

2 02/05/2015MIT32142 Interwar Advertising 1. Social Change: urbanization/immigration 2. Social Adaptation 1. emotional/personal insecurities 2. Listerine/’halitosis’ 3. apostles of modernity/zerrespiegel 4. conformity/emerging ‘mass society’

3 02/05/2015MIT32143 Mass Society Critique 1. Middletown 1. Robert/Helen Lynd (1929) 2. Malaise of mass/commercial culture 2. Stuart Chase, Sinclair Lewis, J. Kerouac 3. Bohemia

4 02/05/2015MIT32144 Mass Society Critique (post-WII) 1. David Riesman 1. The Lonely Crowd (1950) 2. Inner-directed/outer-directed 2. William H. Whyte 1. The Organization Man (1956) 2. Malaise of bureaucracy/ collectivism 3. loss of individualism 4. ‘group-mindedness’

5 02/05/2015MIT32145 Mass Culture Critique/Culture Industry Frankfurt School T. Adorno/G. Marcuse Culture Industries serve Corporate Capitalism Network radio/TV; ‘top 40’ pop music; tabloids, Hollywood Ideological reproduction

6 02/05/2015MIT32146 1950s Advertising 1. Television 2. Research/Social Science 1. quantify ad effectiveness 3. Simple Message; Repetition 1. Slogans, jingles 4. Doctor/Scientist testimonial

7 02/05/2015MIT32147 Rosser Reeves 1. Methodist upbringing 2. Ted Bates Agency 3. Low esteem of public 4. Repetition: single selling message 5. Large media buys 6. Political advertising, 1952

8 02/05/2015MIT32148 Unique Selling Proposition (USP) Colgate: “Cleans Your Breath While it Cleans Your Teeth” M&Ms (“Melts in Your Mouth, Not in Your Hand” ) simple ad + repetition over ad variation

9 02/05/2015MIT32149 Anacin 1. Radio/TV 2. $18m to $54m in 18 months (mid-1950s) 3. Repetition/Incantation 4. “Power of Threes” 1. fast, Fast, FAST Relief 5. /watch?v=oeas5jtffpM /watch?v=oeas5jtffpM

10 02/05/2015MIT321410 1950s Ads William Whyte & Bad advertising: “groupthink” mass Audience “group harmony” of ad agencies Thomas Frank

11 Mad Men Transitional/Liminal Era (1960-63) Historical Foresight Surface Pleasures 02/05/2015MIT321411

12 Don Draper/Mad Men Depth/Identity Authenticity/ Artifice Kodak/Carousel http://www.youtub RDUFpsHus&featur e=related http://www.youtub RDUFpsHus&featur e=related 02/05/2015MIT321412

13 Mad Men Draper as Metaphor for Advertising? 02/05/2015MIT321413

14 02/05/2015MIT321414 Did Mainstream Co-opt Counter-Culture of 1960s? Conventional View: 1. Business culture: 1. monolithic, hierarchical, homogenous 2. Counter-culture: 1. Dionysian, vibrant, spontaneous 2. Subversive 3. Counter culture becomes mass movement 1. business co-opts; harness for own ends

15 T. Frank Capitalism’s own insurgency Pre-date Counterculture Common goals with counter culture Advertising’s “Creative Revolution” 02/05/2015MIT321415

16 02/05/2015MIT321416 Managerial Revolt Douglas McGregor Human Side of Enterprise Theory “X”/“Y” Firms Theory X Hierarchy, organization, strict supervision Stifle creativity, innovation Less competitive

17 02/05/2015MIT321417 McGregor… Theory Y Firm: Flatter organization; non-hierarchical Promote creativity; spontaneity More profitable

18 02/05/2015MIT321418 Late 1950s/early 1960s Business Culture Not all “flat gray,” conservative, “square” Not juxtaposed to Counter Culture Business & “anti- establishment”

19 02/05/2015MIT321419 Creative Revolution 1. Creative over Research/Account Execs 2. No ‘rule-book’ ad writing 3. “boutique” agencies 4. Theory Y workplace 5. Early 1960s to mid- 1970s

20 02/05/2015MIT321420 C.R. Themes 1. Humour/Irony 2. Rebel Talk; 1. Individualism; 2. anti-consumerism to sell goods 3. Youth Talk 1. Youth as attitude, break w/ conformity 2. new and exciting

21 02/05/2015MIT321421 Bill Bernbach 1. Grey Advertising 1945-49 2. Doyle Dane Bernbach, 1949 3. Jewish clients 1. Anti-Semitism

22 02/05/2015MIT321422 Bernbach/Volkswagen Beetle 1. Ignite Creative Revolution 2. 1938 -Germany – ”People’s Car” 3. modest post-war sales 4. Jewish Agency/Nazi Car

23 02/05/2015MIT321423 VW Ads “Lemon” “Think Small”

24 02/05/2015MIT321424 VW Ads “How Much Longer Can We Hand You This Line” “Is Volkswagen contemplating a change?”

25 02/05/2015MIT321425 VW simple photographs, minimal layout, large, clever headlines Hip Consumerism: Savvy to car-buying manipulation register disgust/skepticism =buy a Beetle

26 02/05/2015MIT321426 Hip Consumerism ads speak flippantly of product mock consumer culture/critique mass society Escape, rebellion, nonconformity counterculture imagery

27 02/05/2015MIT321427 Hip Consumerism 1. Fuel consumerism with discontent of consumerism 2. Reification

28 02/05/2015MIT321428 Hip Consumerism 1. Dynamism of Capitalism 1. Adaptive 2. neutralize genuine opposition 3. Pre-emptive Irony

29 Cultural Logic of Hip Consumerism 1. Cultural elites/ Positional goods 2. Rebelling and status competition 3. Negative-sum game 02/05/2015MIT321429

30 Cultural logic.. Stolichnaya Vodka Other Examples? 02/05/2015MIT321430

31 02/05/2015MIT321431 What to do? Avoid positional goods grounded in comparisons? Don’t express individuality via consumption? “Uniforms” to foster genuine individualism?

32 02/05/2015MIT321432 Exam Review: Section One (3 X 5 points = 15 points) “Identify/discuss significance of three of following for study of advertising.” Likely 3 of 5 Section Two (5 X 1 points = 5 points) Multiple Choice (a,b,c,d) Section Three = 5 points Discuss significance of 1 of 2 ads shown

33 02/05/2015MIT321433 Exam - Includes material from readings 20% of final grade Closed Book 75 minutes Written in Classroom A-L in NCB 117; M-Z in NCB 114

34 02/05/2015MIT321434 Exam Review Sample Answer “Reification” Reading: Leiss, Kline, Jhally, 29-30 Marxist critique of advertising C social environment where needs (emotional, personal, familial, material) met by purchase of consumer goods in market

35 02/05/2015MIT321435 Review…Reification C Ideology: A. cultural function not sell specific products but inculcate belief that only consumption provides contentment, happiness, self-fulfillment, etc. C consumer goods and advertisements stand in way of people and their true needs. C goods never achieve resolution of profound personal and social needs; create more unfulfilled wants. C relate to “hip consumerism,” how ‘dissent’ registered through purchases, not social/political action

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