2Considerations www.saqireland.net Components of “Speed” Demands of the gameNeeds of the playerImplementationSpecific sessions
3Speed Re-action Initiation of movement Acceleration SpeedRe-actionInitiation of movementAccelerationMaximum Effective SpeedAgilityChange directionChange paceChange footwork patternsAbility to repeat constants bouts of the above efforts
4Demands of the sport Length of the game Play – length of time Demands of the sportLength of the gamePlay – length of timePace – many things affects thisDistance coveredAverage distance sprintedChange of pace / directionTotal distance sprinted
5What people have looked at What people have looked atSoccer 1970sPlayer covers 8.3 – 12.2Km(Tom Reilly Liverpool)Soccer 2001Player covers 9.2 – 13.3Km(Neweham 2002)
6Player movement 30 – 80 runs between 85 -95 % speed Player movement30 – 80 runs between % speed13 runs at % speedAverage distance sprinted – 13.5m1012 changes in movement patternSprint – 1 per minuteMovement pattern change – 11 per minute
7Hurling 2003 Final First half Second Half 41.7% of time Hurling FinalFirst halfBall in play 13m 53sLongest period 52sShortest period 5sSecond HalfBall in play 17m 15sLongest period 1m 22sShortest period 8s41.7% of time(Damien Young WIT 2003)
8Needs of the player Players need to be quick, sharp and fast Needs of the playerPlayers need to bequick,sharp andfastto cover situations as they arise in a game.They need to train ability tore-act,initiate movement andaccelerate as well asdeveloping their maximum effective speed.
9Needs of the playerwithstand a constant barrage of pressure involving consistent tackling, running into positions, covering, retreating and counter-attacking quickly.This type of full-court drive makes great demands on the speed and strength ability of the players.At the same time, players must be able to maintain high-intensity efforts throughout the duration of the game.
10The key www.saqireland.net Critically, it is the ability to constantly reproducethese short bouts of speed and skill activitiesover and over again,at the highest possible intensity,that separates the top teams form the also-rans.
11Implementing the plan Principles of Training Overload Progression Implementing the planPrinciples of TrainingOverloadProgressionAdaptationSpecificityInterferenceRest & recoveryVarietyReversibilityEtc.
12Principles of Training Principles of TrainingOverloadProgressionAdaptationDifferent to staminaSpecific to speedIncrease speedReduce distance/repsIncrease recovery
13Principles of Training - Speed Principles of Training - SpeedSpecificityDistanceMovement patternInterferenceStamina trainingRest & recoveryImproves qualityIncludes hydration & nutritional strategiesVarietyPatternsStrength development
14Methods General Specific Special www.saqireland.net Sprinting Weights Movement MechanicsSpecificLinear SpeedAgility SpeedPlyomericsSpecialResistive methodsAsssitive methods
15Specificity in training Specificity in trainingMany have concentrated on athletic speed enduranceStamina training of top players have advanced in recent timesPlenty of evidence to show that modern methods will produce greater fitness levels.Multi-sprint staminaPower workMovement enhancement
16Principles of Speed Short distances Max to near max efforts Principles of SpeedShort distancesMax to near max effortsControl the number of repsGood recoveriesWell hydratedInvolve movement patterns
17Speed Training – sprinting Speed Training – sprintingQuickness off the markRe-actionSprint over 5mAcceleration sprintsover 10m, 15m 20mAbility to change direction or paceOver 10m, 15, 20mMaximum effective paceOver 20m, 25, 30m
18Speed Training -plyometrics Speed Training -plyometricsExplosive JumpsExplosive box jumpsHennessy/Kilty 1999Horizontal pattern jumpsMed ball throws
19Speed Training – special Speed Training – specialViper belt trainingSprintingAgility sprintingJumpingResistive workAssistive work
20Training – Movement development Training – Movement developmentImprovement form 1.72 – 1.67 sec in 10m acceleration from one week of sprint mechanics training.IRFU Data2004
21Importance of movement training Importance of movement trainingBloomfield et al 2003 showed how SAQ training added to general soccer training improved sprint acceleration over 20m.Using Cleans and Squats at 90% of 1Rm players improved 10 m acceleration time; and when sprint mechanics were combined the improvement was greater(Hennessy IRFU data 2004).
22Training – Contrast training Training – Contrast trainingWeights and sprintsIt is found that optimum 10m times occurred after 6 min recovery while optimum 30m times occurred after 12 minutesMichailidis et al 2004 at Aristotelian Univ.Weights & plyometric jumpsUL 2004
23Training – Weights Hypertrophy Training – WeightsHypertrophyStarting or explosive power Initial rate of force developmentMaximum rate of force development
24HypertrophyHypertrophy is the process of enlarging muscles – to produce more force.Resistance training is the key to hypertrophy and volume of work is the component that needs to be established.Stimulating a muscle to work using multiple sets and reps has been recognised as central in building muscle mass. For hypertrophy a muscle should be trained at least once a week and if possible twice a week.
25AdviceReducing the volume of endurance training is important if significant muscle mass is to be gained.Hennessy 200410 week special training campNo running more than 30m
26Comparison – Strength or Power Comparison – Strength or PowerLifting 100KGPushing heavy rockGAA Player needsPower =Force x distance / time
27Using power Each footstep Each kick Each tackle Each sidestep ….. Using powerEach footstepEach kickEach tackleEach sidestep…..All on field activities
28Power – key factor Power is the combination of strength and speed. Power – key factorPower is the combination of strength and speed.Both intermuscular and intramuscular coordination are key factors in ensuring power development.
29Force-time relationship Force-time relationshipIRFD MRFD PPTime in milliseconds
30Explosive power Explosive Power = Rate of force development Explosive powerExplosive Power = Rate of force developmentThe ability to generate high forces in a very short time.This type of force production is essential in events or sporting actions where the time over which the contraction occurs has to be limited.
31Starting power The Initial Rate of Force Development (IRFD) Starting powerThe Initial Rate of Force Development (IRFD)Refers to the highest possible force applied at the start of the movement. It is sometimes called ‘Starting’ strength.“Quickness off the mark”
32Maximum rate of force development Maximum rate of force developmentMaximum power is a commonly used term in conditioning and refers to the production of the greatest amount of power.30% Max.(Australian IS guidelines)24 – 48%(Hennessy/Kilty unpublished 1998)
33Importance of strength training Importance of strength trainingKraemer et al 2003 showed how trained tennis players improved racket speed and sprint acceleration when strength training used in conjunction with skill work as against using no strength training
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